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1.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 387, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the abundance of clinical data available for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), little research on the psychological well-being of breast cancer survivors has been published. We investigate the extent to which self-compassion accounted for the association between psychological well-being (depression, anxiety) and death anxiety in breast cancer survivors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was applied. Participants were recruited from three departments of oncology in Zanjan, Iran. Data were collected from 210 breast cancer patients. Participants completed self-report measures. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationship among the study variables. Bootstrapping analyses were used to test the significance of indirect effects. RESULTS: Correlational analyses revealed that depression and anxiety were significantly and positively related to death anxiety (r = 0.77, p < 0.01; r = 0.85, p < 0.01, respectively) and negatively to self-compassion (r = - 0.48, p < 0.01; r = - 0.53, p < 0.01, respectively). Bootstrapping analyses revealed significant indirect effects of depression (ß = 0.065, SE = 0.35, p < 0.03, 95% CI [LL = - 0.0083, UL: - 0.1654]) and anxiety (ß = 0.089, SE = 0.09, p < 0.04, 95% CI [LL = - 0.0247, UL: - 0.1987]) on death anxiety through self-compassion. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study indicate that self-compassion may be considered as one treatment strategy to improve psychological well-being of cancer patients in the new context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Cancer Survivors , Anxiety/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Empathy , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Cancer Res Treat ; 53(3): 650-656, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread worldwide rapidly and patients with cancer have been considered as a vulnerable group for this infection. This study aimed to examine the expressions of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in tumor tissues of six common cancer types. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in tumors and control samples were obtained from online databases. Survival prognosis and biological functions of these genes were investigated for each tumor type. RESULTS: There was the overexpression of ACE2 in colon and stomach adenocarcinomas compared to controls, meanwhile colon and prostate adenocarcinomas showed a significantly higher expression of TMPRSS2. Additionally, survival prognosis analysis has demonstrated that upregulation of ACE2 in liver hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with higher overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.65; p=0.016) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.66; p=0.007), while overexpression of TMPRSS2 was associated with a 26% reduced risk of death in lung adenocarcinoma (p=0.047) but 50% increased risk of death in breast invasive carcinoma (p=0.015). CONCLUSION: There is a need to take extra precautions for COVID-19 in patients with colorectal cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer. Further information on other types of cancer at different stages should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/complications , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Case-Control Studies , Databases as Topic , Female , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/complications , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Mutation , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Survival Analysis
3.
In Vivo ; 35(4): 2253-2260, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: The anticipation of radiotherapy can cause distress and sleep disorders, which may be aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigated sleep disorders in a large cohort of patients with breast cancer before and during the pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-three characteristics were retrospectively analyzed for associations with pre-radiotherapy sleep disorders in 338 patients. Moreover, 163 patients presenting before and 175 patients presenting during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared for sleep disorders. RESULTS: Sleep disorders were significantly associated with age ≤60 years (p=0.006); high distress score (p<0.0001); more emotional (p<0.0001), physical (p<0.0001) or practical (p<0.0001) problems; psycho-oncological need (p<0.0001); invasive cancer (p=0.003); chemotherapy (p<0.001); and hormonal therapy (p=0.006). Sleep disorders were similarly common in both groups (prior to vs. during the pandemic: 40% vs. 45%, p=0.38). CONCLUSION: Although additional significant risk factors for sleep disorders were identified, the COVID-19 pandemic appeared to have no significant impact on sleep disorders in patients scheduled for irradiation of breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology
4.
Breast ; 59: 102-109, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a significant worldwide health crisis. Breast cancer patients with COVID-19 are fragile and require particular clinical care. This study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients with COVID-19 and the risks associated with anti-cancer treatment. METHODS: The medical records of breast cancer patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were collected among 9559 COVID-19 patients from seven designated hospitals from 13th January to 18th March 2020 in Hubei, China. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: Of the 45 breast cancer patients with COVID-19, 33 (73.3%) developed non-severe COVID-19, while 12 (26.7%) developed severe COVID-19, of which 3 (6.7%) patients died. The median age was 62 years, and 3 (6.7%) patients had stage IV breast cancer. Univariate analysis showed that age over 75 and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score were associated with COVID-19 disease severity (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that patients who received chemotherapy within 7 days had a significantly higher risk for severe COVID-19 (logistic regression model: RR = 13.886, 95% CI 1.014-190.243, P = 0.049; Cox proportional hazards model: HR = 13.909, 95% CI 1.086-178.150, P = 0.043), with more pronounced neutropenia and higher LDH, CRP and procalcitonin levels than other patients (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In our breast cancer cohort, the severity of COVID-19 could be associated with baseline factors such as age over 75 and ECOG scores. Chemotherapy within 7 days before symptom onset could be a risk factor for severe COVID-19, reflected by neutropenia and elevated LDH, CRP and procalcitonin levels.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neutropenia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , C-Reactive Protein , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Middle Aged , Neutropenia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Cancer ; 127(19): 3671-3679, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had wide-ranging health effects and increased isolation. Older with cancer patients might be especially vulnerable to loneliness and poor mental health during the pandemic. METHODS: The authors included active participants enrolled in the longitudinal Thinking and Living With Cancer study of nonmetastatic breast cancer survivors aged 60 to 89 years (n = 262) and matched controls (n = 165) from 5 US regions. Participants completed questionnaires at parent study enrollment and then annually, including a web-based or telephone COVID-19 survey, between May 27 and September 11, 2020. Mixed-effects models were used to examine changes in loneliness (a single item on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression [CES-D] scale) from before to during the pandemic in survivors versus controls and to test survivor-control differences in the associations between changes in loneliness and changes in mental health, including depression (CES-D, excluding the loneliness item), anxiety (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and perceived stress (the Perceived Stress Scale). Models were adjusted for age, race, county COVID-19 death rates, and time between assessments. RESULTS: Loneliness increased from before to during the pandemic (0.211; P = .001), with no survivor-control differences. Increased loneliness was associated with worsening depression (3.958; P < .001) and anxiety (3.242; P < .001) symptoms and higher stress (1.172; P < .001) during the pandemic, also with no survivor-control differences. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors reported changes in loneliness and mental health similar to those reported by women without cancer. However, both groups reported increased loneliness from before to during the pandemic that was related to worsening mental health, suggesting that screening for loneliness during medical care interactions will be important for identifying all older women at risk for adverse mental health effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/virology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273461

