Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(6): 1474-1484, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878213

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed increased demands on the ability to safely perform pulmonary procedures in keeping with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommendations. Accordingly, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) Asthma Diagnosis and Treatment convened this work group to offer guidance. The work group is composed of specialist practitioners from academic and both large and small practices. Individuals with special expertise were assigned sections on spirometry, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, nebulized treatments, and methacholine challenge. The work group met periodically to achieve consensus. This resulting document has recommendations for the allergy/asthma/immunology health care setting based on available evidence including reference documents from the CDC, ATS, and OSHA.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/therapy , Breath Tests/methods , Exhalation , Humans , Nitric Oxide , Pandemics/prevention & control , Spirometry
2.
Artif Intell Med ; 129: 102323, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850671

ABSTRACT

Breath pattern analysis based on an electronic nose (e-nose), which is a noninvasive, fast, and low-cost method, has been continuously used for detecting human diseases, including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nevertheless, having big data with several available features is not always beneficial because only a few of them will be relevant and useful to distinguish different breath samples (i.e., positive and negative COVID-19 samples). In this study, we develop a hybrid machine learning-based algorithm combining hierarchical agglomerative clustering analysis and permutation feature importance method to improve the data analysis of a portable e-nose for COVID-19 detection (GeNose C19). Utilizing this learning approach, we can obtain an effective and optimum feature combination, enabling the reduction by half of the number of employed sensors without downgrading the classification model performance. Based on the cross-validation test results on the training data, the hybrid algorithm can result in accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity values of (86 ± 3)%, (88 ± 6)%, and (84 ± 6)%, respectively. Meanwhile, for the testing data, a value of 87% is obtained for all the three metrics. These results exhibit the feasibility of using this hybrid filter-wrapper feature-selection method to pave the way for optimizing the GeNose C19 performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nose , Breath Tests/methods , Cluster Analysis , Humans , Machine Learning
3.
J Breath Res ; 16(3)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830923

ABSTRACT

Exhaled breath vapor contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are the byproducts of health and disease metabolism, and they have clinical and diagnostic potential. Simultaneous collection of breath VOCs and background environmental VOCs is important to ensure analyses eliminate exogenous compounds from clinical studies. We present a mobile sampling system to extract gaseous VOCs onto commercially available sorbent-packed thermal desorption tubes. The sampler can be connected to a number of commonly available disposable and reusable sampling bags, in the case of this study, a Tedlar bag containing a breath sample. Alternatively, the inlet can be left open to directly sample room or environmental air when obtaining a background VOC sample. The system contains a screen for the operator to input a desired sample volume. A needle valve allows the operator to control the sample flow rate, which operates with an accuracy of -1.52 ± 0.63% of the desired rate, and consistently generated that rate with 0.12 ± 0.06% error across repeated measures. A flow pump, flow sensor and microcontroller allow volumetric sampling, as opposed to timed sampling, with 0.06 ± 0.06% accuracy in the volume extracted. Four samplers were compared by sampling a standard chemical mixture, which resulted in 6.4 ± 4.7% error across all four replicate modular samplers to extract a given VOC. The samplers were deployed in a clinical setting to collect breath and background/environmental samples, including patients with active SARS-CoV-2 infections, and the device could easily move between rooms and can undergo required disinfection protocols to prevent transmission of pathogens on the case exterior. All components required for assembly are detailed and are made publicly available for non-commercial use, including the microcontroller software. We demonstrate the device collects volatile compounds, including use of chemical standards, and background and breath samples in real use conditions.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests , Environmental Monitoring , Volatile Organic Compounds , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Exhalation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
5.
J Breath Res ; 16(3)2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806207

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 detection currently relies on testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or antigen testing. However, SARS-CoV-2 is expected to cause significant metabolic changes in infected subjects due to both metabolic requirements for rapid viral replication and host immune responses. Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from human breath can detect these metabolic changes and is therefore an alternative to RT-PCR or antigen assays. To identify VOC biomarkers of COVID-19, exhaled breath samples were collected from two sample groups into Tedlar bags: negative COVID-19 (n= 12) and positive COVID-19 symptomatic (n= 14). Next, VOCs were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Subjects with COVID-19 displayed a larger number of VOCs as well as overall higher total concentration of VOCs (p< 0.05). Univariate analyses of qualified endogenous VOCs showed approximately 18% of the VOCs were significantly differentially expressed between the two classes (p< 0.05), with most VOCs upregulated. Machine learning multivariate classification algorithms distinguished COVID-19 subjects with over 95% accuracy. The COVID-19 positive subjects could be differentiated into two distinct subgroups by machine learning classification, but these did not correspond with significant differences in number of symptoms. Next, samples were collected from subjects who had previously donated breath bags while experiencing COVID-19, and subsequently recovered (COVID Recovered subjects (n= 11)). Univariate and multivariate results showed >90% accuracy at identifying these new samples as Control (COVID-19 negative), thereby validating the classification model and demonstrating VOCs dysregulated by COVID are restored to baseline levels upon recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Volatile Organic Compounds , Breath Tests/methods , Exhalation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
6.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(12): 3617-3624, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750681

