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1.
Curr Oncol ; 30(5): 4767-4778, 2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide since December 2019 and was officially declared a pandemic in March 2020. Due to the rapid transmission and the high fatality rate, drastic emergency restrictions were issued, with a negative impact on routine clinical activities. In particular, in Italy, many authors have reported a reduction in the number of breast cancer diagnoses and critical problems in the management of patients who accessed the breast units during the dramatic first months of the pandemic. Our study aims to analyze the global impact of COVID-19 in the two years of the pandemic (2020-2021) on the surgical management of breast cancer by comparing them with the previous two years. METHODS: In our retrospective study, we analyzed all cases of breast cancer diagnosed and surgically treated at the breast unit of "Città della Salute e della Scienza" in Turin, Italy, making a comparison between the 2018-2019 pre-pandemic period and the 2020-2021 pandemic period. RESULTS: We included in our analysis 1331 breast cancer cases surgically treated from January 2018 to December 2021. A total of 726 patients were treated in the pre-pandemic years and 605 in the pandemic period (-121 cases, 9%). No significant differences were observed regarding diagnosis (screening vs. no screening) and timing between radiological diagnosis and surgery for both in situ and invasive tumors. There were no variations in the breast surgical approach (mastectomy vs. conservative surgery), while a reduction in axillary dissection compared to the sentinel lymph node in the pandemic period was observed (p-value < 0.001). Regarding the biological characteristics of breast cancers, we observed a greater number of grades 2-3 (p-value = 0.007), pT stage 3-4 breast cancer surgically treated without previous neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p-value = 0.03), and a reduction in luminal B tumors (p-value = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we report a limited reduction in surgical activity for breast cancer treatment considering the entire pandemic period (2020-2021). These results suggest a prompt resumption of surgical activity similar to the pre-pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Mastectomy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies
2.
CMAJ Open ; 11(3): E475-E484, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created major disruptions in cancer care, with reductions in diagnostic tests and treatments. We evaluated the impact of these health care-related changes on cancer staging by comparing cancers staged before and during the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study at London Health Sciences Centre and St. Joseph's Health Care London, London, Ontario, Canada. We evaluated all pathologically staged breast, colorectal, prostate, endometrial and lung cancers (the 5 most common cancers by site, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) over a 3-year period (Mar. 15, 2018-Mar. 14, 2021). The pre-COVID-19 group included procedures performed between Mar. 15, 2018, and Mar. 14, 2020, and the COVID-19 group included procedures performed between Mar. 15, 2020, and Mar. 14, 2021. The primary outcome was cancer stage group, based on the pathologic tumour, lymph node, metastasis system. We performed univariate analyses to compare demographic characteristics, pathologic features and cancer stage between the 2 groups. We performed multivariable ordinal regression analyses using the proportional odds model to evaluate the association between stage and timing of staging (before v. during the pandemic). RESULTS: There were 4055 cases across the 5 cancer sites. The average number of breast cancer staging procedures per 30 days increased during the pandemic compared to the yearly average in the pre-COVID-19 period (41.3 v. 39.6), whereas decreases were observed for endometrial cancer (15.9 v. 16.4), colorectal cancer (21.8 v. 24.3), prostate cancer (13.6 v. 18.5) and lung cancer (11.5 v. 15.9). For all cancer sites, there were no statistically significant differences in demographic characteristics, pathologic features or cancer stage between the 2 groups (p > 0.05). In multivariable regression analysis, for all cancer sites, cases staged during the pandemic were not associated with higher stage (breast: odds ratio [OR] 1.071, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.826-1.388; colorectal: OR 1.201, 95% CI 0.869-1.661; endometrium: OR 0.792, 95% CI 0.495-1.252; prostate: OR 1.171, 95% CI 0.765-1.794; and lung: OR 0.826, 95% CI 0.535-1.262). INTERPRETATION: Cancer cases staged during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic were not associated with higher stage; this likely reflects the prioritization of cancer procedures during times of reduced capacity. The impact of the pandemic period on staging procedures varied between cancer sites, which may reflect differences in clinical presentation, detection and treatment.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Male , Female , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Delivery of Health Care , Ontario/epidemiology
3.
Cancer Control ; 30: 10732748231168318, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296343

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Quality of life (QoL) in breast cancer patients is still an important topic. Despite numerous quantitative scales, qualitative studies can help to in-depth understand the QoL of breast cancer patients. The purpose of this systematic review was to integrate qualitative studies on the QoL of women with breast cancer. METHODS: A literature search was performed in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science from January 1, 2010 until June 28, 2022 to find out qualitative studies assessing breast cancer patient's QoL. Two authors independently evaluated methodological quality according to the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ) checklist. Data were extracted and reported by themes for cancer-free women and patients with metastatic cancer separately. RESULTS: In all, 1565 citations were retrieved. After removing 1387 duplicate and irrelevant papers, the full texts of 27 articles were reviewed and finally, 9 were eligible for evaluation. In quality checking of the citations, all articles gained the required quality score. After examining and merging similar topics, nine major themes were extracted. Physical, spiritual, and psychological aspects of QoL were the common issues in cancer-free women (before and after the COVID-19 pandemic) and patients with metastatic cancer. Perception of cancer and social life were the other main concerns in cancer-free women, whereas, in metastatic patients' overall survival and planning for the future and their children's life was the focus of interest. Women with metastatic disease showed more vulnerability in coping compared to cancer-free women. CONCLUSION: This review provides an opportunity to have a closer look into the several domains of QoL in women with breast cancer. In-depth information provided by this review might help to develop interventions for patients and their families to support women to cope much better with their life challenges.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Quality of Life , Pandemics , Qualitative Research
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(2)2023 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277507

ABSTRACT

Basosquamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare malignancy usually arising on sun-exposed areas of the skin. BSCC is described as a rare variant of Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) which shows clinical and microscopic features of both BCC and of Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We report the case of a 70-year-old male with a cutaneous lesion of the nipple-areola complex (NAC); to the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever reported patient with BSCC in this area. The lesion had a fast growth, but, due to the COVID19 crisis, the patient only came to our observation one year after onset of this condition. Physical examination showed a bleeding red ulcerated lesion that involved the NAC, measuring 27 mm × 20 mm. Biopsy showed a BSCC. Pre-operative breast ultrasound scan, mammogram and MRI were all performed before surgery, which consisted of simple mastectomy and sentinel lymph-node biopsy. The patient was discharged home on the 4th post-operative day, and at 18-month follow-up there are no signs or clinical evidence of local recurrence or metastases. Diagnosis of BSCC of the nipple-areola complex requires high index of suspicion and a thorough differential diagnosis, management, and suitable radical treatment due to well described high rates of recurrence and of metastases. Differential diagnosis with similar lesions (e.g., Paget's disease, Bowen's disease, BCC, and SCC) should also be taken into account.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Basal Cell , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Skin Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Aged , Nipples/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Mastectomy , COVID-19/pathology , Carcinoma, Basal Cell/surgery , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Skin Neoplasms/pathology
5.
S D Med ; 75(9): 396-401, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276847

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death affecting women in the U.S., behind only skin and lung cancers, respectively. Modern screening mammography methods have contributed, in part, to a 40 percent decrease in breast cancer mortality since it was introduced in 1976. Therefore, regular breast cancer screening is vital to women's health. The COVID-19 Pandemic posed many challenges to healthcare systems worldwide. One challenge was the discontinuation of routine screening tests. We present a female patient who consistently participated in annual screening mammography and was confirmed negative for malignancy between 2014 and 2019. She did not get her mammogram in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and was subsequently diagnosed with stage IIIB breast cancer when she resumed her screening mammogram in 2021. This case illustrates one of the consequences of delayed breast cancer screening.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Early Detection of Cancer , Mammography , Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Health Services Accessibility , United States
6.
Anticancer Res ; 43(2): 557-567, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedures have gained popularity in early breast cancer thanks to the reduction of surgical side-effects. The standard SLN mapping procedure uses 99mTc-nanocolloid human serum albumin with/without blue dye; limitations include logistical challenges and adverse reactions. Recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using sulfur hexafluoride has emerged as a promising technique for SLN mapping. Our study aimed to compare the CEUS technique with the standard isotope method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: AX-CES, a prospective, monocentric, single-arm phase-3 study was designed (EudraCT: 2020-000393-20). Inclusion criteria were histologically diagnosed early breast cancer eligible for upfront surgery and SLN resection, bodyweight 40-85 kg, and no prior history of ipsilateral surgery or radiotherapy. All patients underwent CEUS prior to surgery and blue dye injection was performed in areas with contrast accumulation. After the experimental procedure, all patients underwent the standard mapping procedure and SLN frozen section assessment was performed. Data on the success rate, systemic reactions, mean procedure time, CEUS appearance, SLN number, and concordance with standard mapping procedure were collected. RESULTS: Among 16 cases, a median of two SLNs were identified during CEUS. In all cases, at least one SLN was identified by CEUS (100%). In six cases, SLNs were classified during CEUS as abnormal, which was confirmed by definitive staining in four cases. After the standard mapping technique, in 15 out of the 16 cases (87.50%), at least one SLN from the standard mapping procedure was marked with blue dye in the CEUS procedure. In our series, sensitivity and specificity of SLN detection by CEUS were 75% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: CEUS is a safe and manageable intraoperative procedure. When compared with standard techniques, US appearance during CEUS may provide additional information when associated with histological assessment.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Sentinel Lymph Node , Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Contrast Media , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/surgery , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Microbubbles , Prospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node/diagnostic imaging , Sentinel Lymph Node/surgery , Sentinel Lymph Node/pathology , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Sulfur Hexafluoride
7.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 29(1): 53-58, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261695

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The diagnosis and surgical treatment delays that occurred during the coronavirus disease-2019- (COVID-19) pandemic may have affected breast cancer presentation. This study aimed to determine whether there was a difference in the clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancers during the pandemic by comparing them with similar cases from the previous year. The study also aimed to determine the radiological findings of breast cancers during the pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective review was made of patients who underwent surgery for breast cancer between March 11, 2020, and December 11, 2020 (the pandemic group). These patients were compared with similar patients from the previous year (the pre-pandemic group). The postoperative histopathology results of both groups were compared, and the preoperative radiological findings of the pandemic group were defined. RESULTS: There were 71 patients in the pandemic group and 219 patients in the pre-pandemic group. The tumor size was significantly greater, lymph node involvement was more frequent, and waiting time for surgery was longer in the pandemic group (P < 0.001, P = 0.044, P = 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference between the groups in respect of in situ/invasive tumor distribution, histological type and histological grade of tumor, the presence of lymphovascular/perineural invasion, multifocal/multicentric focus, and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System Classification (P > 0.15). The radiologic findings of breast cancer during the pandemic typically showed characteristics of malignancy. CONCLUSION: Patients diagnosed with breast cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic had larger tumor sizes, more frequent lymph node involvement and longer waiting time for surgical treatment. Screening programs should be continued as soon as possible by taking necessary precautions.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Mammography , Retrospective Studies
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 4977, 2023 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259726

ABSTRACT

Various countries have reported a decrease in breast cancer surgeries during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; however, inconsistent results have been reported in Japan. This study revealed changes in the number of surgeries during the pandemic using the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB) from January 2015 to January 2021, where insurance claims data from Japan as a whole are comprehensively accumulated. The number of breast-conserving surgeries (BCS) without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) significantly decreased in July (- 846; 95% confidence interval (CI) - 1190 to - 502) and October 2020 (- 540; 95% CI - 861 to - 218). No decrease was observed for other types of surgery, BCS with ALND, and mastectomy with or without ALND. In the age-specific subgroup analysis, significant and transient reduction in BCS without ALND was observed in all age groups (0-49, 50-69, and ≥ 70 years). The number of BCS without ALND significantly decreased for a relatively short period in the early pandemic stages, suggesting reduced surgery for patients with a relatively low stage of cancer. Some patients with breast cancer might have been left untreated during the pandemic, and an unfavorable prognosis would be a concern.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Female , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Mastectomy , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Neoplasm Staging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Lymph Node Excision , Axilla/pathology
9.
J Surg Res ; 288: 79-86, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280217

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the diagnosis of breast cancer (BC). With a large Hispanic/Latinx population, early revocation of mask mandates, and lower vaccination rate than many other states, this study explores the relationship between COVID-19 and the presentation and diagnosis of BC patients in the unique socio-politico-economic context of Central Texas. METHODS: This study is a retrospective review of the Seton Medical Center Austin tumor registry for BC patients from March 1, 2019 to March 2, 2021. We compared demographics, insurance status, clinical and pathologic stage, and time from diagnosis to intervention between "pre-COVID" (March 1, 2019- March 1, 2020) and "post-COVID" (March 2, 2020-March 2, 2021). We utilized descriptive, univariate, and multivariable logistic regression statistics. RESULTS: There were 781 patients diagnosed with BC, with 113 fewer post-COVID compared to pre-COVID. The proportion of Black patients diagnosed with BC decreased post-COVID compared with pre-COVID (10.1%-4.5%, P = 0.002). When adjusting for other factors, uninsured and underinsured patients had increased odds of presenting with late-stage BC (odds ratio:5.40, P < 0.001). There was also an association between presenting with stage 2 or greater BC and delayed time-to-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Although fewer women overall were diagnosed with BC post-COVID, the return to baseline diagnoses has yet to be seen. We identified a pandemic-related decrease in BC diagnoses in Black women and increased odds of late-stage cancer among uninsured patients, suggesting a disparate relationship between COVID-19 and health care access and affordability. Outreach and screening efforts should address strategies to engage Black and uninsured patients.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Texas/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Racial Groups , Healthcare Disparities , COVID-19 Testing
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263759

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most widely diagnosed cancers and a leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Globally, BC is the second most frequent cancer and first most frequent gynecological one, affecting women with a relatively low case-mortality rate. Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the main treatments for BC, even though the latter are often not aways successful because of the common side effects and the damage caused to healthy tissues and organs. Aggressive and metastatic BCs are difficult to treat, thus new studies are needed in order to find new therapies and strategies for managing these diseases. In this review, we intend to give an overview of studies in this field, presenting the data from the literature concerning the classification of BCs and the drugs used in therapy for the treatment of BCs, along with drugs in clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Health Status
11.
Med Princ Pract ; 32(2): 117-125, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263740

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of studies evaluating the COVID-19 pandemic effect on breast cancer detection according to age-group. This study aimed to assess the pandemic impact on the trend of mammograms, breast biopsies, and breast cancer stage at diagnosis according to age-group. METHODS: This was an ecological time series study by inflection point regression model. We used data from women aged between 30 and 49, 50 and 69, and 70 years or more available in an open-access dataset of the Brazilian public healthcare system (2017-2021). We analyzed the trend of the variables in the pre-pandemic and the pandemic effect on the total time series. RESULTS: The decreasing or stationary trend of mammograms in the pre-pandemic has changed to a decreasing trend in the total time series in all age-groups. Before the pandemic, the increasing trend of breast biopsies has changed to stationary in the total time series in all age-groups. The increasing trend of tumors at stages 0 to II in the pre-pandemic has changed to decreasing or stationary in the total time series. Finally, the increasing trend of tumors at stage III or IV remained increasing in the total time series in all age-groups. CONCLUSION: The pandemic has changed the stationary or increasing trend to a decreasing or stationary trend of mammograms, breast biopsies, and tumors at stages 0 to II but has not influenced the increasing trend of tumors at stages III and IV in all age-groups.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Adult , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mammography , COVID-19 Testing
12.
Jpn J Radiol ; 41(6): 617-624, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174888

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy is known to occur after coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination. Post-vaccination lymphadenopathy may mimic the metastatic lymph nodes in breast cancer, and it is challenging to distinguish between them. This study investigated whether the localization of axillary lymphadenopathy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be used to distinguish reactive lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccines from metastatic nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined preoperative MRI images of 684 axillae in 342 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery from June to October 2021. Lymphadenopathy was defined as cortical thickening or short axis ≥ 5 mm. The axilla was divided into ventral and dorsal parts on the axial plane using a perpendicular line extending from the most anterior margin of the muscle group, including the deltoid, latissimus dorsi, or teres major muscles, relative to a line along the lateral chest wall. We recorded the presence or absence of axillary lymphadenopathy in each area and the number of visible lymph nodes. RESULTS: Of 80 axillae, 41 and 39 were included in the vaccine and metastasis groups, respectively. The median time from the last vaccination to MRI was 19 days in the vaccine group. The number of visible axillary lymph nodes was significantly higher in the vaccine group (median, 15 nodes) than in the metastasis group (7 nodes) (P < 0.001). Dorsal lymphadenopathy was observed in 16 (39.0%) and two (5.1%) axillae in the vaccine and metastasis groups, respectively (P < 0.001). If the presence of both ventral and dorsal lymphadenopathy is considered indicative of vaccine-induced reaction, this finding has a sensitivity of 34.1%, specificity of 97.4%, and positive and negative predictive values of 93.3% and 58.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The presence of deep axillary lymphadenopathy may be an important factor for distinguishing post-vaccination lymphadenopathy from metastasis. The number of axillary lymph nodes may also help.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Lymphatic Metastasis , COVID-19/pathology , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Vaccination , Axilla/pathology
13.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 141, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the combination of systemic and targeted chemotherapies is associated with severe adverse side effects and long-term health complications, there is interest in reducing treatment intensity for patients with early-stage breast cancer (EBC). Clinical trials are needed to determine the feasibility of reducing treatment intensity while maintaining 3-year recurrence-free survival of greater than 92%. To recruit participants for these trials, it is important to understand patient perspectives on reducing chemotherapy. METHODS: We collected qualitative interview data from twenty-four patients with Stage II-III breast cancer and sixteen patient advocates. Interviews explored potential barriers and facilitators to participation in trials testing reduced amounts of chemotherapy. As the COVID-19 pandemic struck during data collection, seventeen participants were asked about the potential impact of COVID-19 on their interest in these trials. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and researchers used qualitative content analysis to code for dominant themes. RESULTS: Seventeen participants (42.5%) expressed interest in participating in a trial of reduced chemotherapy. Barriers to reducing chemotherapy included (1) fear of recurrence and inefficacy, (2) preference for aggressive treatment, (3) disinterest in clinical trials, (4) lack of information about expected outcomes, (5) fear of regret, and (6) having young children. Facilitators included (1) avoiding physical toxicity, (2) understanding the scientific rationale of reducing chemotherapy, (3) confidence in providers, (4) consistent monitoring and the option to increase dosage, (5) fewer financial and logistical challenges, and (6) contributing to scientific knowledge. Of those asked, nearly all participants said they would be more motivated to reduce treatment intensity in the context of COVID-19, primarily to avoid exposure to the virus while receiving treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with EBC, there is significant interest in alleviating treatment-related toxicity by reducing chemotherapeutic intensity. Patients will be more apt to participate in trials testing reduced amounts of chemotherapy if these are framed in terms of customizing treatment to the individual patient and added benefit-reduced toxicities, higher quality of life during treatment and lower risk of long-term complications-rather than in terms of taking treatments away or doing less than the standard of care. Doctor-patient rapport and provider support will be crucial in this process.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , Patient Advocacy/psychology , Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Decision Making , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Middle Aged , Motivation , Qualitative Research , Quality of Life
14.
Eur J Cancer ; 177: 72-79, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117958

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We analysed the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (COVID-19) on the quality of breast cancer care in certified EUSOMA (European Society of Breast Cancer Specialists) breast centres. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The results of the EUSOMA quality indicators were compared, based on pseudonymised individual records, for the periods 1 March 2020 till 30 June 2020 (first COVID-19 peak in most countries in Europe) and 1 March 2019 till 30 June 2019. In addition, a questionnaire was sent to the participating Centres for investigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the organisation and the quality of breast cancer care. RESULTS: Forty-five centres provided data and 31 (67%) responded to the questionnaire. The total number of new cases dropped by 19% and there was a small significant higher tumour (p = 0.003) and lymph node (p = 0.011) stage at presentation. Comparing quality indicators (12,736 patients) by multivariable analysis showed mostly non-significant differences. Surgery could be performed in a COVID-free zone in 94% of the centres, COVID testing was performed before surgery in 96% of the centres, and surgical case load was reduced in 55% of the centres. Modifications of the indications for neoadjuvant endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy were necessary in 23%, 23%, and 10% of the centres; changes in indications for adjuvant endocrine, chemo-, targeted, immune, and radiotherapy in 3%, 19%, 3%, 6%, and 10%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Quality of breast cancer care was well maintained in EUSOMA breast centres during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A small but significantly higher tumour and lymph node stage at presentation was observed.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 Testing
15.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 44(9): 871-877, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087367

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic profile of breast cancer cases during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic compared with the previous year. METHODS: It is a retrospective study of cases diagnosed by a reference service in the public health system of Campinas, SP, Brazil. Two periods were analyzed: March to October 2019 (preCOVID period) and March to October 2020 (COVID-period). All women diagnosed during the periods were included. The Chi-Squared or Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney tests were used. RESULTS: In the preCOVID and COVID periods, breast cancers were diagnosed, respectively, in 115 vs 59 women, and the mean ages at diagnosis were 55 and 57 years (p = 0.339). In the COVID period, the family history of breast cancer was more observed (9.6% vs 29.8%, p < 0.001), cases were more frequently symptomatic (50.4% vs 79.7%, p < 0.001) and had more frequently palpable masses (56.5% vs 79.7%, p = 0.003). In symptomatic women, the mean number of days from symptom to mammography were 233.6 (458.3) in 2019 and 152.1 (151.5) in 2020 (p = 0.871). Among invasive tumors, the proportion of breast cancers in stages I and II was slightly higher in the COVID period, although not significantly (76.7% vs 82.4%, p = 0.428). Also in the COVID period, the frequency of luminal A-like tumors was lower (29.2% vs 11.8%, p = 0.018), of triple-negative tumors was twice as high (10.1% vs 21.6%, p = 0.062), and of estrogen receptor-positive tumors was lower (82.2% vs 66.0%, p = 0.030). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, breast cancer diagnoses were reduced. Cases detected were suggestive of a worse prognosis: symptomatic women with palpable masses and more aggressive subtypes. Indolent tumors were those more sensitive to the interruption in screening.


OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil diagnóstico dos casos de câncer de mama na pandemia de coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) em comparação com o ano anterior. MéTODOS: Este é um estudo retrospectivo de casos diagnosticados em um serviço de referência da rede pública de saúde de Campinas, SP, Brasil. Foram analisados dois períodos: de março a outubro de 2019 (período pré-COVID) e de março a outubro de 2020 (período COVID). Todas as mulheres diagnosticadas durante os períodos foram incluídas. Foram utilizados os testes do qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Nos períodos pré-COVID e COVID, o câncer de mama foi diagnosticado, respectivamente, em 115 e 59 mulheres, e a média de idade no diagnóstico foi de 55 e 57 anos (p = 0,339). No período COVID, foram mais frequentes a história familiar de câncer de mama (9,6% vs 29,8%, p < 0,001), casos sintomáticos (50,4% vs 79,7%, p < 0,001) e com massas palpáveis (56,5% vs 79,7%, p = 0,003). Nas mulheres sintomáticas, a média de dias desde os sintomas até a mamografia foi de 233,6 (458,3) no pré-COVID e 152,1 (151,5) no COVID (p = 0,871). Entre os tumores invasivos no período COVID, a proporção de cânceres nos estágios I e II foi ligeiramente maior, porém não significativa (76,7% vs 82,4%, p = 0,428). Ainda no período COVID, a frequência de tumores tipo luminal A-like foi menor (29,2% vs 11,8%, p = 0,018), de tumores triplo-negativos foi duas vezes maior (10,1% vs 21,6%, p = 0,062), e de tumores positivos para receptor de estrogênio foi inferior (82,2% vs 66,0%, p = 0,030). CONCLUSãO: Durante a pandemia de COVID-19, houve uma redução no diagnóstico de câncer de mama. Os casos detectados eram sugestivos de pior prognóstico: mulheres sintomáticas com massas palpáveis e subtipos mais agressivos. Os tumores indolentes foram os mais sensíveis à interrupção do rastreamento.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mammography , Pandemics , Receptors, Estrogen , Retrospective Studies
16.
Eur J Radiol ; 152: 110334, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node characteristics on axillary ultrasound (US), breast MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT are relevant at breast cancer diagnosis. Axillary lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination has been frequently reported. This may cause a diagnostic dilemma, particularly in the ipsilateral axilla in women who have a either a recent diagnosis of breast cancer or a history of breast cancer. This review provides an overview of the current evidence regarding axillary lymph node characteristics at breast cancer diagnosis versus "post-COVID-19 vaccination". METHODS: A non-systematic narrative review was performed. Studies describing axillary lymph node characteristics per imaging modality (axillary US, breast MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT) in breast cancer patients versus post-COVID-19 vaccination were selected and used for the current study. RESULTS: The morphologic characteristics and distribution of abnormal nodes on US may differ from the appearance of metastatic adenopathy since diffuse cortical thickening of the lymph nodes is the most observed characteristic after vaccination, whereas metastases show as most suspicious characteristics focal cortical thickening and effacement of the fatty hilum. Current evidence on MRI and 18F-FDG on morphologic characteristics of axillary lymphadenopathy is missing, although it was suggested that vaccine related lymphadenopathy is more likely to be present in level 2 and 3 nodes than metastatic nodes. Reported frequencies of lymphadenopathy post-COVID-19 vaccination range from 49% to 85% (US), 29% (breast MRI) and 14.5% to 53.9% (18F-FDG PET/CT). Several factors may impact the presence or extent of lymphadenopathy post-COVID-19 vaccination: injection site, type of vaccine (i.e., mRNA versus vector), time interval (days) between vaccination and imaging, previous history of COVID-19 pneumonia, and first versus second vaccine dose. CONCLUSION: Although lymph node characteristics differ at breast cancer diagnosis versus post-COVID-19 vaccination, clinical information regarding injection site, vaccine type and vaccination date needs to be documented to improve the interpretation and guide treatment towards the next steps of action.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Vaccination
17.
Br J Radiol ; 95(1133): 20211234, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques require careful delineation of the target. There is no particular RT contouring guideline for patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). In this study, we examined the distribution of pre-chemotherapy clinically positive nodal metastases. METHODS: We explored the coverage rate of the RTOG breast contouring guideline by deformable fusion of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan. We retrospectively evaluated neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients. All PET-CT images were imported into the planning software. We combined the planning CT and the CT images of PET-CT with rigid and then a deformable registration. We manually contoured positive lymph nodes on the CT component of the PET-CT data set and transferred them to planning CT after fusion. We evaluated whether previously contoured lymphatic CTVs, according to the RTOG breast atlas, include GTV-LNs. RESULTS: All breast cancer patients between October 2018 and February 2021 were evaluated from the electronic database. There were 142 radiologically defined positive lymph nodes in 31 patients who were irradiated after NACT. Most LNs (70%) were in the level I axilla. Only 71.1% (n:101) of the whole lymph nodes in 10 patients were totally covered, 22.5% (n:32) partially covered and 6.4% %(n:9) totally undercovered. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of regional nodal areas in the RTOG atlas may be insufficient to cover positive lymph nodes adequately. For patients with nodal involvement undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, PET-CT image fusions can be helpful to be sure that positive lymph nodes are in the treatment volume. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: RTOG contouring atlas may be insufficient to cover all involved lymph nodes after NACT. For patients with nodal involvement undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, PET-CT image fusions may help to be sure that positive lymph nodes are in the treatment volume.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Female , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography , Radiopharmaceuticals , Retrospective Studies
18.
Clin Imaging ; 93: 1-3, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061007

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study presents 110 patients with suspected COVID-19 vaccine-related axillary adenopathy on breast MRI. Our study aimed to assess the outcomes of axillary adenopathy detected on breast MRI performed within one year after COVID-19 vaccination. The median time between the COVID-19 vaccine and breast MRI was shorter in patients with detected adenopathy compared to patients without detected adenopathy (6 weeks [2-17] versus 15 [7-24] weeks, p < 0.001). Unilateral axillary adenopathy detected on breast MRI had a low malignancy rate (3.3%), and no cases of malignant axillary adenopathy were diagnosed without a known breast cancer in the ipsilateral breast. Our findings suggest that unilateral axillary adenopathy identified on breast MRI ipsilateral to a recent COVID-19 vaccination can be considered benign in the absence of a suspicious breast finding or known breast cancer. Regardless of vaccine status and timing, unilateral axillary adenopathy detected on MRI evaluation with a known malignancy or suspicious breast finding should be considered suspicious. This will avoid unnecessary scheduling constraints, patient anxiety, and cost, without delaying diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lymphadenopathy , Female , Humans , Axilla/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Lymphadenopathy/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 196(3): 527-534, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048350

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: When Core Needle Biopsy (CNB) demonstrates Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia (ADH), Flat Epithelial Atypia (FEA), Intraductal Papilloma (IDP), or Radial Scar/Complex Sclerosing Lesion (RS), excisional biopsy (EB) is often performed to rule out underlying malignancy with upstage rates (UR) ranging between 1 and 20%. The COVID-19 pandemic led to delayed EB for many patients. We sought to evaluate whether this delay was associated with higher UR. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of women who underwent CNB and then EB for ADH, FEA, IDP, or RS between 2017 and 2021 using an IRB-approved repository. UR was evaluated by days between CNB and EB. RESULTS: 473 patients met inclusion. 55 were upstaged to cancer (11.6%). 178 patients had pure ADH on CNB and 37 were upstaged (20.8%). 50 patients had pure FEA and 3 were upstaged (6%). 132 had pure IDP and 7 were upstaged (5.3%). 98 had pure RS and 1 was upstaged (1%). 7/15 (46.7%) had a combination of diagnoses or diagnosis with palpable mass and were upstaged. Days between CNB and EB were < 60 for 275 patients (58.1%), 60-90 for 108 (22.8%), 91-120 for 43 (9.1%), and > 120 for 47 (9.9%). There was no significant difference in UR (10.9% for < 60, 14.8% for 60-90, 7% for 90-120, and 12.8% for > 120, p = 0.54). UR for ADH was clinically increased after 60 days (27.8 vs. 17.5%), but this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.1). CONCLUSION: Surgical delay was not associated with an increased UR.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Carcinoma in Situ , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating , Fibrocystic Breast Disease , Inosine Diphosphate , Papilloma, Intraductal , Humans , Female , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating/surgery , Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Papilloma, Intraductal/diagnosis , Papilloma, Intraductal/surgery , Papilloma, Intraductal/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Cicatrix/etiology , Cicatrix/pathology , Pandemics , Fibrocystic Breast Disease/pathology , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Carcinoma in Situ/pathology , Hyperplasia/pathology , Breast/pathology
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(25): 2946-2956, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043160

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Combining standard of care (pertuzumab-trastuzumab [PH], chemotherapy) with cancer immunotherapy may potentiate antitumor immunity, cytotoxic activity, and patient outcomes in high-risk, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. We report the phase III IMpassion050 primary analysis of neoadjuvant atezolizumab, PH, and chemotherapy in these patients. METHODS: Patients with a primary tumor of > 2 cm and histologically confirmed, positive lymph node status (T2-4, N1-3, M0) were randomly assigned 1:1 to atezolizumab/placebo with dose-dense doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide, followed by paclitaxel, and PH. After surgery, patients were to continue atezolizumab/placebo and PH (total: 1 year of HER2-targeted therapy); those with residual disease could switch to ado-trastuzumab emtansine with atezolizumab/placebo. Coprimary efficacy end points were pathologic complete response (pCR; ypT0/is ypN0) rates in intention-to-treat (ITT) and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive populations. RESULTS: At clinical cutoff (February 5, 2021), pCR rates in the placebo and atezolizumab groups in the ITT populations were 62.7% (n = 143/228) and 62.4% (n = 141/226), respectively (difference -0.33%; 95% CI, -9.2 to 8.6; P = .9551). The pCR rates in the placebo and atezolizumab groups in patients with PD-L1-positive tumors were 72.5% (n = 79/109) and 64.2% (n = 70/109), respectively (difference -8.26%; 95% CI, -20.6 to 4.0; P = .1846). Grade 3-4 and serious adverse events were more frequent in the atezolizumab versus placebo group. Five grade 5 adverse events occurred (four neoadjuvant, one adjuvant; two assigned to study treatment), all with atezolizumab. Overall, the safety profile was consistent with that of atezolizumab in other combination studies. CONCLUSION: Atezolizumab with neoadjuvant dose-dense doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide-paclitaxel and PH for high-risk, HER2-positive early breast cancer did not increase pCR rates versus placebo in the ITT or PD-L1-positive populations. PH and chemotherapy remains standard of care; longer follow-up may help to inform the long-term impact of atezolizumab.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , B7-H1 Antigen/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cyclophosphamide , Doxorubicin , Female , Humans , Neoadjuvant Therapy/adverse effects , Paclitaxel , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Trastuzumab , Treatment Outcome
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