Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 52
Filter
1.
Science ; 377(6607): 728-735, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968212

ABSTRACT

The potential for future coronavirus outbreaks highlights the need to broadly target this group of pathogens. We used an epitope-agnostic approach to identify six monoclonal antibodies that bind to spike proteins from all seven human-infecting coronaviruses. All six antibodies target the conserved fusion peptide region adjacent to the S2' cleavage site. COV44-62 and COV44-79 broadly neutralize alpha- and betacoronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron subvariants BA.2 and BA.4/5, albeit with lower potency than receptor binding domain-specific antibodies. In crystal structures of COV44-62 and COV44-79 antigen-binding fragments with the SARS-CoV-2 fusion peptide, the fusion peptide epitope adopts a helical structure and includes the arginine residue at the S2' cleavage site. COV44-79 limited disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 in a Syrian hamster model. These findings highlight the fusion peptide as a candidate epitope for next-generation coronavirus vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19 , Epitopes , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Peptides/immunology , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
Science ; 377(6607): 735-742, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949931

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus spike glycoprotein attaches to host receptors and mediates viral fusion. Using a broad screening approach, we isolated seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to all human-infecting coronavirus spike proteins from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immune donors. These mAbs recognize the fusion peptide and acquire affinity and breadth through somatic mutations. Despite targeting a conserved motif, only some mAbs show broad neutralizing activity in vitro against alpha- and betacoronaviruses, including animal coronaviruses WIV-1 and PDF-2180. Two selected mAbs also neutralize Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 authentic viruses and reduce viral burden and pathology in vivo. Structural and functional analyses showed that the fusion peptide-specific mAbs bound with different modalities to a cryptic epitope hidden in prefusion stabilized spike, which became exposed upon binding of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) or ACE2-mimicking mAbs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Peptides/immunology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3589, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900488

ABSTRACT

The strikingly high transmissibility and antibody evasion of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants have posed great challenges to the efficacy of current vaccines and antibody immunotherapy. Here, we screen 34 BNT162b2-vaccinees and isolate a public broadly neutralizing antibody ZCB11 derived from the IGHV1-58 family. ZCB11 targets viral receptor-binding domain specifically and neutralizes all SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, especially with great potency against authentic Omicron and Delta variants. Pseudovirus-based mapping of 57 naturally occurred spike mutations or deletions reveals that S371L results in 11-fold neutralization resistance, but it is rescued by compensating mutations in Omicron variants. Cryo-EM analysis demonstrates that ZCB11 heavy chain predominantly interacts with Omicron spike trimer with receptor-binding domain in up conformation blocking ACE2 binding. In addition, prophylactic or therapeutic ZCB11 administration protects lung infection against Omicron viral challenge in golden Syrian hamsters. These results suggest that vaccine-induced ZCB11 is a promising broadly neutralizing antibody for biomedical interventions against pandemic SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
Nature ; 606(7913): 375-381, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890198

ABSTRACT

Antiretroviral therapy is highly effective in suppressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)1. However, eradication of the virus in individuals with HIV has not been possible to date2. Given that HIV suppression requires life-long antiretroviral therapy, predominantly on a daily basis, there is a need to develop clinically effective alternatives that use long-acting antiviral agents to inhibit viral replication3. Here we report the results of a two-component clinical trial involving the passive transfer of two HIV-specific broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, 3BNC117 and 10-1074. The first component was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled participants who initiated antiretroviral therapy during the acute/early phase of HIV infection. The second component was an open-label single-arm trial that enrolled individuals with viraemic control who were naive to antiretroviral therapy. Up to 8 infusions of 3BNC117 and 10-1074, administered over a period of 24 weeks, were well tolerated without any serious adverse events related to the infusions. Compared with the placebo, the combination broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies maintained complete suppression of plasma viraemia (for up to 43 weeks) after analytical treatment interruption, provided that no antibody-resistant HIV was detected at the baseline in the study participants. Similarly, potent HIV suppression was seen in the antiretroviral-therapy-naive study participants with viraemia carrying sensitive virus at the baseline. Our data demonstrate that combination therapy with broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies can provide long-term virological suppression without antiretroviral therapy in individuals with HIV, and our experience offers guidance for future clinical trials involving next-generation antibodies with long half-lives.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Antibodies, Neutralizing , HIV Antibodies , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Anti-HIV Agents/immunology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/administration & dosage , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/adverse effects , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , HIV Antibodies/administration & dosage , HIV Antibodies/adverse effects , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV Antibodies/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/immunology , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Humans , Viral Load/drug effects , Viremia/drug therapy , Viremia/immunology , Viremia/virology
5.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2047144, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740685