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to have reliable technologies to diagnose post-coronavirus disease syndrome (PCS), as the number of people affected by COVID-19 and related complications is increasing worldwide. Considering the amount of risks associated with the two chronic lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is an immediate requirement for a screening method for PCS, which also produce symptoms similar to these conditions, especially since very often, many COVID-19 cases remain undetected because a good share of such patients is asymptomatic. Breath analysis techniques are getting attention since they are highly non-invasive methods for disease diagnosis, can be implemented easily for point-of-care applications even in primary health care centres. Electronic (E-) nose technology is coming up with better reliability, ease of operation, and affordability to all, and it can generate signatures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath as markers of diseases. The present report is an outcome of a pilot study using an E-nose device on breath samples of cohorts of PCS, asthma, and normal (control) subjects. Match/no-match and k-NN analysis tests have been carried out to confirm the diagnosis of PCS. The prediction model has given 100% sensitivity and specificity. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) has been plotted for the prediction model, and the area under the curve (AUC) is obtained as 1. The E-nose technique is found to be working well for PCS diagnosis. Our study suggests that the breath analysis using E-nose can be used as a point-of-care diagnosis of PCS.Trial registrationBreath samples were collected from the Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (IEC 60/2021, 13/01/2021) and Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) (CTRI/2021/02/031357, 06/02/2021) Government of India; trials were prospectively registered.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Volatile Organic Compounds , Asthma/diagnosis , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electronic Nose , Exhalation , Humans , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results , Technology , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
7.
J Breath Res ; 16(2)2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722148

ABSTRACT

In 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged to cause high viral infectivity and severe respiratory illness in humans (COVID-19). Worldwide, limited pandemic mitigation strategies, including lack of diagnostic test availability, resulted in COVID-19 overrunning health systems and spreading throughout the global population. Currently, proximal respiratory tract (PRT) specimens such as nasopharyngeal swabs are used to diagnose COVID-19 because of their relative ease of collection and applicability in large scale screening. However, localization of SARS-CoV-2 in the distal respiratory tract (DRT) is associated with more severe infection and symptoms. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a sample matrix comprising aerosolized droplets originating from alveolar lining fluid that are further diluted in the DRT and then PRT and collected via condensation during tidal breathing. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in recent resurgence of interest in EBC collection as an alternative, non-invasive sampling method for the staging and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Herein, we review the potential utility of EBC collection for detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory infections. While much remains to be discovered in fundamental EBC physiology, pathogen-airway interactions, and optimal sampling protocols, EBC, combined with emerging detection methods, presents a promising non-invasive sample matrix for detection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Breath Tests/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e057271, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714416

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in the UK. The incidence of PC is increasing, with little or no improvement in overall survival and the best chance for long-term survival in patients with PC relies on early detection and surgical resection. In this study, we propose the use of a diagnostic algorithm that combines tests of pancreatic exocrine function (faecal elastase-1 (FE-1) test and the 13C-mixed triglyceride (13C-MTG) breath test) to identify patients with PC that urgently needs imaging studies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective pilot (proof of concept) study will be carried out on 25 patients with resectable PC, 10 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 25 healthy volunteers. This study will construct a predictive algorithm for PC, using two tests of pancreatic exocrine function, FE-1 test and the 13C-MTG breath test. Continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry in the 13C-MTG breath test will be used to analyse enriched 13CO2 in exhaled breath samples. The additional predictive benefit of other potential biomarkers of PC will also be considered. Potential biomarkers of PC showing abilities to discriminate between patients with PC from healthy subjects or patients with chronic pancreatitis will be selected by metabolomic analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the North of Scotland Research and Ethics Committee on 1 October 2020 (reference: 20/NS/0105, favourable opinion granted). The results will be disseminated in presentations at academic national/international conferences and publication in peer-review journals.


