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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 743890, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581344

ABSTRACT

Background: Both anti-viral and anti-inflammatory bronchial effects are warranted to treat viral infections in asthma. We sought to investigate if imiquimod, a TLR7 agonist, exhibits such dual actions in ex vivo cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), targets for SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Objective: To investigate bronchial epithelial effects of imiquimod of potential importance for anti-viral treatment in asthmatic patients. Methods: Effects of imiquimod alone were examined in HBECs from healthy (N=4) and asthmatic (N=18) donors. Mimicking SARS-CoV-2 infection, HBECs were stimulated with poly(I:C), a dsRNA analogue, or SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein 1 (SP1; receptor binding) with and without imiquimod treatment. Expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptor (ACE2), pro-inflammatory and anti-viral cytokines were analyzed by RT-qPCR, multiplex ELISA, western blot, and Nanostring and proteomic analyses. Results: Imiquimod reduced ACE2 expression at baseline and after poly(I:C) stimulation. Imiquimod also reduced poly(I:C)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-33. Furthermore, imiquimod increased IFN-ß expression, an effect potentiated in presence of poly(I:C) or SP1. Multiplex mRNA analysis verified enrichment in type-I IFN signaling concomitant with suppression of cytokine signaling pathways induced by imiquimod in presence of poly(I:C). Exploratory proteomic analyses revealed potentially protective effects of imiquimod on infections. Conclusion: Imiquimod triggers viral resistance mechanisms in HBECs by decreasing ACE2 and increasing IFN-ß expression. Additionally, imiquimod improves viral infection tolerance by reducing viral stimulus-induced epithelial cytokines involved in severe COVID-19 infection. Our imiquimod data highlight feasibility of producing pluripotent drugs potentially suited for anti-viral treatment in asthmatic subjects.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Asthma , COVID-19 , Imiquimod/pharmacology , Interferon-beta/drug effects , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Bronchi/drug effects , Bronchi/immunology , Bronchi/virology , Cells, Cultured , Female , Humans , Interferon-beta/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein mediates attachment of the virus to the host cell receptor and fusion between the virus and the cell membrane. The S1 subunit of the spike glycoprotein (S1 protein) contains the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor binding domain. The SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern contain mutations in the S1 subunit. The spike protein is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies generated following infection, and constitutes the viral component of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: Therefore, in this work we assessed the effect of exposure (24 h) to 10 nM SARS-CoV-2 recombinant S1 protein on physiologically relevant human bronchial (bro) and alveolar (alv) lung mucosa models cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI) (n = 6 per exposure condition). Corresponding sham exposed samples served as a control. The bro-ALI model was developed using primary bronchial epithelial cells and the alv-ALI model using representative type II pneumocytes (NCI-H441). RESULTS: Exposure to S1 protein induced the surface expression of ACE2, toll like receptor (TLR) 2, and TLR4 in both bro-ALI and alv-ALI models. Transcript expression analysis identified 117 (bro-ALI) and 97 (alv-ALI) differentially regulated genes (p ≤ 0.01). Pathway analysis revealed enrichment of canonical pathways such as interferon (IFN) signaling, influenza, coronavirus, and anti-viral response in the bro-ALI. Secreted levels of interleukin (IL) 4 and IL12 were significantly (p < 0.05) increased, whereas IL6 decreased in the bro-ALI. In the case of alv-ALI, enriched terms involving p53, APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) tight junction, integrin kinase, and IL1 signaling were identified. These terms are associated with lung fibrosis. Further, significantly (p < 0.05) increased levels of secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, IL1ꞵ, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL13, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were detected in alv-ALI, whereas IL12 was decreased. Altered levels of these cytokines are also associated with lung fibrotic response. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we observed a typical anti-viral response in the bronchial model and a pro-fibrotic response in the alveolar model. The bro-ALI and alv-ALI models may serve as an easy and robust platform for assessing the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern at different lung regions.


