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1.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 118-129, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478424

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding has a protective effect against acute respiratory and diarrheal infections. There are psychological and social effects due to physical isolation in the population in the mother-child group. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on infant mortality due to a decrease in the prevalence of breastfeeding during 2020 due to the physical isolation against the SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the population attributable risk approach taking into account the prevalence of breastfeeding and its potential decrease associated with the measures of physical isolation and the relative risk (RR) of the association between exclusive breastfeeding and the occurrence of acute infection consequences in the growth (weight for height) of children under the age of five through a mathematical modeling program. RESULTS: We found an increase of 11.39% in the number of cases of growth arrest in the age group of 6 to 11 months with a 50% decrease in breastfeeding prevalence, as well as an increase in the number of diarrhea cases in children between 1 and 5 months of age from 5% (5.67%) on, and an increased number of deaths in children under 5 years (9.04%) with a 50% decrease in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: A lower prevalence of breastfeeding has an impact on infant morbidity and mortality in the short and medium-term. As a public health policy, current maternal and childcare strategies must be kept in order to reduce risks in the pediatric population.


Introducción. La lactancia materna tiene un efecto protector frente a infecciones respiratorias y diarreicas agudas. Hay efectos psicológicos y sociales por el aislamiento físico en la población en el grupo materno-infantil. Objetivo. Evaluar el eventual impacto en la mortalidad infantil de la disminución en la prevalencia de la lactancia materna durante el 2020 a causa del aislamiento físico por la pandemia del SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó el enfoque de riesgo atribuible poblacional, teniendo en cuenta la prevalencia de la lactancia materna y su potencial disminución asociada con las medidas de aislamiento físico y el riesgo relativo (RR) de la asociación entre la lactancia materna exclusiva y el efecto de la aparición de infecciones agudas en el crecimiento (peso para la altura) de niños menores de cinco años mediante un programa de modelamiento matemático. Resultados. Se registró un aumento del número casos de detención del crecimiento en el grupo etario de 6 a 11 meses de 11,39 % al disminuir en 50 % la prevalencia de la lactancia materna, así como un mayor número de casos por diarrea en los cinco primeros meses a partir del 5 % (5,67 %), y un incremento en el número de muertes en menores de 5 años (9,04 %) al disminuirse en 50 % la prevalencia de la lactancia materna. Conclusiones. Se registró un impacto en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil a corto y mediano plazo al disminuir la prevalencia en la lactancia materna. Como política pública en salud, deben mantenerse las estrategias actuales de atención materno-infantil para disminuir riesgos en la población infantil.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Child Mortality , Child, Preschool , Colombia/epidemiology , Diarrhea, Infantile/epidemiology , Female , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Models, Theoretical , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
2.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 114, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455972

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Suboptimal breastfeeding rates in South Africa have been attributed to the relatively easy access that women and families have had to infant formula, in part as a result of programs to prevent maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. This policy may have had an undesirable spill-over effect on HIV-negative women as well. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were to: (a) describe EBF practices in South Africa, (b) determine how EBF has been affected by the WHO HIV infant feeding policies followed since 2006, and (c) assess if the renewed interest in The Code has had any impact on breastfeeding practices in South Africa. METHODS: We applied the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines for scoping reviews and reported our work in compliance with the PRISMA Extension (PRISMA-ScR). Twelve databases and platforms were searched. We included all study designs (no language restrictions) from South Africa published between 2006 and 2020. Eligible participants were women in South Africa who delivered a healthy live newborn who was between birth and 24 months of age at the time of study, and with known infant feeding practices. RESULTS: A total of 5431 citations were retrieved. Duplicates were removed in EndNote and by Covidence. Of the 1588 unique records processed in Covidence, 179 records met the criteria for full-text screening and 83 were included in the review. It was common for HIV-positive women who initiated breastfeeding to stop doing so prior to 6 months after birth (1-3 months). EBF rates rapidly declined after birth. School and work commitments were also reasons for discontinuation of EBF. HIV-positive women expressed fear of HIV MTCT transmission as a reason for not breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: The Review found that while enforcing the most recent WHO HIV infant feeding guidelines and the WHO Code may be necessary to improve breastfeeding outcomes in South Africa, they may not be sufficient because there are additional barriers that impact breastfeeding outcomes. Mixed-methods research, including in-depth interviews with key informants representing different government sectors and civil society is needed to prioritize actions and strategies to improve breastfeeding outcomes in South Africa.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Guideline Adherence , World Health Organization , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Guidelines as Topic , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Infant , Infant Formula/supply & distribution , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Public Policy , South Africa
3.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 118-129, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346717

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Breastfeeding has a protective effect against acute respiratory and diarrheal infections. There are psychological and social effects due to physical isolation in the population in the mother-child group. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on infant mortality due to a decrease in the prevalence of breastfeeding during 2020 due to the physical isolation against the SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic in Colombia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the population attributable risk approach taking into account the prevalence of breastfeeding and its potential decrease associated with the measures of physical isolation and the relative risk (RR) of the association between exclusive breastfeeding and the occurrence of acute infection consequences in the growth (weight for height) of children under the age of five through a mathematical modeling program. RESULTS: We found an increase of 11.39% in the number of cases of growth arrest in the age group of 6 to 11 months with a 50% decrease in breastfeeding prevalence, as well as an increase in the number of diarrhea cases in children between 1 and 5 months of age from 5% (5.67%) on, and an increased number of deaths in children under 5 years (9.04%) with a 50% decrease in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: A lower prevalence of breastfeeding has an impact on infant morbidity and mortality in the short and medium-term. As a public health policy, current maternal and childcare strategies must be kept in order to reduce risks in the pediatric population.


Introducción. La lactancia materna tiene un efecto protector frente a infecciones respiratorias y diarreicas agudas. Hay efectos psicológicos y sociales por el aislamiento físico en la población en el grupo materno-infantil. Objetivo. Evaluar el eventual impacto en la mortalidad infantil de la disminución en la prevalencia de la lactancia materna durante el 2020 a causa del aislamiento físico por la pandemia del SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizó el enfoque de riesgo atribuible poblacional, teniendo en cuenta la prevalencia de la lactancia materna y su potencial disminución asociada con las medidas de aislamiento físico y el riesgo relativo (RR) de la asociación entre la lactancia materna exclusiva y el efecto de la aparición de infecciones agudas en el crecimiento (peso para la altura) de niños menores de cinco años mediante un programa de modelamiento matemático. Resultados. Se registró un aumento del número casos de detención del crecimiento en el grupo etario de 6 a 11 meses de 11,39 % al disminuir en 50 % la prevalencia de la lactancia materna, así como un mayor número de casos por diarrea en los cinco primeros meses a partir del 5 % (5,67 %), y un incremento en el número de muertes en menores de 5 años (9,04 %) al disminuirse en 50 % la prevalencia de la lactancia materna. Conclusiones. Se registró un impacto en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil a corto y mediano plazo al disminuir la prevalencia en la lactancia materna. Como política pública en salud, deben mantenerse las estrategias actuales de atención materno-infantil para disminuir riesgos en la población infantil.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Child Mortality , Child, Preschool , Colombia/epidemiology , Diarrhea, Infantile/epidemiology , Female , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Models, Theoretical , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
4.
Can J Public Health ; 112(4): 595-598, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289327

ABSTRACT

Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life has become the global standard of infant feeding for its extensive benefits to maternal and infant health. Public health programs, such as the Baby-Friendly Initiative, have helped increase the national breastfeeding initiation rate to 90%. However, initiation rates in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) continue to rank the lowest in the country at 70%, with a 6-month exclusivity rate of 16%. This commentary will discuss the influence of geographical location, societal norms, and accessibility to health care services on breastfeeding in rural and remote NL communities. While the SARS-CoV-2 virus itself does not impact the mother's ability to breastfeed, the indirect impacts of COVID-19 on health care services, social isolation, and economic burden challenge breastfeeding initiation and continuation. Priority solutions will draw on capacity building by emphasizing relationships within the community to deliver innovative and appropriate support programs. Continued education with health practitioners and further research into breastfeeding barriers in rural communities is critical moving forward.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mothers/psychology , Rural Health Services/organization & administration , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Newfoundland and Labrador/epidemiology
5.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289014

ABSTRACT

As pregnant women are at high risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccines are available in Switzerland, this study aimed to assess the willingness of Swiss pregnant and breastfeeding women to become vaccinated. Through a cross-sectional online study conducted after the first pandemic wave, vaccination practices and willingness to become vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 if a vaccine was available were evaluated through binary, multi-choice, and open-ended questions. Factors associated with vaccine willingness were evaluated through univariable and multivariable analysis. A total of 1551 women responded to questions related to the primary outcome. Only 29.7% (153/515) of pregnant and 38.6% (400/1036) of breastfeeding women were willing to get vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 if a vaccine had been available during the first wave. Positive predictors associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine acceptance were an age older than 40 years, a higher educational level, history of influenza vaccination within the previous year, having an obstetrician as the primary healthcare practitioner, and being in their third trimester of pregnancy. After the first pandemic wave, Switzerland had a low SARS-CoV-2 vaccination acceptance rate, emphasizing the need to identify and reduce barriers for immunization in pregnant and breastfeeding women, particularly among the youngest and those with a lower educational level.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
6.
Can J Public Health ; 112(4): 599-619, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239229

ABSTRACT

SETTING: This knowledge mobilization project was conceptualized to increase awareness among breastfeeding mothers and the general public on safe infant feeding practices during the COVID-19 pandemic by addressing myths and misconceptions associated with breastfeeding practices, guiding breastfeeding mothers to make informed decisions around child feeding practices, and offering meaningful guidance in simple language through a short online animated video. INTERVENTION: This project was undertaken in four phases. During phase 1, an informal discussion was held with the breastfeeding mothers, service providers, and community partner in identifying issues surrounding lactation counselling facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. During phase 2, recommendations from 23 organizations with regard to breastfeeding during COVID-19 were reviewed and analyzed. During phase 3, using evidence from reliable sources, a 5-minute animated e-resource on breastfeeding during COVID-19 was conceptualized and developed. During phase 4, the e-resource was disseminated to the breastfeeding mothers, general public, post-secondary institutions, and organizations providing services to breastfeeding mothers in Canada. OUTCOMES: This evidence-based e-resource facilitated addressing misconceptions around breastfeeding during COVID-19 and raising public awareness on safe infant feeding practices during this pandemic. Overall, the video was described as an informative, user-friendly, useful, and easily accessible resource by breastfeeding mothers who were in self-isolation with little access to healthcare services during the pandemic. IMPLICATIONS: This project highlighted the importance of patient engagement and collaboration with the community partner in protecting breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. It further illustrated how informational e-resources can protect breastfeeding in situations where breastfeeding mothers' access to healthcare services is compromised.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Education/methods , Mothers/education , Mothers/psychology , Adult , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers/statistics & numerical data
7.
Ginekol Pol ; 92(5): 387-391, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207898

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is an unusual phenomenon in the modern obstetric and midwifery history. Hospital staff from the isolation wards were trained in the safety and proper use of the hazardous materials suit and the proper managing of the biohazard materials. We were not expecting the situation, so we started to create more restrictions than facilities for mothers giving birth. In the context of infection risk for the fetus, scientists still search for vertical transmission evidence, but available data are ambiguous, and more research is needed. Concerning the infant safety and to minimalize the infection risk for medical teams, the first Polish guidelines published by the national consultants in obstetrics, midwifery, neonatology, and perinatology regarding the safest formula of birth were as the following: in the case of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, the cesarean section for epidemic indications should be considered, except in an advanced or rapid labor. In the lately updated consensus (14th May), it was written that because the risk of vertical and intranatal SARS-CoV-2 transmission seemed to be low, the SARS-CoV-2 infection was not the main indication to perform cesarean section for any longer. Regardless of the birth formula, the newborns are separated from their mothers immediately after the labor in Polish obstetrician hospitals. The Polish Lactation Study Centre, consociating International Breastfeeding Certified Lactation Consultant, recommends feeding the newborn with its own mother's milk, even if she is infected with SARS-CoV-2 and isolated from her infant.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Humans , Infant , Poland/epidemiology , Postnatal Care/standards , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JAMA ; 325(20): 2076-2086, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206730

ABSTRACT

Importance: The outcomes of newborn infants of women testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy is unclear. Objective: To evaluate neonatal outcomes in relation to maternal SARS-CoV-2 test positivity in pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Nationwide, prospective cohort study based on linkage of the Swedish Pregnancy Register, the Neonatal Quality Register, and the Register for Communicable Diseases. Ninety-two percent of all live births in Sweden between March 11, 2020, and January 31, 2021, were investigated for neonatal outcomes by March 8, 2021. Infants with malformations were excluded. Infants of women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were matched, directly and using propensity scores, on maternal characteristics with up to 4 comparator infants. Exposures: Maternal test positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: In-hospital mortality; neonatal resuscitation; admission for neonatal care; respiratory, circulatory, neurologic, infectious, gastrointestinal, metabolic, and hematologic disorders and their treatments; length of hospital stay; breastfeeding; and infant test positivity for SARS-CoV-2. Results: Of 88 159 infants (49.0% girls), 2323 (1.6%) were delivered by mothers who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The mean gestational age of infants of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers was 39.2 (SD, 2.2) weeks vs 39.6 (SD, 1.8) weeks for comparator infants, and the proportions of preterm infants (gestational age <37 weeks) were 205/2323 (8.8%) among infants of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers and 4719/85 836 (5.5%) among comparator infants. After matching on maternal characteristics, maternal SARS-CoV-2 test positivity was significantly associated with admission for neonatal care (11.7% vs 8.4%; odds ratio [OR], 1.47; 95% CI, 1.26-1.70) and with neonatal morbidities such as respiratory distress syndrome (1.2% vs 0.5%; OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.50-3.84), any neonatal respiratory disorder (2.8% vs 2.0%; OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07-1.90), and hyperbilirubinemia (3.6% vs 2.5%; OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.13-1.90). Mortality (0.30% vs 0.12%; OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 0.99-6.57), breastfeeding rates at discharge (94.4% vs 95.1%; OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-1.05), and length of stay in neonatal care (median, 6 days in both groups; difference, 0 days; 95% CI, -2 to 7 days) did not differ significantly between the groups. Twenty-one infants (0.90%) of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the neonatal period; 12 did not have neonatal morbidity, 9 had diagnoses with unclear relation to SARS-CoV-2, and none had congenital pneumonia. Conclusions and Relevance: In a nationwide cohort of infants in Sweden, maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy was significantly associated with small increases in some neonatal morbidities. Given the small numbers of events for many of the outcomes and the large number of statistical comparisons, the findings should be interpreted as exploratory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome , Adult , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Gestational Age , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyperbilirubinemia/epidemiology , Hyperbilirubinemia/etiology , Infant, Extremely Premature , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/mortality , Infant, Premature , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Live Birth/epidemiology , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Propensity Score , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sweden/epidemiology
9.
Int Breastfeed J ; 16(1): 36, 2021 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed several challenges to the provision of newborn nutrition and care interventions including maternal support, breastfeeding and family participatory care. Italy was the first country to be exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in Europe. One of the measures adopted by the Italian government during COVID-19 pandemic was the total lockdown of the cities with complete confinement at home. We aimed to examine the impact of the lockdown caused by COVID-19 pandemic on exclusive breastfeeding in non-infected mothers. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 204 mother-baby dyads during lockdown (9 March to 8 May 2020) that we compared to previously studied 306 mother-baby dyads admitted during the year 2018. To reduce the possible effect of confounding factors on exclusive breastfeeding, a 1:1 matching was performed by using an automatized procedure of stratification that paired 173 mother-baby dyads. Feeding modality was collected at discharge, 30 and 90 days of newborn's life. Exclusive breastfeeding was considered when the infant received only breast milk and no other liquids or solids were given with the exception of vitamins, minerals or medicines. RESULTS: At discharge 69.4% of infants were exclusively breastfed during lockdown versus 97.7% of control group, 54.3% at 30 days vs 76.3 and 31.8% vs 70.5% at 90 days (p < 0.001). The proportion of breastfeeding remaining exclusive from discharge to 30-day was similar between groups (about 80%), but it was lower in lockdown group than in control cohort (58.5% vs 92.4%, p < 0.001) from 30- to 90-days. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown and home confinement led to a decrease of exclusively breastfeeding in the studied population. Considering the timing to shift from exclusive to non-exclusive breastfeeding, differences between study groups were concentrated during hospital stay and from 30- to 90 days of a newborn's life, confirming that the hospital stay period is crucial in continuing exclusive breastfeeding at least for the first 30 days, but no longer relevant at 90 days of life.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/psychology , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Maternal Behavior , Pandemics , Quarantine , Adult , Family , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
10.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146694