Subject(s)
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Biomarkers , Breath Tests/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/adverse effects , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency/diagnosis , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency/epidemiology , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency/etiology , Humans , Pancreatic Elastase , Pancreatic Neoplasms/complications , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pancreatitis, Chronic/complications , Pancreatitis, Chronic/diagnosis , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Triglycerides
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257644, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may present with a variety of clinical syndromes, however, the upper airway and the lower respiratory tract are the principle sites of infection. Previous work on respiratory viral infections demonstrated that airway inflammation results in the release of volatile organic compounds as well as nitric oxide. The detection of these gases from patients' exhaled breath offers a novel potential diagnostic target for COVID-19 that would offer real-time screening of patients for COVID-19 infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present here a breath tester utilizing a catalytically active material, which allows for the temporal manifestation of the gaseous biomarkers' interactions with the sensor, thus giving a distinct breath print of the disease. A total of 46 Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients on mechanical ventilation participated in the study, 23 with active COVID-19 respiratory infection and 23 non-COVID-19 controls. Exhaled breath bags were collected on ICU days 1, 3, 7, and 10 or until liberation from mechanical ventilation. The breathalyzer detected high exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration with a distinctive pattern for patients with active COVID-19 pneumonia. The COVID-19 "breath print" has the pattern of the small Greek letter omega (). The "breath print" identified patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with 88% accuracy upon their admission to the ICU. Furthermore, the sensitivity index of the breath print (which scales with the concentration of the key biomarker ammonia) appears to correlate with duration of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The implication of this breath tester technology for the rapid screening for COVID-19 and potentially detection of other infectious diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Aged , Biomarkers , Breath Tests/methods , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
10.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 102(2): 115589, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487685

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a major problem with an increasing incidence and mortality. The discovery of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) based on breath analysis offers a reliable, rapid, and affordable screening method. This study examined VOC-based breath analysis diagnostic performance for SARS-COV-2 infection compared to RT-PCR. A systematic review was conducted in 8 scientific databases based on the PRISMA guideline. Original English studies evaluating human breaths for COVID-19 screening and mentioning sensitivity and specificity value compared to RT-PCR were included. Six studies were included with a total of 4093 samples from various settings. VOCs-based breath analysis had the cumulative sensitivity of 98.2% (97.5% CI 93.1%-99.6%) and specificity of 74.3% (97.5% CI 66.4%-80.9%). Subgroup analysis on chemical analysis (GC-MS) and pattern recognition (eNose) revealed higher sensitivity in the eNose group. VOC-based breath analysis shows high sensitivity and promising specificity for COVID-19 public screening.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Electronic Nose , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
J Mass Spectrom ; 56(10): e4782, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410026

ABSTRACT

The human respiratory system is a highly complex matrix that exhales many volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Breath-exhaled VOCs are often "unknowns" and possess low concentrations, which make their analysis, peak digging and data processing challenging. We report a new methodology, applied in a proof-of-concept experiment, for the detection of VOCs in breath. For this purpose, we developed and compared four complementary analysis methods based on solid-phase microextraction and thermal desorption (TD) tubes with two GC-mass spectrometer (MS) methods. Using eight model compounds, we obtained an LOD range of 0.02-20 ng/ml. We found that in breath analysis, sampling the exhausted air from Tedlar bags is better when TD tubes are used, not only because of the preconcentration but also due to the stability of analytes in the TD tubes. Data processing (peak picking) was based on two data retrieval approaches with an in-house script written for comparison and differentiation between two populations: sick and healthy. We found it best to use "raw" AMDIS deconvolution data (.ELU) rather than its NIST (.FIN) identification data for comparison between samples. A successful demonstration of this method was conducted in a pilot study (n = 21) that took place in a closed hospital ward (Covid-19 ward) with the discovery of four potential markers. These preliminary findings, at the molecular level, demonstrate the capabilities of our method and can be applied in larger and more comprehensive experiments in the omics world.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Software , Solid Phase Microextraction/methods
12.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(11): 828-831, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406806