Subject(s)
Lung/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bronchi/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Models, Biological , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 265, 2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is responsible for the local immune response of the lung against airborne infections. The structure of this tissue varies according to species and age. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the possible age-related structural variation of the BALT of the one humped camel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fresh specimens from both lungs of 15 clinically healthy male camels (10 months-12 years) were studied with light and electron microscopes. RESULTS: The BALT in the camel was variable from few lymphocytes to well-organized lymphoid tissue with a clear germinal center. The BALT of the bronchi is a constant lymphoid tissue in young and adult camels which may be of the large size with clear germinal center in response to repeated immune reaction and involutes in old age. The BALT of the bronchioles may be induced and develops mainly due to an immune reaction and showed great morphological variations and observed in different ages. High endothelial venules were associated with BALT in the bronchi but not with that of the bronchioles. The BALT-associated epithelium was tall pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells in the extrapulmonary bronchi changed to pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium mucous secreting cells in the intrapulmonary bronchi and simple columnar ciliated to simple cuboidal epithelium with Clara cells without goblet cells or mucous secreting cells in the bronchioles. CONCLUSIONS: The BALT of the bronchi is a constant lymphoid tissue in young and adult camels and involutes in old age. The BALT of the bronchioles may be induced and develops mainly due to an immune reaction and observed in different ages.


Subject(s)
Bronchi , Camelus , Animals , Epithelium , Lung , Lymphoid Tissue , Male
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 750229, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506957

ABSTRACT

Improving COVID-19 intervention strategies partly relies on animal models to study SARS-CoV-2 disease and immunity. In our pursuit to establish a model for severe COVID-19, we inoculated young and adult male ferrets intranasally or intratracheally with SARS-CoV-2. Intranasal inoculation established an infection in all ferrets, with viral dissemination into the brain and gut. Upon intratracheal inoculation only adult ferrets became infected. However, neither inoculation route induced observable COVID-19 symptoms. Despite this, a persistent inflammation in the nasal turbinates was prominent in especially young ferrets and follicular hyperplasia in the bronchi developed 21 days post infection. These effects -if sustained- might resemble long-COVID. Respiratory and systemic cellular responses and antibody responses were induced only in animals with an established infection. We conclude that intranasally-infected ferrets resemble asymptomatic COVID-19 and possibly aspects of long-COVID. Combined with the increasing portfolio to measure adaptive immunity, ferrets are a relevant model for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine research.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Ferrets/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Administration, Intranasal , Age Factors , Animals , Asymptomatic Diseases , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Hyperplasia , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Injection, Intratympanic , Male , Virus Internalization
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 689065, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502324

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The US FDA has approved several therapeutics and vaccines worldwide through the emergency use authorization in response to the rapid spread of COVID-19. Nevertheless, the efficacies of these treatments are being challenged by viral escape mutations. There is an urgent need to develop effective treatments protecting against SARS-CoV-2 infection and to establish a stable effect-screening model to test potential drugs. Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) have an intrinsic advantage in such developments because they can target rapidly mutating viral strains as a result of the complexity of their binding epitopes. In this study, we generated anti-receptor-binding domain (anti-RBD) pAbs from rabbit serum and tested their safety and efficacy in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection both in vivo and ex vivo. Primary human bronchial epithelial two-dimensional (2-D) organoids were cultured and differentiated to a mature morphology and subsequently employed for SARS-CoV-2 infection and drug screening. The pAbs protected the airway organoids from viral infection and tissue damage. Potential side effects were tested in mouse models for both inhalation and vein injection. The pAbs displayed effective viral neutralization effects without significant side effects. Thus, the use of animal immune serum-derived pAbs might be a potential therapy for protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection, with the strategy developed to produce these pAbs providing new insight into the treatment of respiratory tract infections, especially for infections with viruses undergoing rapid mutation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Binding Sites , Bronchi/cytology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Epithelial Cells , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Organoids , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1357-1361, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 ) initiates entry into airway epithelia by binding its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). METHODS: To explore whether interindividual variation in ACE2 abundance contributes to variability in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, we measured ACE2 protein abundance in primary airway epithelial cultures derived from 58 human donor lungs. RESULTS: We found no evidence for sex- or age-dependent differences in ACE2 protein expression. Furthermore, we found that variations in ACE2 abundance had minimal effects on viral replication and induction of the interferon response in airway epithelia infected with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the relative importance of additional host factors, beyond viral receptor expression, in determining COVID-19 lung disease outcomes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , Biological Variation, Population , Bronchi/cytology , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19/virology , Epithelial Cells , Female , Humans , Male , Primary Cell Culture , Receptors, Coronavirus/analysis , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Sex Factors , Virus Internalization
7.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(11): 1821-1839, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492352

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enters host cells through the cell surface proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2. METHODS: Using a variety of normal and malignant models and tissues from the aerodigestive and respiratory tracts, we investigated the expression and regulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. RESULTS: We find that ACE2 expression is restricted to a select population of epithelial cells. Notably, infection with SARS-CoV-2 in cancer cell lines, bronchial organoids, and patient nasal epithelium induces metabolic and transcriptional changes consistent with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including up-regulation of ZEB1 and AXL, resulting in an increased EMT score. In addition, a transcriptional loss of genes associated with tight junction function occurs with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2, is repressed by EMT through the transforming growth factor-ß, ZEB1 overexpression, and onset of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. This suggests a novel model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in which infected cells shift toward an increasingly mesenchymal state, associated with a loss of tight junction components with acute respiratory distress syndrome-protective effects. AXL inhibition and ZEB1 reduction, as with bemcentinib, offer a potential strategy to reverse this effect. CONCLUSIONS: These observations highlight the use of aerodigestive and, especially, lung cancer model systems in exploring the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses and offer important insights into the potential mechanisms underlying the morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 in healthy patients and patients with cancer alike.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Bronchi , Humans , Lung , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211050764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477207

ABSTRACT

A pandemic of coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a major public health emergency that has spread in the fastest speed, and caused the most extensive infection world widely. Transbronchial biopsy (TBB) and computed tomography guided percutaneous needle biopsy (CTPNB) is the most common and significant method for the diagnosis of lung cancer. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the indications of TBB and CTPNB must be managed strictly. Therefore, it is extremely indispensable to perform meticulous and individualized management for lung cancer patients to protect the patients from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Medical Oncology/methods , Postoperative Period , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20595, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475487

ABSTRACT

The delivery of safe, visible wavelengths of light can be an effective, pathogen-agnostic, countermeasure that would expand the current portfolio of SARS-CoV-2 intervention strategies beyond the conventional approaches of vaccine, antibody, and antiviral therapeutics. Employing custom biological light units, that incorporate optically engineered light-emitting diode (LED) arrays, we harnessed monochromatic wavelengths of light for uniform delivery across biological surfaces. We demonstrated that primary 3D human tracheal/bronchial-derived epithelial tissues tolerated high doses of a narrow spectral band of visible light centered at a peak wavelength of 425 nm. We extended these studies to Vero E6 cells to understand how light may influence the viability of a mammalian cell line conventionally used for assaying SARS-CoV-2. The exposure of single-cell monolayers of Vero E6 cells to similar doses of 425 nm blue light resulted in viabilities that were dependent on dose and cell density. Doses of 425 nm blue light that are well-tolerated by Vero E6 cells also inhibited infection and replication of cell-associated SARS-CoV-2 by > 99% 24 h post-infection after a single five-minute light exposure. Moreover, the 425 nm blue light inactivated cell-free betacoronaviruses including SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 up to 99.99% in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, clinically applicable doses of 425 nm blue light dramatically inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in primary human 3D tracheal/bronchial tissue. Safe doses of visible light should be considered part of the strategic portfolio for the development of SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic countermeasures to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Light , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/radiation effects , Virus Replication/radiation effects , Adult , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bronchi , Calibration , Cell-Free System , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelium/pathology , Female , Humans , Respiratory Mucosa/radiation effects , Trachea/virology , Vero Cells
10.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 426: 21-43, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451909

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary respiration inevitably exposes the mucosal surface of the lung to potentially noxious stimuli, including pathogens, allergens, and particulates, each of which can trigger pulmonary damage and inflammation. As inflammation resolves, B and T lymphocytes often aggregate around large bronchi to form inducible Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT). iBALT formation can be initiated by a diverse array of molecular pathways that converge on the activation and differentiation of chemokine-expressing stromal cells that serve as the scaffolding for iBALT and facilitate the recruitment, retention, and organization of leukocytes. Like conventional lymphoid organs, iBALT recruits naïve lymphocytes from the blood, exposes them to local antigens, in this case from the airways, and supports their activation and differentiation into effector cells. The activity of iBALT is demonstrably beneficial for the clearance of respiratory pathogens; however, it is less clear whether it dampens or exacerbates inflammatory responses to non-infectious agents. Here, we review the evidence regarding the role of iBALT in pulmonary immunity and propose that the final outcome depends on the context of the disease.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Respiration/immunology , Humans , Lymphocytes/immunology
11.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 43(3): 1212-1225, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438531

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Most SARS-CoV-2 infections are mild or even asymptomatic. However, a small fraction of infected individuals develops severe, life-threatening disease, which is caused by an uncontrolled immune response resulting in hyperinflammation. However, the factors predisposing individuals to severe disease remain poorly understood. Here, we show that levels of CD47, which is known to mediate immune escape in cancer and virus-infected cells, are elevated in SARS-CoV-2-infected Caco-2 cells, Calu-3 cells, and air-liquid interface cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection increases SIRPalpha levels, the binding partner of CD47, on primary human monocytes. Systematic literature searches further indicated that known risk factors such as older age and diabetes are associated with increased CD47 levels. High CD47 levels contribute to vascular disease, vasoconstriction, and hypertension, conditions that may predispose SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals to COVID-19-related complications such as pulmonary hypertension, lung fibrosis, myocardial injury, stroke, and acute kidney injury. Hence, age-related and virus-induced CD47 expression is a candidate mechanism potentially contributing to severe COVID-19, as well as a therapeutic target, which may be addressed by antibodies and small molecules. Further research will be needed to investigate the potential involvement of CD47 and SIRPalpha in COVID-19 pathology. Our data should encourage other research groups to consider the potential relevance of the CD47/ SIRPalpha axis in their COVID-19 research.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Differentiation/metabolism , CD47 Antigen/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Pandemics , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/immunology , Blood Donors , Blotting, Western/methods , Bronchi/cytology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Caco-2 Cells , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5536, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428813

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important human pathogens for which no specific treatment is available. Here, we provide evidence that pharmacological reprogramming of ER stress pathways can be exploited to suppress CoV replication. The ER stress inducer thapsigargin efficiently inhibits coronavirus (HCoV-229E, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2) replication in different cell types including primary differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells, (partially) reverses the virus-induced translational shut-down, improves viability of infected cells and counteracts the CoV-mediated downregulation of IRE1α and the ER chaperone BiP. Proteome-wide analyses revealed specific pathways, protein networks and components that likely mediate the thapsigargin-induced antiviral state, including essential (HERPUD1) or novel (UBA6 and ZNF622) factors of ER quality control, and ER-associated protein degradation complexes. Additionally, thapsigargin blocks the CoV-induced selective autophagic flux involving p62/SQSTM1. The data show that thapsigargin hits several central mechanisms required for CoV replication, suggesting that this compound (or derivatives thereof) may be developed into broad-spectrum anti-CoV drugs.


Subject(s)
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Autophagy/drug effects , Bronchi/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Cell Extracts , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Epithelial Cells/virology , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Proteome/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thapsigargin/pharmacology , Unfolded Protein Response/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
13.
Innate Immun ; 27(6): 423-436, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409426

ABSTRACT

Both innate immunity and acquired immunity are involved in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The induction of Abs that neutralize the virus has been described, and certain Abs against endemic coronaviruses may cross-react with SARS-CoV-2. Detailed mechanisms to protect against the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 remain unresolved. We previously reported that IgG Fc-binding protein (Fcγbp), a unique, large molecular weight, and mucin-like secretory Fc receptor protein, secreted from goblet cells of human small and large intestine, mediates the transportation of serum IgG onto the mucosal surface. In this review, we show that mucous bronchial gland cells and some goblet cells are immunoreactive for Fcγbp. Fcγbp traps the cross-reactive (both neutralizing and non-neutralizing) IgG bound to the virus and can consequently eliminate the virus from the mucosal surface to decrease viral loads. Fcγbp can also suppress immune overreaction by interfering with Fc-binding by macrophages and competing with complement fixation. Fcγbp secreted from mucin-producing cells of the airway functions as an important anti-infection mucosal defense. The Fcγbp-mediated mechanism can be a key factor in explaining why SARS-CoV-2 is less infective/lethal in children, and may also be involved in the unique Ab response, recurrent infection, and effects of serum therapy and vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bronchi/cytology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Adhesion Molecules/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin G , Mucins , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
14.
Comput Biol Med ; 138: 104858, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400212

ABSTRACT

This study presents a series of numerical simulations for airflow field and particle dispersion and deposition around a mannequin inside a ventilated room. A 3-D airway system of a volunteer subject with a large respiratory system was reconstructed from the nostril inlet to the end of the tracheobronchial tree 4th generation and was integrated into a standing mannequin at the center of a room. The room ventilation system supplied air through a diffuser and expelled air via a damper in three modes. The airflow field was first evaluated by solving the governing equations and the k-ω SST transitional turbulence model using the Ansys-Fluent software. Then spherical particles with various diameters were released into the room, and their trajectories were evaluated using the Lagrangian approach. Aspiration fraction and particle deposition for inhalation flow rates of 15 and 30 L/min were analyzed using a modified discrete random walk (DRW) stochastic model using a user-defined function (UDF) coupled to the Ansys-Fluent discrete phase model. For the first ventilation mode, a recirculation flow region formed behind the mannequin that led the airflow streamlines to the breathing zone. A recirculation flow formed in front of the face for the second ventilation mode that led the airflow streamlines out of the mannequin breathing zone. For the third mode, however, there was no strong recirculation flow zone around the mannequin. Simulation results showed that the aspiration fraction in the first ventilation mode was higher than the other modes. In addition, the regional deposition rates and deposition patterns of particles inside the respiratory system were presented for each region. Accordingly, most large particles were trapped in the nasal passage; however, some large particles penetrated deeper into the airway due to the large airway size. For the higher breathing rate, the percentage of large escaped particles from the lobe branches dropped by a factor of 7 compared to the lower breathing rate.


Subject(s)
Manikins , Respiration , Bronchi , Computer Simulation , Humans , Particle Size
15.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(12): 2561-2569, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389722

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a global challenge to human health. Upon viral infection, host cells initiate the innate antiviral response, which primarily involves type I interferons (I-IFNs), to enable rapid elimination of the invading virus. Previous studies revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection limits the expression of I-IFNs in vitro and in vivo, but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely elucidated. In the present study, we performed data mining and longitudinal data analysis using SARS-CoV-2-infected normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and ferrets, and the results confirmed the strong inhibitory effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the induction of I-IFNs. Moreover, we identified genes that are negatively correlated with IFNB1 expression in vitro and in vivo based on Pearson correlation analysis. We found that SARS-CoV-2 activates numerous intrinsic pathways, such as the circadian rhythm, phosphatidylinositol signaling system, peroxisome, and TNF signaling pathways, to inhibit I-IFNs. These intrinsic inhibitory pathways jointly facilitate the successful immune evasion of SARS-CoV-2. Our study elucidates the underlying mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 evades the host innate antiviral response in vitro and in vivo, providing theoretical evidence for targeting these immune evasion-associated pathways to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Bronchi/cytology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Datasets as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells , Ferrets , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon-gamma/immunology , RNA-Seq , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6621, 2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387468

ABSTRACT

The human bronchial epithelium is the first line of defense against atmospheric particles, pollutants, and respiratory pathogens such as the novel SARS-CoV-2. The epithelial cells form a tight barrier and secrete proteins that are major components of the mucosal immune response. Functional in vitro models of the human lung are essential for screening the epithelial response and assessing the toxicity and barrier crossing of drugs, inhaled particles, and pollutants. However, there is a lack of models to investigate the effect of chronic exposure without resorting to animal testing. Here, we developed a 3D model of the human bronchial epithelium using Calu-3 cell line and demonstrated its viability and functionality for 21 days without subculturing. We investigated the effect of reduced Fetal Bovine Serum supplementation in the basal medium and defined the minimal supplementation needed to maintain a functional epithelium, so that the amount of exogenous serum proteins could be reduced during drug testing. The long-term evolution of the epithelial cell secretome was fully characterized by quantitative mass spectrometry in two preclinical models using Calu-3 or primary NHBE cells. 408 common secreted proteins were identified while significant differences in protein abundance were observed with time, suggesting that 7-10 days are necessary to establish a mature secretome in the Calu-3 model. The associated Reactome pathways highlight the role of the secreted proteins in the immune response of the bronchial epithelium. We suggest this preclinical 3D model can be used to evaluate the long-term toxicity of drugs or particles on the human bronchial epithelium, and subsequently to investigate their effect on the epithelial cell secretions.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Proteome/analysis , Proteomics/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bronchi/cytology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Culture Media/chemistry , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Models, Biological , Principal Component Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2459, 2021 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387462

ABSTRACT

A deeper understanding of the molecular biology of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the host response to the virus, is urgently needed. Commonalities exist between the host immune response to viral infections and cancer. Here, we defined transcriptional signatures of SARS-CoV-2 infection involving hundreds of genes common across lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (A549, Calu-3) and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), with additional signatures being specific to one or both adenocarcinoma lines. Cross-examining eight transcriptomic databases, we found that host transcriptional responses of lung adenocarcinoma cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection shared broad similarities with host responses to multiple viruses across different model systems and patient samples. Furthermore, these SARS-CoV-2 transcriptional signatures were manifested within specific subsets of human cancer, involving ~ 20% of cases across a wide range of histopathological types. These cancer subsets show immune cell infiltration and inflammation and involve pathways linked to the SARS-CoV-2 response, such as immune checkpoint, IL-6, type II interferon signaling, and NF-κB. The cell line data represented immune responses activated specifically within the cancer cells of the tumor. Common genes and pathways implicated as part of the viral host response point to therapeutic strategies that may apply to both SARS-CoV-2 and cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , A549 Cells , Bronchi/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic , Transcriptome , Virus Replication/genetics
19.
Nature ; 583(7818): 834-838, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387423

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus with high nucleotide identity to SARS-CoV and to SARS-related coronaviruses that have been detected in horseshoe bats, has spread across the world and had a global effect on healthcare systems and economies1,2. A suitable small animal model is needed to support the development of vaccines and therapies. Here we report the pathogenesis and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in golden (Syrian) hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated the presence of viral antigens in nasal mucosa, bronchial epithelial cells and areas of lung consolidation on days 2 and 5 after inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, followed by rapid viral clearance and pneumocyte hyperplasia at 7 days after inoculation. We also found viral antigens in epithelial cells of the duodenum, and detected viral RNA in faeces. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted efficiently from inoculated hamsters to naive hamsters by direct contact and via aerosols. Transmission via fomites in soiled cages was not as efficient. Although viral RNA was continuously detected in the nasal washes of inoculated hamsters for 14 days, the communicable period was short and correlated with the detection of infectious virus but not viral RNA. Inoculated and naturally infected hamsters showed apparent weight loss on days 6-7 post-inoculation or post-contact; all hamsters returned to their original weight within 14 days and developed neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that features associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in golden hamsters resemble those found in humans with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Aerosols , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Duodenum/virology , Fomites/virology , Housing, Animal , Kidney/virology , Male , Mesocricetus/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Weight Loss
20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 275, 2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: How cigarette smoke (CS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection and severity is controversial. We investigated the effects of COPD and CS on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 in vivo in COPD patients and controls and in CS-exposed mice, and the effects of CS on SARS-CoV-2 infection in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. METHODS: We quantified: (1) pulmonary ACE2 protein levels by immunostaining and ELISA, and both ACE2 and/or TMPRSS2 mRNA levels by RT-qPCR in two independent human cohorts; and (2) pulmonary ACE2 protein levels by immunostaining and ELISA in C57BL/6 WT mice exposed to air or CS for up to 6 months. The effects of CS exposure on SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated after in vitro infection of Calu-3 cells and differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), respectively. RESULTS: ACE2 protein and mRNA levels were decreased in peripheral airways from COPD patients versus controls but similar in central airways. Mice exposed to CS had decreased ACE2 protein levels in their bronchial and alveolar epithelia versus air-exposed mice. CS treatment decreased viral replication in Calu-3 cells, as determined by immunofluorescence staining for replicative double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and western blot for viral N protein. Acute CS exposure decreased in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication in HBECs, as determined by plaque assay and RT-qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: ACE2 levels were decreased in both bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells from COPD patients versus controls, and from CS-exposed versus air-exposed mice. CS-pre-exposure potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. These findings urge to investigate further the controversial effects of CS and COPD on SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/enzymology , Cigarette Smoking/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Smoke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Bronchi , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pulmonary Alveoli , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Tobacco , Virus Replication
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