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 on pregnant inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is currently unknown. Reconfiguration of services during the pandemic may negatively affect medical and obstetric care. We aimed to examine the impacts on IBD antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective data were recorded in consecutive patients attending for IBD antenatal care including outpatient appointments, infusion unit visits and advice line encounters. RESULTS: We included 244 pregnant women with IBD, of which 75 (30.7%) were on biologics in whom the treatment was stopped in 29.3% at a median 28 weeks gestation. In addition, 9% of patients were on corticosteroids and 21.5% continued on thiopurines. The care provided during 460 patient encounters was not affected by the pandemic in 94.1% but 68.2% were performed via telephone (compared with 3% prepandemic practice; p<0.0001). One-hundred-ten women delivered 111 alive babies (mean 38.2 weeks gestation, mean birth weight 3324 g) with 12 (11.0%) giving birth before week 37. Birth occurred by vaginal delivery in 72 (56.4%) and by caesarean section in 48 (43.6%) cases. Thirty-three were elective (12 for IBD indications) and 15 emergency caesarean sections. Breast feeding rates were low (38.6%). Among 244 pregnant women with IBD, 1 suspected COVID-19 infection was recorded. CONCLUSION: IBD antenatal care adjustments during the COVID-19 pandemic have not negatively affected patient care. Despite high levels of immunosuppression, only a single COVID-19 infection occurred. Adverse pregnancy outcomes were infrequent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Allopurinol/analogs & derivatives , Allopurinol/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Withholding Treatment
11.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(6): 622-631, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135708

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of evidence to guide the clinical care of late preterm and term neonates born to women with perinatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The objective of this case series is to describe early neonatal outcomes and inpatient management in U.S. hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: We solicited cases of mother-infant dyads affected by novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from the Better Outcomes through Research for Newborns (BORN) Network members. Using a structured case template, participating sites contributed deidentified, retrospective birth hospitalization data for neonates ≥35 weeks of gestation at birth with mothers who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 before delivery. We describe demographic and clinical characteristics, clinical management, and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: Sixteen U.S. hospitals contributed 70 cases. Birth hospitalizations were uncomplicated for 66 (94%) neonates in which 4 (6%) required admission to a neonatal intensive care unit. None required evaluation or treatment for infection, and all who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 were negative (n = 57). Half of the dyads were colocated (n = 34) and 40% directly breastfed (n = 28). Outpatient follow-up data were available for 13 neonates, all of whom remained asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: In this multisite case series of 70 neonates born to women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical outcomes were overall good, and there were no documented neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infections. Clinical management was largely inconsistent with contemporaneous U.S. COVID-19 guidelines for nursery care, suggesting concerns about the acceptability and feasibility of those recommendations. Longitudinal studies are urgently needed to assess the benefits and harms of current practices to inform evidence-based clinical care and aid shared decision-making. KEY POINTS: · Birth hospitalizations were uncomplicated for late preterm and term infants with maternal COVID-19.. · Nursery management of dyads affected by COVID-19 varied between hospitals.. · Adherence to contemporaneous U.S. clinical guidelines for nursery care was low.. · Breastfeeding rates were lower for dyads roomed separately than those who were colocated..


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Term Birth , Adult , Breast Feeding/methods , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Gestational Age , Guideline Adherence , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
12.
BJOG ; 128(5): 908-915, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that delayed cord clamping (DCC) is safe in mothers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective observational study involving epidemiological information from 403 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 between 1 March and 31 May 2020. Data were collected from 70 centres that participate in the Spanish Registry of COVID-19. METHODS: Patients' information was collected from their medical chart. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The rate of perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and development of the infection in neonates within 14 days postpartum. RESULTS: The early cord clamping (ECC) group consisted of 231 infants (57.3%) and the DCC group consisted of 172 infants (42.7%). Five positive newborns (1.7% of total tests performed) were identified with the nasopharyngeal PCR tests performed in the first 12 hours postpartum, two from the ECC group (1.7%) and three from the DCC group (3.6%). No significant differences between groups were found regarding neonatal tests for SARS-CoV-2. No confirmed cases of vertical transmission were detected. The percentage of mothers who made skin-to-skin contact within the first 24 hours after delivery was significantly higher in the DCC group (84.3% versus 45.9%). Breastfeeding in the immediate postpartum period was also significantly higher in the DCC group (77.3% versus 50.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study show no differences in perinatal outcomes when performing ECC or DCC, and skin-to-skin contact, or breastfeeding. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: This study demonstrates that delayed cord clamping is safe in mothers with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Constriction , Delivery, Obstetric , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Umbilical Cord/surgery , Adult , Breast Feeding/methods , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Kangaroo-Mother Care Method/methods , Kangaroo-Mother Care Method/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment
13.
J Perinatol ; 41(5): 970-980, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118798

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of evolving guidelines and clinical practices on SARS-CoV-2-positive dyads across New York City Health and Hospitals during the early peak of COVID-19. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of positive-positive (P/P), positive-negative (P/N), and positive-untested (P/U) dyads delivered from March 1 to May 9, 2020. Wilcoxon rank sum, Chi-squared, and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze demographics, clinical variables, and system-wide management practices. RESULT: A total of 2598 mothers delivered. 23.8% (286/1198) of mothers tested for SARS-CoV-2 were positive. 89.7% (260/290) newborns of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers were tested and 11 were positive. Positive-positive newborns were more likely to be breastfed (81%), be admitted to NICU, and have longer length of stay (7.5 days) than P/N and P/U newborns. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that varied testing, feeding, and isolation practices resulted in favorable short-term outcomes for SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers and their newborns. High-risk populations can be safely and effectively treated in resource-limited environments.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care, Neonatal/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Neonatal Screening/methods , New York City/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Am J Hum Biol ; 32(5): e23386, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006251

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe breastfeeding trends from 2002 to 2012/2013, and to investigate whether breastfeeding practices differ between mothers of children in public and private schools. METHODS: Data were obtained from three school-based cross-sectional studies conducted with 7 to 10 years old children. The total sample was 7264 individuals. Data related to breastfeeding were analyzed descriptively and compared using the chi-square test for heterogeneity or trend. RESULTS: In the 10-year period was observed a decrease in the total percentage of schoolchildren who were not breastfed (12.9%-10.5%) and an increase in the percentage of schoolchildren breastfed for >12 months (23.9%-36.7%). In public schools, the increase of breastfeeding for >12 months was independent of maternal age and years of schooling. In private schools, the increase was observed for schoolchildren born to older mothers and to more educated mothers, although the highest percentage was observed for schoolchildren born to less educated mothers. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the complexity of determining breastfeeding behaviors, and understanding these dynamics is fundamental to develop and improve programs and actions aimed at encouraging, supporting, and protecting breastfeeding. However, strategies developed in Brazil during the first decade of the 21st century should explain the increase of proportion of breastfed children for more than 12 months, and the concomitant decrease of never breastfeed children in the city of Florianopolis (Southern Brazil).


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Schools/classification , Brazil , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Social Class , Time Factors
16.
Front Public Health ; 8: 558144, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971235

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is an emerging concern regarding the potential adverse effects during pregnancy. This study reviews knowledge on the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy and describes the outcome of published cases of pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods: Searches were conducted in PubMed®, Scopus®, Web of Science®, and MedRxiv® up to 26th June 2020, using PRISMA standards, to identify original published studies describing pregnant women at any gestational age diagnosed COVID-19. There were no date or language restrictions on the search. All identified studies were included irrespective of assumptions on study quality. Results: We identified 161 original studies reporting 3,985 cases of pregnant women with COVID-19 (1,007 discharged while pregnant). The 2,059 published cases with pregnancy outcomes resulted in 42 abortions, 21 stillbirths, and 2,015 live births. Preterm birth occurred in 23% of cases. Around 6% of pregnant women required admission to an intensive care unit and 28 died. There were 10 neonatal deaths. From the 163 cases with amniotic fluid, placenta, and/or cord blood analyzed for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, 10 were positive. Sixty-one newborns were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Four breast milk samples from 92 cases showed evidence of SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: Emerging evidence suggests that vertical transmission is possible, however, there is still a limited number of reported cases with intrapartum samples. Information, counseling and adequate monitoring are essential to prevent and manage adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 104, 2020 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954817

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the operation of donor human milk banks in various countries such as China, Italy and India. It is understandable that this impact on operations of donor human milk might hamper the capability of these milk banks to provide sufficient pasteurized donor milk to neonates who need it. Contrary to developed world, predominant donors in developing nations are mothers of hospitalised neonates who have a relatively long period of hospital stay. This longer maternal hospital stay enhances the feasibility of milk donation by providing mothers with access to breast pumps to express their milk. Any excess milk a mother expresses which is above the needs of their own infant can be voluntarily donated. This physical proximity of milk banks to donors may help continuation of human milk donation in developing nations during the pandemic. Nevertheless, protocols need to be implemented to i) ensure the microbiological quality of the milk collected and ii) consider steps to mitigate potential consequences related to the possibility of the donor being an asymptomatic carrier of COVID-19. We present the procedural modifications implemented at the Comprehensive Lactation Management Centre at Lady Hardinge Medical College in India to promote breastfeeding and human milk donation during the pandemic which comply with International and National guidelines. This commentary provides a perspective from a milk bank in India which might differ from the perspective of the international donor human milk banking societies.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Milk Banks/organization & administration , Milk, Human , Female , Humans , India , Infant, Newborn , Tissue Donors
18.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 46(1): 21-29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811164

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe how the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic has affected pregnancy, prenatal maternity care practices, and infant feeding plans among pregnant persons in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study using an app-based survey. METHODS: A link to the survey was sent via email to users of the Ovia Pregnancy app on May 20, 2020 and was open for 1 week. Participants were asked to complete the survey as it applied to their pregnancy, breastfeeding, and maternity care received during the COVID-19 pandemic, beginning approximately February 2020 through the time of the survey. There were 258 respondents who completed the survey. RESULTS: The majority (96.4%; n = 251) of pregnant women felt they received safe prenatal care during this time period. Slightly less 86.3% (n = 215) felt they received adequate prenatal care during this time period. 14.2% (n = 33) reported changing or considering changing the location where they planned to give birth due to COVID-19. Of those who reported they had begun purchasing items for their baby, 52.7% reported that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected their ability to get items they need for their baby. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Although it is imperative to implement policies that reduce risk of transmission of COVID-19 to pregnant women and health care providers, it is necessary for health care providers and policy makers to listen to the collective voices of women during pregnancy about how COVID-19 has affected their birth and infant feeding plans and their perception of changes in prenatal care.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Prenatal Care/psychology , Adult , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Patient Education as Topic , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(18)2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789448

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 also affects pregnant and breastfeeding women. Hence, clinicians and policymakers require reliable evidence on COVID-19 epidemiology and consequences in this population. We aimed to assess the susceptibility of pregnant women to SARS-CoV-2 and women's perceived impact of the pandemic on their breastfeeding practices, medical counseling and social support. We performed a cross-sectional study using an online survey in primary care in Belgium. Pregnant and breastfeeding women and women who breastfed in the preceding four weeks were eligible to participate. The survey was distributed through social media in April 2020. In total, 6470 women participated (i.e., 2647 pregnant and 3823 breastfeeding women). Overall, 0.3% of all respondents reported to have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, not indicating a higher susceptibility of pregnant women to contracting COVID-19. More than 90% refuted that the pandemic affected their breastfeeding practices, nor indicated that the coronavirus was responsible for breastfeeding cessation. Half of the women even considered giving longer breastmilk because of the coronavirus. In contrast, women's medical counseling and social support were negatively affected by the lockdown. Women without previous breastfeeding experience and in the early postpartum period experienced a higher burden in terms of reduced medical counseling and support. In the future, more consideration and alternative supportive measures such as tele-visits by midwives or perinatal organizations are required for these women.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Belgium/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Pediatr ; 226: 64-70, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-765222

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of separation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive mother-newborn dyads on breastfeeding outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This observational longitudinal cohort study of mothers with SARS-CoV-2 PCR-and their infants at 3 NYU Langone Health hospitals was conducted between March 25, 2020, and May 30, 2020. Mothers were surveyed by telephone regarding predelivery feeding plans, in-hospital feeding, and home feeding of their neonates. Any change prompted an additional question to determine whether this change was due to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). RESULTS: Of the 160 mother-newborn dyads, 103 mothers were reached by telephone, and 85 consented to participate. There was no significant difference in the predelivery feeding plan between the separated and unseparated dyads (P = .268). Higher rates of breastfeeding were observed in the unseparated dyads compared with the separated dyads both in the hospital (P < .001) and at home (P = .012). Only 2 mothers in each group reported expressed breast milk as the hospital feeding source (5.6% of unseparated vs 4.1% of separated). COVID-19 was more commonly cited as the reason for change in the separated group (49.0% vs 16.7%; P < .001). When the dyads were further stratified by symptom status into 4 groups-asymptomatic separated, asymptomatic unseparated, symptomatic separated, and symptomatic unseparated-the results remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of COVID-19, separation of mother-newborn dyads impacts breastfeeding outcomes, with lower rates of breastfeeding both during hospitalization and at home following discharge compared with unseparated mothers and infants. No evidence of vertical transmission was observed; 1 case of postnatal transmission occurred from an unmasked symptomatic mother who held her infant at birth.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infant Care/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Maternal Behavior , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Breast Feeding/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant Care/psychology , Infant Care/statistics & numerical data , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pregnancy , Young Adult
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