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Controversial data have been published regarding the prognostic role of cardiac troponins in patients who need hospitalization because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the study was to assess the role of high-sensitivity troponin plasma levels and of respiratory function at admission on all-cause deaths in unselected patients hospitalized because of COVID-19. METHODS: We pooled individual patient data from observational studies that assessed all-cause mortality of unselected patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The individual data of 722 patients were included. The ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) and high-sensitivity troponins was reported at admission in all patients. This meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020213209). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 14 days, 180 deaths were observed. At multivariable regression analysis, age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.083, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.061-1.105, P < 0.0001], male sex (HR 2.049, 95% CI 1.319-3.184, P = 0.0014), moderate-severe renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate  < 30 mL/min/m2) (HR 2.108, 95% CI 1.237-3.594, P = 0.0061) and lower PaO2/FiO2 (HR 0.901, 95% CI 0.829-0.978, P = 0.0133) were the independent predictors of death. A linear increase in the HR was associated with decreasing values of PaO2/FiO2 below the normality threshold. On the contrary, the HR curve for troponin plasma levels was near-flat with large CI for values above the normality thresholds. CONCLUSION: In unselected patients hospitalized for COVID-19, mortality is mainly driven by male gender, older age and respiratory failure. Elevated plasma levels of high-sensitivity troponins are not an independent predictor of worse survival when respiratory function is accounted for.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygen/analysis , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Troponin/blood , Age Factors , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(35): 41445-41453, 2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371587

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission of exhaled virus can rapidly spread, thereby increasing disease progression from local incidents to pandemics. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, states and local governments have enforced the use of protective masks in public and work areas to minimize the disease spread. Here, we have leveraged the function of protective face coverings toward COVID-19 diagnosis. We developed a user-friendly, affordable, and wearable collector. This noninvasive platform is integrated into protective masks toward collecting airborne virus in the exhaled breath over the wearing period. A viral sample was sprayed into the collector to model airborne dispersion, and then the enriched pathogen was extracted from the collector for further analytical evaluation. To validate this design, qualitative colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and antibody-based dot blot assays were performed to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2. We envision that this platform will facilitate sampling of current SARS-CoV-2 and is potentially broadly applicable to other airborne diseases for future emerging pandemics.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Masks , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Air Microbiology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Collodion/chemistry , Colorimetry/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Polycarboxylate Cement/chemistry , Porosity , Proof of Concept Study , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/analysis , Viral Proteins/immunology
15.
J Breath Res ; 15(3)2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262052

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of Sars-CoV-2 commencing early in 2020 had a dramatic impact on breath research, imposing abrupt restrictions but also presenting unforeseen opportunities. Taking place against the background of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2020 Breath Biopsy Conference provided the breath research community with a platform to showcase and discuss the latest findings, including COVID-19 related research. As with most conferences under the present circumstance, it differed from its predecessor meetings by shifting to a virtual format, but retained its broad scope and interactive nature. The conference centred on four key themes, featuring applications of volatile organic compounds, breath biomarkers for liver disease, study design and data analytics, and, notably this year, breath-based endeavours to detect COVID-19 infection. This meeting report summarizes the events of the conference and spotlights selected contributions.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Breath Tests/methods , Biomarkers/analysis , Biopsy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Lipid Peroxidation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7185, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160573

ABSTRACT

The presence of ammonia within the body has long been linked to complications stemming from the liver, kidneys, and stomach. These complications can be the result of serious conditions such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), peptic ulcers, and recently COVID-19. Limited liver and kidney function leads to increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) within the body resulting in elevated levels of ammonia in the mouth, nose, and skin. Similarly, peptic ulcers, commonly from H. pylori, result in ammonia production from urea within the stomach. The presence of these biomarkers enables a potential screening protocol to be considered for frequent, non-invasive monitoring of these conditions. Unfortunately, detection of ammonia in these mediums is rather challenging due to relatively small concentrations and an abundance of interferents. Currently, there are no options available for non-invasive screening of these conditions continuously and in real-time. Here we demonstrate the selective detection of ammonia using a vapor phase thermodynamic sensing platform capable of being employed as part of a health screening protocol. The results show that our detection system has the remarkable ability to selectively detect trace levels of ammonia in the vapor phase using a single catalyst. Additionally, detection was demonstrated in the presence of interferents such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and acetone common in human breath. These results show that our thermodynamic sensors are well suited to selectively detect ammonia at levels that could potentially be useful for health screening applications.


Subject(s)
Ammonia/analysis , Biomarkers/analysis , Breath Tests/instrumentation , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19 , Carbon Dioxide , Equipment Design , Humans , Humidity , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Temperature , Thermodynamics
17.
J Breath Res ; 15(3)2021 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145137