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The worldwide epidemiologic data showed higher mortality in males compared to females, suggesting a hypothesis about the protective effect of estrogens against severe disease progression with the ultimate end being patient's death. This article summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential effect of estrogens and other modulators of estrogen receptors on COVID-19. While estrogen receptor activation shows complex effects on the patient's organism, such as an influence on the cardiovascular/pulmonary/immune system which includes lower production of cytokines responsible for the cytokine storm, the receptor-independent effects directly inhibits viral replication. Furthermore, it inhibits the interaction of IL-6 with its receptor complex. Interestingly, in addition to natural hormones, phytestrogens and even synthetic molecules are able to interact with the estrogen receptor and exhibit some anti-COVID-19 activity. From this point of view, estrogen receptor modulators have the potential to be included in the anti-COVID-19 therapeutic arsenal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/metabolism , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Receptors, Estrogen/chemistry , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 17(2): 547-550, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268381

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Health emergency due to COVID-19 started in Uruguay on March 13, 2020; our mastology unit tried to ensure adequate oncological care, and protect patients from the virus infection and complications. Objective: To assess the health care activities in the "peak" of the pandemic during 3 months. Materials and Methods: we collected data from the electronic health record. Results: There were a total of 293 medical appointments from 131 patients (221 face-to-face), that decreased by 16.7% compared to the same period in 2019 (352 appointments). The medical appointments were scheduled to evaluate the continuity of systemic treatment or modifications (95 patients; 72.5%), follow-up (17; 12.9%), first-time consultation (12; 9.1%), and assess paraclinical studies (7; 5.3%). The patients were on hormone therapy (81 patients; 74%), chemotherapy (CT) (21; 19%), and anti-HER2 therapies (9; 8%). New twenty treatments were initiated. Of the 14 patients that were on adjuvant/neoadjuvant CT, 9 (64.3%) continued with the same regimen with the addition of prophylactic granulocyte-colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF), and 5 (35.7%), who were receiving weekly paclitaxel, continued the treatment with no changes. Of the seven patients that were on palliative CT, 2 (28.5%) continued the treatment with the addition of G-CSF, 3 (42.8%) continued with weekly capecitabine or paclitaxel with no treatment changes, and 2 (28.5%) changed their treatment regimen (a less myelosuppressive regimen was selected for one and due to progression of the disease in the other patient). The ninety patients who were receiving adjuvant, neoadjuvant, or palliative criteria hormone therapy and/or anti-HER2 therapies, continued the treatment with no changes. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that, although medical appointments decreased by approximately 17%, we could maintain healthcare activities, continued most of the treatments while the most modified was CT with G-CSF to avoid myelosuppression.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Bone Marrow/drug effects , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Continuity of Patient Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/administration & dosage , Hematopoiesis/drug effects , Hematopoiesis/immunology , Humans , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Medical Oncology/standards , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Referral and Consultation/standards , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Triage/organization & administration , Triage/standards , Uruguay/epidemiology
8.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(6): 878-884, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206733

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic led to sharp declines in cancer screening. However, the total deficit in screening in the US associated with the pandemic and the differential impact on individuals in different geographic regions and by socioeconomic status (SES) index have yet to be fully characterized. Objectives: To quantify the screening rates for breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in different geographic regions and for individuals in different SES index quartiles and estimate the overall cancer screening deficit in 2020 across the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study uses the HealthCore Integrated Research Database, which comprises single-payer administrative claims data and enrollment information covering approximately 60 million people in Medicare Advantage and commercial health plans from across geographically diverse regions of the US. Participants were individuals in the database in January through July of 2018, 2019, and 2020 without diagnosis of the cancer of interest prior to the analytic index month. Exposures: Analytic index month and year. Main Outcomes and Measures: Receipt of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer screening. Results: Screening for all 3 cancers declined sharply in March through May of 2020 compared with 2019, with the sharpest decline in April (breast, -90.8%; colorectal, -79.3%; prostate, -63.4%) and near complete recovery of monthly screening rates by July for breast and prostate cancers. The absolute deficit across the US population in screening associated with the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated to be 3.9 million (breast), 3.8 million (colorectal), and 1.6 million (prostate). Geographic differences were observed: the Northeast experienced the sharpest declines in screening, while the West had a slower recovery compared with the Midwest and South. For example, percentage change in breast cancer screening rate (2020 vs 2019) for the month of April ranged from -87.3% (95% CI, -87.9% to -86.7%) in the West to -94.5% (95% CI, -94.9% to -94.1%) in the Northeast (decline). For the month of July, it ranged from -0.3% (95% CI, -2.1% to 1.5%) in the Midwest to -10.6% (-12.6% to -8.4%) in the West (recovery). By SES, the largest screening decline was observed in individuals in the highest SES index quartile, leading to a narrowing in the disparity in cancer screening by SES in 2020. For example, prostate cancer screening rates per 100 000 enrollees for individuals in the lowest and highest SES index quartiles, respectively, were 3525 (95% CI, 3444 to 3607) and 4329 (95% CI, 4271 to 4386) in April 2019 compared with 1535 (95% CI, 1480 to 1589) and 1338 (95% CI, 1306 to 1370) in April 2020. Multivariable analysis showed that telehealth use was associated with higher cancer screening. Conclusions and Relevance: Public health efforts are needed to address the large cancer screening deficit associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including increased use of screening modalities that do not require a procedure.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Male , Medicare , Pandemics , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Class , Telemedicine , United States
9.
Infect Genet Evol ; 92: 104883, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201443

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer (BC) is the most diagnosed and second leading cause of death among women worldwide. Elevated levels of lipids have been reported in BC patients. On the other hand, lipids play an important role in coronavirus infections including the newly emerged disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and designated COVID-19 by WHO. Cancer patients including BC have been reported to be at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is mostly attributed to the chronic immunosuppressive status of cancer patients along with the use of cytotoxic drugs. Here in this review, we highlighted the role of dyslipidemia associated with BC patients in the incidence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Elevated levels of lipids namely phospholipids, cholesterol, sphingolipids, and eicosanoids in the serum of BC patients and their re-localization to the alveolar spaces can increase susceptibility and/or severity due to SARA-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, manipulation of dyslipidemia in BC patients should be recommended as prophylactic and therapy against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19/complications , Dyslipidemias/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Dyslipidemias/virology , Female , Humans , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Br J Cancer ; 124(9): 1516-1523, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening programmes were disrupted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to estimate the effects of five restart strategies after the disruption on required screening capacity and cancer burden. METHODS: Microsimulation models simulated five restart strategies for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. The models estimated required screening capacity, cancer incidence, and cancer-specific mortality after a disruption of 6 months. The restart strategies varied in whether screens were caught up or not and, if so, immediately or delayed, and whether the upper age limit was increased. RESULTS: The disruption in screening programmes without catch-up of missed screens led to an increase of 2.0, 0.3, and 2.5 cancer deaths per 100 000 individuals in 10 years in breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer, respectively. Immediately catching-up missed screens minimised the impact of the disruption but required a surge in screening capacity. Delaying screening, but still offering all screening rounds gave the best balance between required capacity, incidence, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies with the smallest loss in health effects were also the most burdensome for the screening organisations. Which strategy is preferred depends on the organisation and available capacity in a country.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Pandemics , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/complications
12.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(11): e1304-e1314, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119446

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the attitudes and practice of Italian oncologists toward breast cancer care and related research activities. METHODS: A 29-question anonymous online survey was sent by e-mail to members of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology and the Italian Breast Cancer Study Group on April 3, 2020. Only medical oncologists (both those in training and specialists) were invited to complete the questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of 165 responding oncologists, 121 (73.3.%) worked in breast units. In the (neo)adjuvant setting, compared with before the emergency, fewer oncologists adopted weekly paclitaxel (68.5% v 93.9%) and a dose-dense schedule for anthracycline-based chemotherapy (43% v 58.8%) during the COVID-19 outbreak. In the metastatic setting, compared with before the emergency, fewer oncologists adopted first-line weekly paclitaxel for HER2-positive disease (41.8% v 53.9%) or CDK4/6 inhibitors for luminal tumors with less-aggressive characteristics (55.8% v 80.0%) during the COVID-19 outbreak. A significant change was also observed in delaying the timing for monitoring therapy with CDK4/6 inhibitors, assessing treatment response with imaging tests, and flushing central venous devices. Clinical research and scientific activities were reduced in 80.3% and 80.1% of respondents previously implicated in these activities, respectively. CONCLUSION: Medical oncologists face many challenges in providing cancer care during the COVID-19 outbreak. Although most of the changes in their attitudes and practice were reasonable responses to the current health care emergency without expected major negative impact on patient outcomes, some potentially alarming signals of undertreatment were observed.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Telemedicine/trends , Breast/diagnostic imaging , Breast/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115105

ABSTRACT

Neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC) is a life-threatening bowel condition, usually resulting from chemotherapy, with a mortality rate thought to be as high as 50%. Markers of poor prognosis include gastrointestinal perforation and bowel wall thickness radiologically detected to be greater than 10 mm. NEC is associated with severe neutropenia and predominantly affects the large bowel; however, we present a case of severe NEC with oesophageal perforation requiring transfer to a specialist upper gastrointestinal unit for corrective stenting. Despite initial bowel wall thickness of 20 mm in the ascending colon, two discrete episodes of bowel perforation and an inpatient stay totalling 89 days, the patient was discharged with full independence, a good quality of life and a plan for curative mastectomy plus axillary clearance.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Enterocolitis, Neutropenic , Neutropenia , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Enterocolitis, Neutropenic/chemically induced , Enterocolitis, Neutropenic/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Mastectomy , Middle Aged , Quality of Life
14.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 5: 168-175, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063206

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: As health inequities during the pandemic have been magnified, we evaluated how use of SARS-CoV-2 testing differed by race or ethnicity in a large cohort of breast cancer survivors and examined the correlates of testing positive. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 22,481 adult breast cancer survivors who were active members of a large California integrated healthcare plan in 2020. We collected data on their breast cancer diagnosis, comorbidity, and demographic characteristics. We examined SARS-CoV-2 testing utilization between March 2020 and September 2020 by race or ethnicity, comorbidity, and other patient characteristics. We also examined the correlates of a having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. We conducted bivariable and multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of testing utilization and test positivity. RESULTS: Of these 22,481 women, 3,288 (14.6%) underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing. The cohort included 51.8% women of color. Of the 3,288 tested, 264 (8.0%) women had a positive test result. In multivariable analyses, Latinx survivors were more likely (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.34) to undergo testing than White survivors; however, Asian or Pacific Islander survivors were 16% less likely to get tested (adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.94). Compared to White survivors, Latinx survivors were 3.5 times (adjusted OR, 3.47; 95% CI, 2.52 to 4.77) and Asian or Pacific Islander or Other survivors were 2.2-fold (adjusted OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.49 to 3.34) more likely to test positive. Being overweight (adjusted OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.72) or obese (adjusted OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.39 to 2.98) were also strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. CONCLUSION: Even in an integrated healthcare system, Asian or Pacific Islander patients were less likely to undergo SARS-CoV-2 testing than White survivors, but more likely to test positive. Additionally, Latinx ethnicity and high body mass index were strongly correlated with a greater odds of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cancer Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , California/ethnology , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
15.
Breast J ; 27(4): 384-386, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060031

ABSTRACT

Malignancy has historically prohibited solid organ transplant; however, patients with effectively treated, favorable-risk cancers should not necessarily be eliminated as transplant candidates. These cases require careful review by a multidisciplinary team. Here, we report the case of a woman with end-stage heart failure undergoing heart transplant evaluation during the COVID pandemic who was found to have early-stage, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Given her favorable cancer-related prognosis, a multidisciplinary committee recommended lumpectomy, accelerated partial breast irradiation, and adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy for definitive treatment to allow for consideration of orthotopic heart transplant.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Heart Failure/complications , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Female , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics
16.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 963689721991477, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058182

ABSTRACT

TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: No prophylactic treatments for COVID-19 have been clearly proven and found. In this pandemic context, cancer patients constitute a particularly fragile population that would benefit the best from such treatments, a present unmet need. TMPRSS2 is essential for COVID-19 replication cycle and it is under androgen control. Estrogen and androgen receptor dependent cues converge on TMPRSS2 regulation through different mechanisms of action that can be blocked by the use of hormonal therapies. We believe that there is enough body of evidence to foresee a prophylactic use of hormonal therapies against COVID-19 and this hypothesis can be easily tested on cohorts of breast and prostate cancer patients who follow those regimens. In case of pandemic, if the protective effect of hormonal therapies will be proven on cancer patients, the use of specific hormonal therapies could be extended to other oncological groups and to healthy individuals to decrease the overall risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2.Given the COVID-19 coronavirus emergency, a special focus is needed on the impact of this rapidly spreading viral infection on cancer patients. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling in the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) regulation is emerging as an important determinant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) susceptibility. In our study, we analyzed AR and TMPRSS2 expression in 17,352 normal and 9,556 cancer tissues from public repositories and stratified data according to sex and age. The emerging picture is that some patient groups may be particularly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and may benefit from antiandrogen- or tamoxifen-based therapies. These findings are relevant to choose proper treatments in order to protect cancer patients from concomitant SARS-CoV-2 contagion and related symptoms and put forward the idea that hormonal therapies could be used as prophylactic agents against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Androgen Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19/complications , Estrogen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Androgen Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Discovery , Estrogen Antagonists/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/analysis , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tamoxifen/pharmacology
19.
Curr Oncol ; 28(1): 294-300, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a highly stressful event that may lead to significant psychological symptoms, particularly in cancer patients who are at a greater risk of contracting viruses. This study examined the frequency of stressors experienced in relation to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic and its relationship with psychological symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, insomnia, fear of cancer recurrence) in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Thirty-six women diagnosed with a non-metastatic breast cancer completed the Insomnia Severity Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the severity subscale of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, and the COVID-19 Stressors Questionnaire developed by our research team. Participants either completed the questionnaires during (30.6%) or after (69.4%) their chemotherapy treatment. RESULTS: Results revealed that most of the participants (63.9%) have experienced at least one stressor related to the COVID-19 pandemic (one: 27.8%, two: 22.2%, three: 11.1%). The most frequently reported stressor was increased responsibilities at home (33.3%). Higher levels of concerns related to the experienced stressors were significantly correlated with higher levels of anxiety, depressive symptoms, insomnia, and fear of cancer recurrence, rs(32) = 0.36 to 0.59, all ps < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer patients experience a significant number of stressors related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which are associated with increased psychological symptoms. These results contribute to a better understanding of the psychological consequences of a global pandemic in the context of cancer and they highlight the need to better support patients during such a challenging time.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Breast Neoplasms/immunology , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , Cancer Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Fear , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/psychology , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
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