ABSTRACT

There remains an unmet need for globally deployable, low-cost therapeutics for the ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Previously, we reported on the isolation and in vitro characterization of a potent single-domain nanobody, NIH-CoVnb-112, specific for the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report on the molecular basis for the observed broad in vitro neutralization capability of NIH-CoVnb-112 against variant SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses. The structure of NIH-CoVnb-112 bound to SARS-CoV-2 RBD reveals a large contact surface area overlapping the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding site, which is largely unencumbered by the common RBD mutations. In an in vivo pilot study, we demonstrate effective reductions in weight loss, viral burden, and lung pathology in a Syrian hamster model of COVID-19 following nebulized delivery of NIH-CoVnb-112. These findings support the further development of NIH-CoVnb-112 as a potential adjunct preventative therapeutic for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.Abbreviations: ACE2 - angiotensin converting enzyme 2BSA - buried surface areaCDR - complementary determining regionRBD - receptor binding domainRBM - receptor-binding motifSARS-CoV-2 - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Single-Domain Antibodies/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mesocricetus , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Protein Binding , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3954, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740473

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) results in a variety of clinical symptoms ranging from no or mild to severe disease. Currently, there are multiple postulated mechanisms that may push a moderate to severe disease into a critical state. Human serum contains abundant evidence of the immune status following infection. Cytokines, chemokines, and antibodies can be assayed to determine the extent to which a patient responded to a pathogen. We examined serum and plasma from a cohort of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 early in the pandemic and compared them to negative-control sera. Cytokine and chemokine concentrations varied depending on the severity of infection, and antibody responses were significantly increased in severe cases compared to mild to moderate infections. Neutralization data revealed that patients with high titers against an early 2020 SARS-CoV-2 isolate had detectable but limited neutralizing antibodies against the emerging SARS-CoV-2 Alpha, Beta and Delta variants. This study highlights the potential of re-infection for recovered COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Young Adult
7.
Science ; 375(6579): 449-454, 2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723472

ABSTRACT

Understanding broadly neutralizing sarbecovirus antibody responses is key to developing countermeasures against SARS-CoV-2 variants and future zoonotic sarbecoviruses. We describe the isolation and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody, designated S2K146, that broadly neutralizes viruses belonging to SARS-CoV- and SARS-CoV-2-related sarbecovirus clades which use ACE2 as an entry receptor. Structural and functional studies show that most of the virus residues that directly bind S2K146 are also involved in binding to ACE2. This allows the antibody to potently inhibit receptor attachment. S2K146 protects against SARS-CoV-2 Beta challenge in hamsters and viral passaging experiments reveal a high barrier for emergence of escape mutants, making it a good candidate for clinical development. The conserved ACE2-binding residues present a site of vulnerability that might be leveraged for developing vaccines eliciting broad sarbecovirus immunity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/chemistry , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mesocricetus , Models, Molecular , Molecular Mimicry , Mutation , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/chemistry , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(11): e2122954119, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721790

ABSTRACT

SignificanceSARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve through emerging variants, more frequently observed with higher transmissibility. Despite the wide application of vaccines and antibodies, the selection pressure on the Spike protein may lead to further evolution of variants that include mutations that can evade immune response. To catch up with the virus's evolution, we introduced a deep learning approach to redesign the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) to target multiple virus variants and obtained an antibody that broadly neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Complementarity Determining Regions , Deep Learning , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Neutralization Tests/methods , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
J Clin Invest ; 132(4)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705312