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly transmissible respiratory illness that has rapidly spread all over the world causing more than 115 million cases and 2.5 million deaths. Most epidemiological projections estimate that the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus causing the infection will circulate in the next few years and raise enormous economic and social issues. COVID-19 has a dramatic impact on health care systems and patient management, and is delaying or stopping breath research activities due to the risk of infection to the operators following contact with patients, potentially infected samples or contaminated equipment. In this scenario, we investigated whether virus inactivation procedures, based on a thermal treatment (60 °C for 1 h) or storage of tubes at room temperature for 72 h, could be used to allow the routine breath analysis workflow to carry on with an optimal level of safety during the pandemic. Tests were carried out using dry and humid gaseous samples containing about 100 representative chemicals found in exhaled breath and ambient air. Samples were collected in commercially available sorbent tubes, i.e. Tenax GR and a combination of Tenax TA, Carbograph 1TD and Carboxen 1003. Our results showed that all compounds were stable at room temperature up to 72 h and that sample humidity was the key factor affecting the stability of the compounds upon thermal treatment. Tenax GR-based sorbent tubes were less impacted by the thermal treatment, showing variations in the range 20%-30% for most target analytes. A significant loss of aldehydes and sulphur compounds was observed using carbon molecular sieve-based tubes. In this case, a dry purge step before inactivation at 60 °C significantly reduced the loss of the target analytes, whose variations were comparable to the method variability. Finally, a breath analysis workflow including a SARS-CoV-2 inactivation treatment is proposed.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests/instrumentation , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Inactivation , Volatile Organic Compounds/chemistry , Breath Tests/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Specimen Handling/methods , Temperature , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
18.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246123, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasal High Flow (NHF) therapy delivers flows of heated humidified gases up to 60 LPM (litres per minute) via a nasal cannula. Particles of oral/nasal fluid released by patients undergoing NHF therapy may pose a cross-infection risk, which is a potential concern for treating COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Liquid particles within the exhaled breath of healthy participants were measured with two protocols: (1) high speed camera imaging and counting exhaled particles under high magnification (6 participants) and (2) measuring the deposition of a chemical marker (riboflavin-5-monophosphate) at a distance of 100 and 500 mm on filter papers through which air was drawn (10 participants). The filter papers were assayed with HPLC. Breathing conditions tested included quiet (resting) breathing and vigorous breathing (which here means nasal snorting, voluntary coughing and voluntary sneezing). Unsupported (natural) breathing and NHF at 30 and 60 LPM were compared. RESULTS: Imaging: During quiet breathing, no particles were recorded with unsupported breathing or 30 LPM NHF (detection limit for single particles 33 µm). Particles were detected from 2 of 6 participants at 60 LPM quiet breathing at approximately 10% of the rate caused by unsupported vigorous breathing. Unsupported vigorous breathing released the greatest numbers of particles. Vigorous breathing with NHF at 60 LPM, released half the number of particles compared to vigorous breathing without NHF.Chemical marker tests: No oral/nasal fluid was detected in quiet breathing without NHF (detection limit 0.28 µL/m3). In quiet breathing with NHF at 60 LPM, small quantities were detected in 4 out of 29 quiet breathing tests, not exceeding 17 µL/m3. Vigorous breathing released 200-1000 times more fluid than the quiet breathing with NHF. The quantities detected in vigorous breathing were similar whether using NHF or not. CONCLUSION: During quiet breathing, 60 LPM NHF therapy may cause oral/nasal fluid to be released as particles, at levels of tens of µL per cubic metre of air. Vigorous breathing (snort, cough or sneeze) releases 200 to 1000 times more oral/nasal fluid than quiet breathing (p < 0.001 with both imaging and chemical marker methods). During vigorous breathing, 60 LPM NHF therapy caused no statistically significant difference in the quantity of oral/nasal fluid released compared to unsupported breathing. NHF use does not increase the risk of dispersing infectious aerosols above the risk of unsupported vigorous breathing. Standard infection prevention and control measures should apply when dealing with a patient who has an acute respiratory infection, independent of which, if any, respiratory support is being used. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12614000924651.


Subject(s)
Exhalation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Adult , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Female , Humans , Male , Microscopy, Video , Nose/chemistry , Respiration , Respiratory Rate
19.
Thorax ; 76(1): 86-88, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066942

ABSTRACT

False negatives from nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in SARS-CoV-2 are high. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) contains lower respiratory droplets that may improve detection. We performed EBC RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 genes (E, S, N, ORF1ab) on NPS-positive (n=16) and NPS-negative/clinically positive COVID-19 patients (n=15) using two commercial assays. EBC detected SARS-CoV-2 in 93.5% (29/31) using the four genes. Pre-SARS-CoV-2 era controls (n=14) were negative. EBC was positive in NPS negative/clinically positive patients in 66.6% (10/15) using the identical E and S (E/S) gene assay used for NPS, 73.3% (11/15) using the N/ORF1ab assay and 14/15 (93.3%) combined.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Exhalation , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL