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1.
Future Oncol ; 17(34): 4757-4767, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484980

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since breast imaging requires very close contact with patients, a protocol is needed to perform safe daily screening activities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: Patients were triaged and separated into three different clinical scenarios by performing a telephone questionnaire before each diagnostic exam or a nasopharyngeal swab before every recovery. Specific procedures for each scenario are described. Results: From July to October 2020, 994 exams were performed. A total of 16 cancers and 7 suspected COVID-19 patients were identified. No medical staff were infected. Conclusion: This protocol is an example of the practical use of guidelines applied to a breast unit to assist specialists in preventing COVID-19 infection and optimizing resources for breast cancer diagnosis.


Lay abstract On March 11th, 2020, the WHO officially declared the COVID-19 infection pandemic. Since breast cancer represents the most frequent cancer in women of all ages, and breast imaging examinations require very close contact with patients, a protocol was designed to optimize the management of patients and healthcare workers, performing strict COVID-19 screening and avoiding any impairment of survival of patients with breast cancer. Patients were separated into three different clinical scenarios (non-COVID-19 patients, suspected COVID-19 patients and confirmed COVID-19 patients) by performing a telephone questionnaire before each diagnostic exam or a nasopharyngeal swab before every recovery. Specific procedures for each scenario are described. Confirmed or suspected patients are rescheduled if not urgent. From July to October 2020, 994 exams were performed. A total of 16 cancers and 7 suspected COVID-19 patients were identified. No medical staff were infected. This study demonstrates efficacy in terms of continuity in the provision of an essential level of care in a breast cancer screening and ambulatory setting, providing an example of the practical use of guidelines applied to a breast unit, to assist specialists in preventing COVID-19 infection and optimizing resources for breast cancer diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 20886-20895, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368081