ABSTRACT

Many SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) lose potency against variants of concern. In this study, we developed 2 strategies to produce mutation-resistant antibodies. First, a yeast library expressing mutant receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the spike protein was utilized to screen for potent nAbs that are least susceptible to viral escape. Among the candidate antibodies, P5-22 displayed ultrahigh potency for virus neutralization as well as an outstanding mutation resistance profile. Additionally, P14-44 and P15-16 were recognized as mutation-resistant antibodies with broad betacoronavirus neutralization properties. P15-16 has only 1 binding hotspot, which is K378 in the RBD of SARS-CoV-2. The crystal structure of the P5-22, P14-44, and RBD ternary complex clarified the unique mechanisms that underlie the excellent mutation resistance profiles of these antibodies. Secondly, polymeric IgG enhanced antibody avidity by eliminating P5-22's only hotspot, residue F486 in the RBD, thereby potently blocking cell entry by mutant viruses. Structural and functional analyses of antibodies screened using both potency assays and the yeast RBD library revealed rare, ultrapotent, mutation-resistant nAbs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibody Affinity , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cloning, Molecular , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 871, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692611

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant is currently the dominant circulating strain in the world. Uncovering the structural basis of the enhanced transmission and altered immune sensitivity of Delta is particularly important. Here we present cryo-EM structures revealing two conformational states of Delta spike and S/ACE2 complex in four states. Our cryo-EM analysis suggests that RBD destabilizations lead to population shift towards the more RBD-up and S1 destabilized fusion-prone state, beneficial for engagement with ACE2 and shedding of S1. Noteworthy, we find the Delta T478K substitution plays a vital role in stabilizing and reshaping the RBM loop473-490, enhancing interaction with ACE2. Collectively, increased propensity for more RBD-up states and the affinity-enhancing T478K substitution together contribute to increased ACE2 binding, providing structural basis of rapid spread of Delta. Moreover, we identify a previously generated MAb 8D3 as a cross-variant broadly neutralizing antibody and reveal that 8D3 binding induces a large K478 side-chain orientation change, suggesting 8D3 may use an "induced-fit" mechanism to tolerate Delta T478K mutation. We also find that all five RBD-targeting MAbs tested remain effective on Delta, suggesting that Delta well preserves the neutralizing antigenic landscape in RBD. Our findings shed new lights on the pathogenicity and antibody neutralization of Delta.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Protein Domains/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Protein Binding/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
Science ; 375(6583): 864-868, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650843

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant of concern evades antibody-mediated immunity that comes from vaccination or infection with earlier variants due to accumulation of numerous spike mutations. To understand the Omicron antigenic shift, we determined cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystal structures of the spike protein and the receptor-binding domain bound to the broadly neutralizing sarbecovirus monoclonal antibody (mAb) S309 (the parent mAb of sotrovimab) and to the human ACE2 receptor. We provide a blueprint for understanding the marked reduction of binding of other therapeutic mAbs that leads to dampened neutralizing activity. Remodeling of interactions between the Omicron receptor-binding domain and human ACE2 likely explains the enhanced affinity for the host receptor relative to the ancestral virus.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Immune Evasion , Receptors, Coronavirus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antigenic Drift and Shift , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/chemistry , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains/genetics , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(1): 69-82.e10, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638702

ABSTRACT

A fraction of COVID-19 convalescent individuals mount a potent antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 with cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV-1. To uncover their humoral response in detail, we performed single B cell analysis from 10 SARS-CoV-2 elite neutralizers. We isolated and analyzed 126 monoclonal antibodies, many of which were sarbecovirus cross-reactive, with some displaying merbecovirus- and embecovirus-reactivity. Several isolated broadly neutralizing antibodies were effective against B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.429, B.1.617, and B.1.617.2 variants and 19 prominent potential escape sites. Furthermore, assembly of 716,806 SARS-CoV-2 sequences predicted emerging escape variants, which were also effectively neutralized. One of these broadly neutralizing potent antibodies, R40-1G8, is a IGHV3-53 RBD-class-1 antibody. Remarkably, cryo-EM analysis revealed that R40-1G8 has a flexible binding mode, targeting both "up" and "down" conformations of the RBD. Given the threat of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, we demonstrate that elite neutralizers are a valuable source for isolating ultrapotent antibody candidates to prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
15.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2021601, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625321

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by SARS-CoV-2, remains an on-going pandemic, partly due to the emergence of variant viruses that can "break-through" the protection of the current vaccines and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), highlighting the needs for broadly nAbs and next-generation vaccines. We report an antibody that exhibits breadth and potency in binding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the virus spike glycoprotein across SARS coronaviruses. Initially, a lead antibody was computationally discovered and crystallographically validated that binds to a highly conserved surface of the RBD of wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Subsequently, through experimental affinity enhancement and computational affinity maturation, it was further developed to bind the RBD of all concerning SARS-CoV-2 variants, SARS-CoV-1 and pangolin coronavirus with pico-molar binding affinities, consistently exhibited strong neutralization activity against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the Alpha and Delta variants. These results identify a vulnerable target site on coronaviruses for development of pan-sarbecovirus nAbs and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Antibody Specificity , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/genetics , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fragments/immunology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Monte Carlo Method , Neutralization Tests , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Protein Domains , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
16.
Nature ; 602(7898): 664-670, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616991

ABSTRACT

The recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant encodes 37 amino acid substitutions in the spike protein, 15 of which are in the receptor-binding domain (RBD), thereby raising concerns about the effectiveness of available vaccines and antibody-based therapeutics. Here we show that the Omicron RBD binds to human ACE2 with enhanced affinity, relative to the Wuhan-Hu-1 RBD, and binds to mouse ACE2. Marked reductions in neutralizing activity were observed against Omicron compared to the ancestral pseudovirus in plasma from convalescent individuals and from individuals who had been vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, but this loss was less pronounced after a third dose of vaccine. Most monoclonal antibodies that are directed against the receptor-binding motif lost in vitro neutralizing activity against Omicron, with only 3 out of 29 monoclonal antibodies retaining unaltered potency, including the ACE2-mimicking S2K146 antibody1. Furthermore, a fraction of broadly neutralizing sarbecovirus monoclonal antibodies neutralized Omicron through recognition of antigenic sites outside the receptor-binding motif, including sotrovimab2, S2X2593 and S2H974. The magnitude of Omicron-mediated immune evasion marks a major antigenic shift in SARS-CoV-2. Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that recognize RBD epitopes that are conserved among SARS-CoV-2 variants and other sarbecoviruses may prove key to controlling the ongoing pandemic and future zoonotic spillovers.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigenic Drift and Shift/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigenic Drift and Shift/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Convalescence , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vesiculovirus/genetics
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 761250, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556220

ABSTRACT

Amino acid substitutions and deletions in the Spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants can reduce the effectiveness of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In contrast, heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against S protein, through the recognition of multiple target epitopes, have the potential to maintain neutralization capacities. XAV-19 is a swine glyco-humanized polyclonal neutralizing antibody raised against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Wuhan-Hu-1 Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. XAV-19 target epitopes were found distributed all over the RBD and particularly cover the receptor binding motives (RBMs), in direct contact sites with the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2). Therefore, in Spike/ACE-2 interaction assays, XAV-19 showed potent neutralization capacities of the original Wuhan Spike and of the United Kingdom (Alpha/B.1.1.7) and South African (Beta/B.1.351) variants. These results were confirmed by cytopathogenic assays using Vero E6 and live virus variants including the Brazil (Gamma/P.1) and the Indian (Delta/B.1.617.2) variants. In a selective pressure study on Vero E6 cells conducted over 1 month, no mutation was associated with the addition of increasing doses of XAV-19. The potential to reduce viral load in lungs was confirmed in a human ACE-2 transduced mouse model. XAV-19 is currently evaluated in patients hospitalized for COVID-19-induced moderate pneumonia in phase 2a-2b (NCT04453384) where safety was already demonstrated and in an ongoing 2/3 trial (NCT04928430) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of XAV-19 in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19. Owing to its polyclonal nature and its glyco-humanization, XAV-19 may provide a novel safe and effective therapeutic tool to mitigate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) including the different variants of concern identified so far.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Heterophile/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Heterophile/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antigenic Variation , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/drug effects , Lung/virology , Mice , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine , Viral Load/drug effects
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 147-157, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537457

ABSTRACT

The repeated emergence of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses as well as their evolving variants highlight the need to develop potent and broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. By screening monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from COVID-19-convalescent patients, we found one mAb, 2-36, with cross-neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV. We solved the cryo-EM structure of 2-36 in complex with SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV spike, revealing a highly conserved epitope in the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Antibody 2-36 neutralized not only all current circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and SARS-COV, but also a panel of bat and pangolin sarbecoviruses that can use human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor. We selected 2-36-escape viruses in vitro and confirmed that K378 T in SARS-CoV-2 RBD led to viral resistance. Taken together, 2-36 represents a strategic reserve drug candidate for the prevention and treatment of possible diseases caused by pre-emergent SARS-related coronaviruses. Its epitope defines a promising target for the development of a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Vero Cells
19.
Cell ; 184(25): 6037-6051.e14, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520752

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses generate defective viral genomes (DVGs) that can interfere with replication of the parental wild-type virus. To examine their therapeutic potential, we created a DVG by deleting the capsid-coding region of poliovirus. Strikingly, intraperitoneal or intranasal administration of this genome, which we termed eTIP1, elicits an antiviral response, inhibits replication, and protects mice from several RNA viruses, including enteroviruses, influenza, and SARS-CoV-2. While eTIP1 replication following intranasal administration is limited to the nasal cavity, its antiviral action extends non-cell-autonomously to the lungs. eTIP1 broad-spectrum antiviral effects are mediated by both local and distal type I interferon responses. Importantly, while a single eTIP1 dose protects animals from SARS-CoV-2 infection, it also stimulates production of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies that afford long-lasting protection from SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. Thus, eTIP1 is a safe and effective broad-spectrum antiviral generating short- and long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory infections in animal models.


Subject(s)
Capsid Proteins/genetics , Defective Interfering Viruses/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Cell Line , Defective Interfering Viruses/pathogenicity , Disease Models, Animal , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human , Interferons/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
mBio ; 12(6): e0297521, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518123

ABSTRACT

Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants have arisen that exhibit increased viral transmissibility and partial evasion of immunity induced by natural infection and vaccination. To address the specific antibody targets that were affected by recent viral variants, we generated 43 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from 10 convalescent donors that bound three distinct domains of the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Viral variants harboring mutations at K417, E484, and N501 could escape most of the highly potent antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD). Despite this, we identified 12 neutralizing mAbs against three distinct regions of the spike protein that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern (VOCs), including B.1.1.7 (alpha), P.1 (gamma), and B.1.617.2 (delta). Notably, antibodies targeting distinct epitopes could neutralize discrete variants, suggesting that different variants may have evolved to disrupt the binding of particular neutralizing antibody classes. These results underscore that humans exposed to the first pandemic wave of prototype SARS-CoV-2 possess neutralizing antibodies against current variants and that it is critical to induce antibodies targeting multiple distinct epitopes of the spike that can neutralize emerging variants of concern. IMPORTANCE We describe the binding and neutralization properties of a new set of human monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells of 10 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent donors in the first pandemic wave of prototype SARS-CoV-2. There were 12 antibodies targeting distinct epitopes on spike, including two sites on the RBD and one on the N-terminal domain (NTD), that displayed cross-neutralization of VOCs, for which distinct antibody targets could neutralize discrete variants. This work underlines that natural infection by SARS-CoV-2 induces effective cross-neutralization against only some VOCs and supports the need for COVID-19 vaccination for robust induction of neutralizing antibodies targeting multiple epitopes of the spike protein to combat the current SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and any others that might emerge in the future.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Convalescence , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL