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1.
J Clin Invest ; 132(4)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705312

ABSTRACT

Many SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) lose potency against variants of concern. In this study, we developed 2 strategies to produce mutation-resistant antibodies. First, a yeast library expressing mutant receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the spike protein was utilized to screen for potent nAbs that are least susceptible to viral escape. Among the candidate antibodies, P5-22 displayed ultrahigh potency for virus neutralization as well as an outstanding mutation resistance profile. Additionally, P14-44 and P15-16 were recognized as mutation-resistant antibodies with broad betacoronavirus neutralization properties. P15-16 has only 1 binding hotspot, which is K378 in the RBD of SARS-CoV-2. The crystal structure of the P5-22, P14-44, and RBD ternary complex clarified the unique mechanisms that underlie the excellent mutation resistance profiles of these antibodies. Secondly, polymeric IgG enhanced antibody avidity by eliminating P5-22's only hotspot, residue F486 in the RBD, thereby potently blocking cell entry by mutant viruses. Structural and functional analyses of antibodies screened using both potency assays and the yeast RBD library revealed rare, ultrapotent, mutation-resistant nAbs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibody Affinity , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cloning, Molecular , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
mBio ; 12(6): e0297521, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518123

ABSTRACT

Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have arisen that exhibit increased viral transmissibility and partial evasion of immunity induced by natural infection and vaccination. To address the specific antibody targets that were affected by recent viral variants, we generated 43 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from 10 convalescent donors that bound three distinct domains of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Viral variants harboring mutations at K417, E484, and N501 could escape most of the highly potent antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD). Despite this, we identified 12 neutralizing mAbs against three distinct regions of the spike protein that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern (VOCs), including B.1.1.7 (alpha), P.1 (gamma), and B.1.617.2 (delta). Notably, antibodies targeting distinct epitopes could neutralize discrete variants, suggesting that different variants may have evolved to disrupt the binding of particular neutralizing antibody classes. These results underscore that humans exposed to the first pandemic wave of prototype SARS-CoV-2 possess neutralizing antibodies against current variants and that it is critical to induce antibodies targeting multiple distinct epitopes of the spike that can neutralize emerging variants of concern. IMPORTANCE We describe the binding and neutralization properties of a new set of human monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells of 10 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent donors in the first pandemic wave of prototype SARS-CoV-2. There were 12 antibodies targeting distinct epitopes on spike, including two sites on the RBD and one on the N-terminal domain (NTD), that displayed cross-neutralization of VOCs, for which distinct antibody targets could neutralize discrete variants. This work underlines that natural infection by SARS-CoV-2 induces effective cross-neutralization against only some VOCs and supports the need for COVID-19 vaccination for robust induction of neutralizing antibodies targeting multiple epitopes of the spike protein to combat the current SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and any others that might emerge in the future.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Convalescence , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 752003, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468344

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have become a major concern in the containment of current pandemic. The variants, including B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P1 (Gamma) and B.1.617.2 (Delta) have shown reduced sensitivity to monoclonal antibodies, plasma and/or sera obtained from convalescent patients and vaccinated individuals. Development of potent therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with broad neutralizing breadth have become a priority for alleviating the devastating effects of this pandemic. Here, we review some of the most promising broadly neutralizing antibodies obtained from plasma of patients that recovered from early variants of SARS-CoV-2 that may be effective against emerging new variants of the virus. This review summarizes several mAbs, that have been discovered to cross-neutralize across Sarbecoviruses and SARS-CoV-2 escape mutants. Understanding the characteristics that confer this broad and cross-neutralization functions of these mAbs would inform on the development of therapeutic antibodies and guide the discovery of second-generation vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Specificity , Binding Sites, Antibody , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
N Engl J Med ; 385(15): 1401-1406, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361670

ABSTRACT

Emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern pose a challenge to the effectiveness of current vaccines. A vaccine that could prevent infection caused by known and future variants of concern as well as infection with pre-emergent sarbecoviruses (i.e., those with potential to cause disease in humans in the future) would be ideal. Here we provide data showing that potent cross-clade pan-sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies are induced in survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) infection who have been immunized with the BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. The antibodies are high-level and broad-spectrum, capable of neutralizing not only known variants of concern but also sarbecoviruses that have been identified in bats and pangolins and that have the potential to cause human infection. These findings show the feasibility of a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine strategy. (Funded by the Singapore National Research Foundation and National Medical Research Council.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , B-Lymphocytes , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Phylogeny , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Survivors
5.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348697

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh identified human coronavirus. Understanding the extent of pre-existing immunity induced by seropositivity to endemic seasonal coronaviruses and the impact of cross-reactivity on COVID-19 disease progression remains a key research question in immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and the immunopathology of COVID-2019 disease. This paper describes a panel of lentiviral pseudotypes bearing the spike (S) proteins for each of the seven human coronaviruses (HCoVs), generated under similar conditions optimized for high titre production allowing a high-throughput investigation of antibody neutralization breadth. Optimal production conditions and most readily available permissive target cell lines were determined for spike-mediated entry by each HCoV pseudotype: SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 best transduced HEK293T/17 cells transfected with ACE2 and TMPRSS2, HCoV-229E and MERS-CoV preferentially entered HUH7 cells, and CHO cells were most permissive for the seasonal betacoronavirus HCoV-HKU1. Entry of ACE2 using pseudotypes was enhanced by ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in target cells, whilst TMPRSS2 transfection rendered HEK293T/17 cells permissive for HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43 entry. Additionally, pseudotype viruses were produced bearing additional coronavirus surface proteins, including the SARS-CoV-2 Envelope (E) and Membrane (M) proteins and HCoV-OC43/HCoV-HKU1 Haemagglutinin-Esterase (HE) proteins. This panel of lentiviral pseudotypes provides a safe, rapidly quantifiable and high-throughput tool for serological comparison of pan-coronavirus neutralizing responses; this can be used to elucidate antibody dynamics against individual coronaviruses and the effects of antibody cross-reactivity on clinical outcome following natural infection or vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , Cell Line , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/immunology , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Lentivirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Neutralization Tests , Plasmids , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transfection , Virus Internalization
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3991, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286457

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2 has been circulating for over a year, dozens of vaccine candidates are under development or in clinical use. The BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine induces spike protein-specific neutralizing antibodies associated with protective immunity. The emergence of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants has raised concerns of reduced vaccine efficacy and increased re-infection rates. Here we show, that after the second dose, the sera of BNT162b2-vaccinated health care workers (n = 180) effectively neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 variant with the D614G substitution and the B.1.1.7 variant, whereas the neutralization of the B.1.351 variant is five-fold reduced. Despite the reduction, 92% of the seronegative vaccinees have a neutralization titre of >20 for the B.1.351 variant indicating some protection. The vaccinees' neutralization titres exceeded those of recovered non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our work provides evidence that the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine induces cross-neutralization of at least some of the circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross Protection/immunology , Female , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/statistics & numerical data , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/prevention & control , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1284-1292, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268056

ABSTRACT

The circulation of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs). It is currently unclear whether the previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 provides protection against reinfection with VOCs. Here, we show that low dose aerosol exposure to hCoV-19/human/USA/WA-CDC-WA1/2020 (WA1, lineage A), resulted in a productive mild infection. In contrast, a low dose of SARS-CoV-2 via fomites did not result in productive infection in the majority of exposed hamsters and these animals remained non-seroconverted. After recovery, hamsters were re-exposed to hCoV-19/South African/KRISP-K005325/2020 (VOC B.1.351) via an intranasal challenge. Seroconverted rechallenged animals did not lose weight and shed virus for three days. They had a little infectious virus and no pathology in the lungs. In contrast, shedding, weight loss and extensive pulmonary pathology caused by B.1.351 replication were observed in the non-seroconverted animals. The rechallenged seroconverted animals did not transmit the virus to naïve sentinels via direct contact transmission, in contrast to the non-seroconverted animals. Reinfection with B.1.351 triggered an anamnestic response that boosted not only neutralizing titres against lineage A, but also titres against B.1.351. Our results confirm that aerosol exposure is a more efficient infection route than fomite exposure. Furthermore, initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 lineage A does not prevent heterologous reinfection with B.1.351 but prevents disease and onward transmission. These data suggest that previous SARS-CoV-2 exposure induces partial protective immunity. The reinfection generated a broadly neutralizing humoral response capable of effectively neutralizing B.1.351 while maintaining its ability to neutralize the virus to which the initial response was directed against.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Fomites/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Severity of Illness Index , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Virus Replication
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