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1.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211013215, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598539

ABSTRACT

Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is associated with high morbidity if left untreated. Although rare, the frequency of BPF in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming recognized in medical literature. We present a case of a 64-year-old male with BPF with persistent air leak due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia treated with Spiration Valve System endobronchial valve (EBV). An EBV was placed in the right middle lobe with successful cessation of air leak. In conclusion, the use of EBVs for BPF with persistent air leaks in SARS-CoV-2 patients who are poor surgical candidates is effective and safe.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/complications , Empyema, Pleural/surgery , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Surgical Instruments , Bronchial Fistula/etiology , Chest Tubes , Empyema, Pleural/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thoracostomy
2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 307, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main clinical consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are pneumonia and respiratory failure even requiring mechanical ventilation. In this context, the lung parenchyma is highly prone to ventilator-related injury, with pneumothorax and persistent air leak as the most serious adverse events. So far, endobronchial valve (EBV) positioning has proved efficacious in treating air leaks with a high success rate. CASE PRESENTATION: We report, for the first time, two cases of patients affected by SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia complicated with bacterial super-infection, experiencing pneumothorax and persistent air leaks after invasive mechanical ventilation. Despite the severity of respiratory failure both patients underwent rigid interventional bronchoscopy and were successfully treated through EBV positioning. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent air leaks may result from lung tissue damage due to a complex interaction between inflammation and ventilator-related injury (VILI), especially in the advanced stages of ARDS. EBV positioning seems to be a feasible and effective minimally invasive therapeutic option for treating this subset of patients.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , COVID-19/therapy , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Pneumothorax/surgery , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Respiratory Tract Fistula/surgery , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 291, 2021 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchobiliary fistula is an extremely rare disease that involves abnormal communication between a hepatic segment and bronchial tree. It is mostly caused by untreated hydatid cyst, liver abscess, iatrogenic stenosis, and, rarely, trauma. CASE PRESENTATION: We experienced an extremely rare case of bronchobiliary fistula after motor vehicle accident. A 15-year-old Persian boy visited our clinic with chief complaints of persistent pleuritic chest pain, productive cough, weight loss, and fever for 2 months. Coronavirus disease 2019 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test was negative. Chest X-ray revealed hazy opacification of right lower lobe. Bronchoalveolar lavage for acid-fast bacillus came back negative. Thoracoabdominal computed tomography scan revealed a collection in segment VIII of the liver communicating with another 13 × 5 cm multiloculated collection in the lower lobe of the right lung, with air foci within the collection. Right posterolateral thoracotomy was performed with the impression of bronchobiliary fistula. Drainage of hepatic collection with debridement, diaphragmatic repair, and open decortication of lung followed by resection of the involved segment of the right lung was performed. Histopathologic evaluations revealed abscess formation in pulmonary tissue, and many multinucleated giant cells were seen that appear to be due to foreign body remnants after previous laparotomy surgery. The foreign body seemed to be the remnants of Surgicel absorbable hemostat. CONCLUSIONS: Herein, we report an extremely rare case of a posttraumatic bronchobiliary fistula caused by remnants of Surgicel hemostatic agent. Bronchobiliary fistula is mainly caused by untreated hydatid cyst, liver abscess, iatrogenic stenosis, and, rarely, trauma. Migration and erosion of oxidized regenerated cellulose through the diaphragm seems to be the causative factor of bronchobiliary fistula in this patient.


Subject(s)
Biliary Fistula , Bronchial Fistula , Foreign Bodies , Adolescent , Biliary Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Biliary Fistula/etiology , Biliary Fistula/surgery , Bronchial Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Bronchial Fistula/etiology , Bronchial Fistula/surgery , Foreign Bodies/complications , Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Foreign Bodies/surgery , Humans , Male
4.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(4): e241-e243, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956092

ABSTRACT

We report a case of necrotizing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia complicated by a bronchopleural fistula and treated by decortication and salvage lobectomy. Owing to the unknown characteristics of the underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection, treatment of the abscess and bronchopleural fistula was delayed. This may have resulted in further deterioration of the patient, with ensuing multiple organ dysfunction. Complications of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, such as a bacterial abscess and a bronchopleural fistula, should be treated as if the patient were not infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Pneumonectomy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Bronchial Fistula/diagnosis , Bronchial Fistula/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung/surgery , Pleural Diseases/diagnosis , Pleural Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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