ABSTRACT

The potential role of abnormal ACE2 expression after SARS-CoV-2 infection in the prognosis of breast cancer is still ambiguous. In this study, we analyzed ACE2 changes in breast cancer and studied the correlation between ACE2 and the prognosis and further analyzed the relationship between immune infiltration and the prognosis of different breast cancer subtypes. Finally, we inferred the prognosis of breast cancer patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that ACE2 expression decreased significantly in breast cancer, except for basal-like subtype. Decreased ACE2 expression level was correlated with abnormal immune infiltration and poorer prognosis of luminal B breast cancer (RFS: HR 0.76, 95%CI=0.63-0.92, p=0.005; DMFS: HR 0.70, 95%CI=0.49-1.00, p=0.046). The expression of ACE2 was strongly positively correlated with the immune infiltration level of CD8+ T cell (r=0.184, p<0.001), CD4+ T cell (r=0.104, p=0.02) and neutrophils (r=0.101, p=0.02). ACE2 expression level in the luminal subtype was positively correlated with CD8A and CD8B markers in CD8+ T cells, and CEACAM3, S100A12 in neutrophils. In conclusion, breast tumor tissues might undergo a further decrease in the expression level of ACE2 after SARS-CoV-2 infection, which could contribute to further deterioration of immune infiltration and worsen the prognosis of luminal B breast cancer after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/immunology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/enzymology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Mice , Prognosis , Vero Cells
3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(11): 1484-1494, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted breast cancer control through short-term declines in screening and delays in diagnosis and treatments. We projected the impact of COVID-19 on future breast cancer mortality between 2020 and 2030. METHODS: Three established Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network breast cancer models modeled reductions in mammography screening use, delays in symptomatic cancer diagnosis, and reduced use of chemotherapy for women with early-stage disease for the first 6 months of the pandemic with return to prepandemic patterns after that time. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the effect of key model parameters, including the duration of the pandemic impact. RESULTS: By 2030, the models project 950 (model range = 860-1297) cumulative excess breast cancer deaths related to reduced screening, 1314 (model range = 266-1325) associated with delayed diagnosis of symptomatic cases, and 151 (model range = 146-207) associated with reduced chemotherapy use in women with hormone positive, early-stage cancer. Jointly, 2487 (model range = 1713-2575) excess breast cancer deaths were estimated, representing a 0.52% (model range = 0.36%-0.56%) cumulative increase over breast cancer deaths expected by 2030 in the absence of the pandemic's disruptions. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the breast cancer mortality impact would be approximately double if the modeled pandemic effects on screening, symptomatic diagnosis, and chemotherapy extended for 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Initial pandemic-related disruptions in breast cancer care will have a small long-term cumulative impact on breast cancer mortality. Continued efforts to ensure prompt return to screening and minimize delays in evaluation of symptomatic women can largely mitigate the effects of the initial pandemic-associated disruptions.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/mortality , COVID-19/complications , Computer Simulation , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Mammography/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Survival Rate
4.
Cancer ; 127(19): 3671-3679, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had wide-ranging health effects and increased isolation. Older with cancer patients might be especially vulnerable to loneliness and poor mental health during the pandemic. METHODS: The authors included active participants enrolled in the longitudinal Thinking and Living With Cancer study of nonmetastatic breast cancer survivors aged 60 to 89 years (n = 262) and matched controls (n = 165) from 5 US regions. Participants completed questionnaires at parent study enrollment and then annually, including a web-based or telephone COVID-19 survey, between May 27 and September 11, 2020. Mixed-effects models were used to examine changes in loneliness (a single item on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression [CES-D] scale) from before to during the pandemic in survivors versus controls and to test survivor-control differences in the associations between changes in loneliness and changes in mental health, including depression (CES-D, excluding the loneliness item), anxiety (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and perceived stress (the Perceived Stress Scale). Models were adjusted for age, race, county COVID-19 death rates, and time between assessments. RESULTS: Loneliness increased from before to during the pandemic (0.211; P = .001), with no survivor-control differences. Increased loneliness was associated with worsening depression (3.958; P < .001) and anxiety (3.242; P < .001) symptoms and higher stress (1.172; P < .001) during the pandemic, also with no survivor-control differences. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer survivors reported changes in loneliness and mental health similar to those reported by women without cancer. However, both groups reported increased loneliness from before to during the pandemic that was related to worsening mental health, suggesting that screening for loneliness during medical care interactions will be important for identifying all older women at risk for adverse mental health effects of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Breast Neoplasms/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/virology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cancer Survivors/psychology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(6): 885-894, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274648

ABSTRACT

Importance: In 2018, only half of US women obtained all evidence-based cancer screenings. This proportion may have declined during the COVID-19 pandemic because of social distancing, high-risk factors, and fear. Objective: To evaluate optimal screening strategies in women who obtain some, but not all, US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)-recommended cancer screenings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This modeling study was conducted from January 31, 2017, to July 20, 2020, and used 4 validated mathematical models from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network using data from 20 million simulated women born in 1965 in the US. Interventions: Forty-five screening strategies were modeled that combined breast, cervical, colorectal, and/or lung cancer (LC) screenings; restricted to 1, 2, 3 or 4 screenings per year; or all eligible screenings once every 5 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Modeled life-years gained from restricted cancer screenings as a fraction of those attainable from full compliance with USPSTF recommendations (maximum benefits). Results were stratified by LC screening eligibility (LC-eligible/ineligible). We repeated the analysis with 2018 adherence rates, evaluating the increase in adherence required for restricted screenings to have the same population benefit as USPSTF recommendations. Results: This modeling study of 20 million simulated US women found that it was possible to reduce screening intensity to 1 carefully chosen test per year in women who were ineligible for LC screening and 2 tests per year in eligible women while maintaining 94% or more of the maximum benefits. Highly ranked strategies screened for various cancers, but less often than recommended by the USPSTF. For example, among LC-ineligible women who obtained just 1 screening per year, the optimal strategy frequently delayed breast and cervical cancer screenings by 1 year and skipped 3 mammograms entirely. Among LC-eligible women, LC screening was essential; strategies omitting it provided 25% or less of the maximum benefits. The top-ranked strategy restricted to 2 screenings per year was annual LC screening and alternating fecal immunochemical test with mammography (skipping mammograms when due for cervical cancer screening, 97% of maximum benefits). If adherence in a population of LC-eligible women obtaining 2 screenings per year were to increase by 1% to 2% (depending on the screening test), this model suggests that it would achieve the same benefit as USPSTF recommendations at 2018 adherence rates. Conclusions and Relevance: This modeling study of 45 cancer screening strategies suggests that women who are noncompliant with cancer screening guidelines may be able to reduce USPSTF-recommended screening intensity with minimal reduction in overall benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Early Detection of Cancer , Models, Theoretical , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Mammography , Patient Compliance , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology
7.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(6): 885-894, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206734

ABSTRACT

Importance: In 2018, only half of US women obtained all evidence-based cancer screenings. This proportion may have declined during the COVID-19 pandemic because of social distancing, high-risk factors, and fear. Objective: To evaluate optimal screening strategies in women who obtain some, but not all, US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)-recommended cancer screenings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This modeling study was conducted from January 31, 2017, to July 20, 2020, and used 4 validated mathematical models from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network using data from 20 million simulated women born in 1965 in the US. Interventions: Forty-five screening strategies were modeled that combined breast, cervical, colorectal, and/or lung cancer (LC) screenings; restricted to 1, 2, 3 or 4 screenings per year; or all eligible screenings once every 5 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Modeled life-years gained from restricted cancer screenings as a fraction of those attainable from full compliance with USPSTF recommendations (maximum benefits). Results were stratified by LC screening eligibility (LC-eligible/ineligible). We repeated the analysis with 2018 adherence rates, evaluating the increase in adherence required for restricted screenings to have the same population benefit as USPSTF recommendations. Results: This modeling study of 20 million simulated US women found that it was possible to reduce screening intensity to 1 carefully chosen test per year in women who were ineligible for LC screening and 2 tests per year in eligible women while maintaining 94% or more of the maximum benefits. Highly ranked strategies screened for various cancers, but less often than recommended by the USPSTF. For example, among LC-ineligible women who obtained just 1 screening per year, the optimal strategy frequently delayed breast and cervical cancer screenings by 1 year and skipped 3 mammograms entirely. Among LC-eligible women, LC screening was essential; strategies omitting it provided 25% or less of the maximum benefits. The top-ranked strategy restricted to 2 screenings per year was annual LC screening and alternating fecal immunochemical test with mammography (skipping mammograms when due for cervical cancer screening, 97% of maximum benefits). If adherence in a population of LC-eligible women obtaining 2 screenings per year were to increase by 1% to 2% (depending on the screening test), this model suggests that it would achieve the same benefit as USPSTF recommendations at 2018 adherence rates. Conclusions and Relevance: This modeling study of 45 cancer screening strategies suggests that women who are noncompliant with cancer screening guidelines may be able to reduce USPSTF-recommended screening intensity with minimal reduction in overall benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Early Detection of Cancer , Models, Theoretical , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Mammography , Patient Compliance , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology
8.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(6): 878-884, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206733

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic led to sharp declines in cancer screening. However, the total deficit in screening in the US associated with the pandemic and the differential impact on individuals in different geographic regions and by socioeconomic status (SES) index have yet to be fully characterized. Objectives: To quantify the screening rates for breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers associated with the COVID-19 pandemic in different geographic regions and for individuals in different SES index quartiles and estimate the overall cancer screening deficit in 2020 across the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study uses the HealthCore Integrated Research Database, which comprises single-payer administrative claims data and enrollment information covering approximately 60 million people in Medicare Advantage and commercial health plans from across geographically diverse regions of the US. Participants were individuals in the database in January through July of 2018, 2019, and 2020 without diagnosis of the cancer of interest prior to the analytic index month. Exposures: Analytic index month and year. Main Outcomes and Measures: Receipt of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer screening. Results: Screening for all 3 cancers declined sharply in March through May of 2020 compared with 2019, with the sharpest decline in April (breast, -90.8%; colorectal, -79.3%; prostate, -63.4%) and near complete recovery of monthly screening rates by July for breast and prostate cancers. The absolute deficit across the US population in screening associated with the COVID-19 pandemic was estimated to be 3.9 million (breast), 3.8 million (colorectal), and 1.6 million (prostate). Geographic differences were observed: the Northeast experienced the sharpest declines in screening, while the West had a slower recovery compared with the Midwest and South. For example, percentage change in breast cancer screening rate (2020 vs 2019) for the month of April ranged from -87.3% (95% CI, -87.9% to -86.7%) in the West to -94.5% (95% CI, -94.9% to -94.1%) in the Northeast (decline). For the month of July, it ranged from -0.3% (95% CI, -2.1% to 1.5%) in the Midwest to -10.6% (-12.6% to -8.4%) in the West (recovery). By SES, the largest screening decline was observed in individuals in the highest SES index quartile, leading to a narrowing in the disparity in cancer screening by SES in 2020. For example, prostate cancer screening rates per 100 000 enrollees for individuals in the lowest and highest SES index quartiles, respectively, were 3525 (95% CI, 3444 to 3607) and 4329 (95% CI, 4271 to 4386) in April 2019 compared with 1535 (95% CI, 1480 to 1589) and 1338 (95% CI, 1306 to 1370) in April 2020. Multivariable analysis showed that telehealth use was associated with higher cancer screening. Conclusions and Relevance: Public health efforts are needed to address the large cancer screening deficit associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, including increased use of screening modalities that do not require a procedure.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/virology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Male , Medicare , Pandemics , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Class , Telemedicine , United States
9.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 97: 102188, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163603

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While routine, in-person follow-up of early-stage breast cancer patients (EBC) after completion of initial treatment is common, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unprecedented changes in clinical practice. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the evidence supporting different frequencies of routine follow-up. METHODS: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Collaboration Library were searched from database inception to July 16, 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies (PCS) evaluating different frequencies of routine follow-up. Citations were assessed by pairs of independent reviewers. Risk of Bias (RoB) was assessed using the Cochrane RoB tool for RCTs and the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for Cohort Studies. Findings were summarized narratively. RESULTS: The literature search identified 3316 studies, of which 7 (6 RCTs and 1 PCS) were eligible. Study endpoints included; quality of life (QoL; 5 RCTs and 1 PCS), disease free survival (DFS) (1 RCT), overall survival (OS) (1 RCT) and cost-effectiveness (1 RCT). The results showed reduction in follow-up frequency had no adverse effect on: QoL (6 studies, n = 920), DFS (1 trial, n = 472) or OS (1 trial, n = 472), but improved cost-effectiveness (1 trial, n = 472). Four RCTs specifically examined follow-up on-demand versus scheduled follow-up visits and found no statistically significant differences in QoL (n = 544). CONCLUSION: While no evidence-based guidelines suggest that follow-up of EBC patients improves DFS or OS, routinely scheduled in-person assessment is common. RCT data suggests that reduced frequency of follow-up has no adverse effects.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
12.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(11): e1304-e1314, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119446

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the attitudes and practice of Italian oncologists toward breast cancer care and related research activities. METHODS: A 29-question anonymous online survey was sent by e-mail to members of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology and the Italian Breast Cancer Study Group on April 3, 2020. Only medical oncologists (both those in training and specialists) were invited to complete the questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of 165 responding oncologists, 121 (73.3.%) worked in breast units. In the (neo)adjuvant setting, compared with before the emergency, fewer oncologists adopted weekly paclitaxel (68.5% v 93.9%) and a dose-dense schedule for anthracycline-based chemotherapy (43% v 58.8%) during the COVID-19 outbreak. In the metastatic setting, compared with before the emergency, fewer oncologists adopted first-line weekly paclitaxel for HER2-positive disease (41.8% v 53.9%) or CDK4/6 inhibitors for luminal tumors with less-aggressive characteristics (55.8% v 80.0%) during the COVID-19 outbreak. A significant change was also observed in delaying the timing for monitoring therapy with CDK4/6 inhibitors, assessing treatment response with imaging tests, and flushing central venous devices. Clinical research and scientific activities were reduced in 80.3% and 80.1% of respondents previously implicated in these activities, respectively. CONCLUSION: Medical oncologists face many challenges in providing cancer care during the COVID-19 outbreak. Although most of the changes in their attitudes and practice were reasonable responses to the current health care emergency without expected major negative impact on patient outcomes, some potentially alarming signals of undertreatment were observed.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Telemedicine/trends , Breast/diagnostic imaging , Breast/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Surg Oncol ; 123(2): 371-374, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979795

ABSTRACT

As a result from restricted economic activities and social distancing due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we observed a 49.4% decrease in outpatient appointments at our Institution. to minimize this impact on screening and oncological follow-up of breast cancer patients, telemedicine appointments were established. The authors demonstrate how a cancer center in the largest city in Brazil has managed outpatient appointments during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a retrospective study of patients who had their appointments through telemedicine at the AC Camargo Cancer Center between June 2020 and October 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the 77 patients who had telemedicine appointments, 36 (46.8%) accounted for breast cancer follow-up, 20 (26%) for breast cancer screening, 10 (13%) for benign breast disease evaluation, 7 (9%) for a second opinion, and 4 (5.2%) for general orientations. Routine surveillance/follow-up exams were requested for 45 (58.4%) patients and breast image exams and a request to return for a personal appointment for 30 (39%) patients. Two (2.6%) patients were requested to schedule a personal appointment immediately for a physical exam. In conclusion, telemedicine may be a feasible alternative to reduce personal outpatient appointments for cancer follow-up and breast cancer screening during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
16.
Anticancer Res ; 40(12): 7119-7125, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Extraordinary restrictions aimed to limit Sars-CoV-2 spreading; they imposed a total reorganization of the health-system. Oncological treatments experienced a significant slowdown. The aim of our multicentric retrospective study was to evaluate screening suspension and surgical treatment delay during COVID-19 and the impact on breast cancer presentation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent breast surgery from March 11, 2020 to May 30, 2020 were evaluated and considered as the Lockdown group. These patients were compared with similar patients of the previous year, the Pre-Lockdown group. RESULTS: A total of 432 patients were evaluated; n=223 and n=209 in the Lockdown and Pre-lockdown-groups, respectively. At univariate analysis, waiting times, lymph-nodes involvement and cancer grading, showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis identified waiting-time on list (OR=1.07) as a statistically significant predictive factor of lymph node involvement. CONCLUSION: Although we did not observe a clinically evident difference in breast cancer presentation, we reported an increase in lymph node involvement.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Axilla/pathology , Axilla/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Mastectomy , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
17.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1696-1703, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914174

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is a shortage of radiation therapy service centers in low- to middle-income countries. TARGIT-intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) may offer a viable alternative to improve radiation treatment efficiency and alleviate hospital patient loads. The Breast Care Unit in Johannesburg became the first facility in Africa to offer TARGIT-IORT, and the purpose of this study was to present a retrospective review of patients receiving IORT at this center between November 2017 and May 2020. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patient selection criteria were based mainly on the latest American Society of Radiation Oncology guidelines. Selection criteria included early-stage breast carcinoma (luminal A) and luminal B with negative upfront sentinel lymph node biopsy that negated external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Patient characteristics, reasons for choosing IORT, histology, and use of oncoplastic surgery that resulted in complications were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred seven patients successfully received IORT/TARGIT-IORT. Mean age was 60.8 years (standard deviation, 9.3 years). A total of 73.8% of patients presented with luminal A, 15.0% with luminal B, and 5.6% with triple-negative cancer. One patient who presented with locally advanced breast cancer (T4N2) opted for IORT as a boost in addition to planned EBRT. Eighty-seven patients underwent wide local excision (WLE) with mastopexy, and 12 underwent WLE with parenchymal. Primary reasons for selecting IORT/TARGIT-IORT were distance from the hospital (43.9%), choice (40.2%), and age (10.3%). CONCLUSION: This retrospective study of IORT/TARGIT-IORT performed in Africa confirms its viability, with low complication rates and no detrimental effects with breast conservation, resulting in positive acceptance and the potential to reduce Oncology Center patient loads. Limitations of the study include the fact that only short-term data on local recurrence were available. Health and socioeconomic value models must still be addressed in the African setting.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/radiotherapy , COVID-19/radiotherapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/radiotherapy , Pandemics , Adult , Breast Neoplasms/complications , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/surgery , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Intraoperative Care , Mastectomy, Segmental , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/virology , Patient Selection , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , South Africa/epidemiology
18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 117, 2020 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895020

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes a hyperactivation of immune cells, resulting in lung inflammation. Recent studies showed that COVID-19 induces the production of factors previously implicated in the reawakening of dormant breast cancer cells such as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The presence of NETs and of a pro-inflammatory microenvironment may therefore promote breast cancer reactivation, increasing the risk of pulmonary metastasis. Further studies will be required to confirm the link between COVID-19 and cancer recurrence. However, an increased awareness on the potential risks for breast cancer patients with COVID-19 may lead to improved treatment strategies to prevent metastatic relapse.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/immunology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/immunology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Female , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Microenvironment/immunology
19.
J Med Radiat Sci ; 67(4): 352-355, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833893

ABSTRACT

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia forced a temporary closure of BreastScreen Australia services. Now reopened, the BreastScreen experience has been redefined for both staff and clients and the journey to the 'new BreastScreen normal' is continually evolving in response to the ongoing threat of COVID-19 and government directives on health policy. Many changes mirror those undertaken in the wider community and emphasise wellness to attend, hygiene and social distancing. Importantly, radiographers have been identified as having a high-risk role and have had to modify positioning techniques and cleaning regimes accordingly. Beyond the pandemic, the 'new normal' needs to be one which enables well women to continue screening with a visible sense of reassurance that all that can be done is being done to ensure the safe and continued early detection of breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Mammography/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Australia/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans
20.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 171, 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733038

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has challenged hard the national health systems worldwide. According to the national policy issued in March 2020 in response to the evolving Covid-19 pandemic, several hospitals were re-configured as Covid-19 centers and elective surgery procedures were rescheduled according to the most recent recommendations. In addition, Covid-19 protected cancer hubs were established, including the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute of Rome, Central Italy. At our Institute, the Breast Surgery Department continued working under the sign of a multidisciplinary approach. The number of professional figures involved in case evaluation was reduced to a minimum and interactions took place in the full respect of the required safety measures. Treatments for benign disease, pure prophylactic surgery and elective reconstructive procedures were all postponed and priority was assigned to the histologically-proven malignant breast tumors and highly suspicious lesions. From March 15th though April 30th 2020, we treated a total of 79 patients. This number is fully consistent with the average quantitative standards reached by our Department under ordinary circumstances. Patients were mostly discharged the day after surgery and none was readmitted due to surgery-related late complications. More generally, post-operative complications rates were unexpectedly low, particularly in light of the relatively high number of reconstructive procedures performed in this emergency situation. A strict follow up was performed based on the close contact with the surgical staff by telephone, messaging apps and telemedicine.Patients ascertainment for their Covid-19 status prior to hospital admission and hospital discharge allowed to maintain the "no-Covid-19" status at our Institution. In addition, during the aforementioned time window, none of the care providers developed SARS-CoV-2 infection or disease, as shown by the results of anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M and G profiling. In conclusions, elective breast cancer surgery procedures were successfully performed in a lockdown situation due to a novel viral pandemic. The well-coordinated regional and hospital efforts in terms of medical resource re-allocation and definition of clinical priorities allowed to maintain high quality standards of breast cancer care while ensuring safety to the cancer patients and care providers involved.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/surgery , Carcinoma, Lobular/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Mastectomy/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/virology , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/virology , Carcinoma, Lobular/pathology , Carcinoma, Lobular/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Receptor, ErbB-2/metabolism , Receptors, Estrogen/metabolism , Receptors, Progesterone/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
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