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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(19): e33716, 2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313152

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, bronchiectasis patients were adversely affected due to their limited respiratory functions and acute exacerbations which were triggered by viral infections. The increased concern in the population during the pandemic has affected the attitudes of people toward avoiding disease and patients' treatment compliance. It is unclear whether treatment adherence and anxiety levels of bronchiectasis patients have changed during the pandemic. We aimed to evaluate treatment adherence and anxiety levels in patients with bronchiectasis. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and November 2021. A total of 123 patients with bronchiectasis and 110 adults without chronic diseases were included in the control group. Patient demographic information, bronchiectasis follow-up data, and COVID-19 history were recorded. Then, patients filled out "MARS-5 Index" (Medical Adherence Report Scale-5), Beck Anxiety Scale and the Effect of Events Scale (IES-R). Responses of questionnaires were statistically analyzed. Our results showed that the majority of patients with bronchiectasis had high Medical Adherence Report Scale-5 index total scores during the COVID-19 pandemic (86.2%). The total scores on the Beck Anxiety Scale of bronchiectasis patients who did not have COVID-19 were significantly higher than those who had COVID-19 (P = .04). The total scores on the IES-R were found to be significantly higher in the control group (P < .001). No significant difference was found in the total scores on the Beck Anxiety Scale between the patients and the control group. The bronchiectasis patients had high adherence to their current treatment during the COVID-19 period and were less affected by the pandemic and its psychological effects compared to the healthy population. Furthermore, individuals diagnosed with bronchiectasis who were not infected with COVID-19 demonstrated increased levels of anxiety compared to those who were infected with COVID-19 which may be due to their concern about contracting the disease.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Patient Compliance , Bronchiectasis/complications , Bronchiectasis/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology
2.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 67(4): 350-369, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293343

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 that has caused an unprecedented pandemic with a high rate of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although most cases are mild, there are a considerable number of patients who develop pneumonia or even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). After having recovered from the initial disease, many patients continue with various symptoms (fatigue, dry cough, fever, dyspnea, anosmia, and chest pain, among others.), which has led to consider the possible existence of "post-COVID-19 syndrome". Although the definition and validity of this syndrome are not clear yet, several studies report that individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 may have persistent symptoms, radiological abnormalities, and compromised respiratory function. Current evidence suggests that there is a large number of pulmonary sequelae after COVID-19 pneumonia (interstitial thickening, ground glass opacities, crazy paving pattern, and bronchiectasis, among others.). Likewise, it seems that pulmonary function tests (spirometry, DLCO, 6MWT, and measurement of maximum respiratory pressures), in addition to high-resolution computed axial tomographies (CAT scan), are useful for the assessment of these post-COVID-19 pulmonary sequelae. This review aims to describe the possible pulmonary sequelae after COVID-19 pneumonia, as well as to suggest diagnostic procedures for their correct assessment and follow-up; thus, allowing proper management by a multidisciplinary medical team.


COVID-19 es la enfermedad causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2, la cual ha ocasionado una pandemia sin precedentes, con gran cantidad de infectados y muertos en el mundo. Aunque la mayoría de los casos son leves, existe una cantidad considerable de pacientes que desarrollan neumonía o, incluso, síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo (SDRA). Luego de recuperarse del cuadro inicial, muchos pacientes continúan con diversos síntomas (fatiga, tos seca, fiebre, disnea, anosmia, dolor torácico, entre otras), lo que ha llevado a considerar la posible existencia del "síndrome pos-COVID-19". Aunque la definición y validez de este síndrome aún no son claras, varios estudios reportan que los individuos recuperados de la COVID-19 pueden tener persistencia de síntomas, anormalidades radiológicas y compromiso en la función respiratoria. La evidencia actual sugiere que existe gran cantidad de secuelas pulmonares despues de una neumonía por COVID-19 (engrosamiento intersticial, infiltrado en vidrio esmerilado, patrón en empedrado, bronquiectasias, entre otras.). De igual forma, parece ser que las pruebas de función pulmonar (espirometría, prueba de difusión pulmonar de monóxido de carbono, prueba de caminata de seis minutos y la medición de las presiones respiratorias máximas), además de la tomografía axial computarizada de alta resolución, son útiles para evaluar las secuelas pulmonares pos-COVID-19. En esta revisión se pretende describir las posibles secuelas a nivel pulmonar posteriores a neumonía por COVID-19, así como sugerir procedimientos diagnósticos para su correcta evaluación y seguimiento, que permitan el manejo adecuado por parte de un equipo médico multidisciplinario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Convalescence , Lung Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Bronchiectasis/diagnostic imaging , Bronchiectasis/etiology , Bronchiectasis/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Mental Disorders/etiology , Mental Disorders/physiopathology , Oxygen/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Eur Respir J ; 59(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254211
4.
Respir Investig ; 61(2): 270-283, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287419

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses like rhinovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and coronavirus cause several respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis, and coronavirus disease 2019, and exacerbate bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and diffuse panbronchiolitis. The production of inflammatory mediators and mucin and the accumulation of inflammatory cells have been reported in patients with viral infection-induced respiratory diseases. Interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted are produced in the cells, including human airway and alveolar epithelial cells, partly through the activation of toll-like receptors, nuclear factor kappa B and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase. These mediators are associated with the development of viral infection-induced respiratory diseases through the induction of inflammation and injury in the airway and lung, airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness, and mucus secretion. Medications used to treat respiratory diseases, including corticosteroids, long-acting ß2-agonists, long-acting muscarinic antagonists, mucolytic agents, antiviral drugs for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza virus, macrolides, and Kampo medicines, reduce the production of viral infection-induced mediators, including cytokines and mucin, as determined in clinical, in vivo, or in vitro studies. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of these medications on viral infection-induced respiratory diseases may be associated with clinical benefits, such as improvements in symptoms, quality of life, and mortality rate, and can prevent hospitalization and the exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma, bronchiectasis, and diffuse panbronchiolitis.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Virus Diseases , Humans , Quality of Life , Asthma/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Mucins/therapeutic use
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 203, 2023 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248149

ABSTRACT

Actinomycosis often leads to cervicofacial infections, but thoracic involvement may also occur. However, the development of empyema is rare. While being followed up with the diagnosis of asthma and bronchiectasis, our case was hospitalized for infected bronchiectasis. As empyema developed in the follow-up, the pleural effusion was drained by tube thoracostomy. Actinomycosis was diagnosed through pleural effusion cytology. Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in sputum culture, and SARS-CoV2 RT-PCR was also positive in nasopharyngeal sampling. Polymicrobial agents can often be detected in actinomycosis. Actinomycosis cases have also been reported in the post-COVID period. Our case is presented since it would be the first in the literature regarding the coexistence of COVID-19, Pseudomonas, and thoracic Actinomycosis (empyema).


Subject(s)
Actinomycosis , Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Empyema , Lung Diseases , Pleural Effusion , Pseudomonas Infections , Humans , Pseudomonas , RNA, Viral , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Bronchiectasis/complications , Actinomycosis/diagnosis
6.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(163)2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214521

ABSTRACT

Chronic lung diseases are the third leading cause of death worldwide and are increasing in prevalence over time. Although much of our traditional understanding of health and disease is derived from study of the male of the species - be it animal or human - there is increasing evidence that sex and gender contribute to differences in disease risk, prevalence, presentation, severity, treatment approach, response and outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and bronchiectasis represent the most prevalent and studied chronic lung diseases and have key sex- and gender-based differences which are critical to consider and incorporate into clinical and research approaches. Mechanistic differences present opportunities for therapeutic development whereas behavioural and clinical differences on the part of patients and providers present opportunities for greater education and understanding at multiple levels. In this review, we seek to summarise the sex- and gender-based differences in key chronic lung diseases and outline the clinical and research implications for stakeholders.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchiectasis , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy
7.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(20): 2398-2404, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212943

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Bronchiectasis (BE) has been linked to past viral infections such as influenza, measles, or adenovirus. Two years ago, a new pandemic viral infection severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) broke out and it still persists today, and a significant proportion of surviving patients have radiological and clinical sequelae, including BE. Our aim was to thoroughly review the information available in the literature on the bidirectional relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of BE, as well as the impact of this infection on patients already suffering from BE. Available information indicates that only a small percentage of patients in the acute phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia develop BE, although the latter is recognized as one of the radiological sequelae of COVID-19 pneumonia, especially when it is caused by traction. The severity of the initial pneumonia is the main risk factor for the development of future BE, but during the COVID-19 pandemic, exacerbations in BE patients were reduced by approximately 50%. Finally, the impact of BE on the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia is not yet known.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Bronchiectasis/epidemiology
8.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(6): 535-544, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161182

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the general population, the risk of severe COVID-19 is associated with old age, male sex, hypertension, obesity and chronic diseases. Chronic lung diseases are listed as additional risk factors for hospitalization and ICU admission. The purpose of this review is to define whether chronic lung diseases, such as bronchiectasis and interstitial diseases, represent a risk for a severe SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients affected by common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most common symptomatic primary antibody defect. RECENT FINDINGS: CVID patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported since the beginning of the pandemic with a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic to mild/moderate and severe COVID-19. The meta-analysis of 88 CVID cases described in large cohorts and case reports demonstrated that CVID patients with chronic lung involvement have an increased risk for severe COVID-19 in comparison to CVID without lung diseases (50 vs. 28%, relative risk 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.04--2.92, P = 0.043). Differently from the general population, age and metabolic comorbidities did not represent a risk factor for severe course in this patient's population. SUMMARY: Underlying chronic lung diseases but not age represent a risk factor for severe COVID-19 in CVID. Prompt therapeutic intervention should be adopted in SARS-CoV-2 positive CVID patients with chronic lung diseases independently of their age.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Age Factors , Bronchiectasis/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
BMC Med Imaging ; 22(1): 148, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002127

ABSTRACT

Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis is a clinically important disease with an estimated 340,000-522,000 persons living with the disease and 70,000 being diagnosed annually. The radiographic diagnosis remains a pivotal part of recognizing the disease due to its protean clinical manifestations. As physicians are sensitized to this disease, a greater proportion of patients are being diagnosed with mild to moderate bronchiectasis. Despite the established use of CT chest as the main tool for making a radiologic diagnosis of bronchiectasis, the literature supporting the process of making that diagnosis is somewhat sparse. Concurrently, there has been an increased trend to have Web-based radiologic tutorials due to its convenience, the ability of the learner to set the pace of learning and the reduced cost compared to in-person learning. The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated this trend. We wanted to look carefully at the effect of a Web-based training session on interrater reliability. Agreement was calculated as percentages and kappa and prevalence adjusted kappa calculated. We found that a single Web-based training session had little effect on the variability and accuracy of diagnosis of bronchiectasis. Larger studies are needed in this area with multiple training sessions.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Bronchiectasis/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Observer Variation , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013254, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a common but under-diagnosed chronic disorder characterised by permanent dilation of the airways arising from a cycle of recurrent infection and inflammation. Symptoms including chronic, persistent cough and productive phlegm are a significant burden for people with bronchiectasis, and the main aim of treatment is to reduce exacerbation frequency and improve quality of life. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy aims to break this infection cycle and is recommended by clinical guidelines for adults with three or more exacerbations a year, based on limited evidence. It is important to weigh the evidence for bacterial suppression against the prevention of antibiotic resistance and further evidence is required on the safety and efficacy of different regimens of intermittently administered antibiotic treatments for people with bronchiectasis. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intermittent prophylactic antibiotics in the treatment of adults and children with bronchiectasis. SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, which contains studies identified through multiple electronic searches and handsearches of other sources. We also searched trial registries and reference lists of primary studies. We conducted searches on 6 September 2021, with no restriction on language of publication. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least three months' duration comparing an intermittent regime of prophylactic antibiotics with placebo, usual care or an alternate intermittent regimen. Intermittent prophylactic administration was defined as repeated courses of antibiotics with on-treatment and off-treatment intervals of at least 14 days' duration. We included adults and children with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiectasis confirmed by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), plain film chest radiograph, or bronchography and a documented history of recurrent chest infections. We excluded studies where participants received high dose antibiotics immediately prior to enrolment or those with a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), primary ciliary dyskinesia, hypogammaglobulinaemia, sarcoidosis, or a primary diagnosis of COPD. Our primary outcomes were exacerbation frequency and serious adverse events. We did not exclude studies on the basis of review outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We analysed dichotomous data as odds ratios (ORs) or relative risk (RRs) and continuous data as mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs). We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We conducted GRADE assessments for the following primary outcomes: exacerbation frequency; serious adverse events and secondary outcomes: antibiotic resistance; hospital admissions; health-related quality of life. MAIN RESULTS: We included eight RCTs, with interventions ranging from 16 to 48 weeks, involving 2180 adults. All evaluated one of three types of antibiotics over two to six cycles of 28 days on/off treatment: aminoglycosides, ß-lactams or fluoroquinolones. Two studies also included 12 cycles of 14 days on/off treatment with fluoroquinolones. Participants had a mean age of 63.6 years, 65% were women and approximately 85% Caucasian. Baseline FEV1 ranged from 55.5% to 62.6% predicted. None of the studies included children. Generally, there was a low risk of bias in the included studies. Antibiotic versus placebo: cycle of 14 days on/off. Ciprofloxacin reduced the frequency of exacerbations compared to placebo (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; I2 = 65%; 2 studies, 469 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), with eight people (95% CI 6 to 28) needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome. The intervention increased the risk of antibiotic resistance more than twofold (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.35; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 624 participants; high-certainty evidence). Serious adverse events, lung function (FEV1), health-related quality of life, and adverse effects did not differ between groups. Antibiotic versus placebo: cycle of 28 days on/off. Antibiotics did not reduce overall exacerbation frequency (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.02; I2 = 0%; 8 studies, 1695 participants; high-certainty evidence) but there were fewer severe exacerbations (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.93; I2 = 54%; 3 studies, 624 participants), though this should be interpreted with caution due to low event rates. The risk of antibiotic resistance was more than twofold higher based on a pooled analysis (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.42 to 3.42; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 685 participants; high-certainty evidence) and consistent with unpooled data from four further studies. Serious adverse events, time to first exacerbation, duration of exacerbation, respiratory-related hospital admissions, lung function, health-related quality of life and adverse effects did not differ between study groups. Antibiotic versus usual care. We did not find any studies that compared intermittent antibiotic regimens with usual care. Cycle of 14 days on/off versus cycle of 28 days on/off. Exacerbation frequency did not differ between the two treatment regimens (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.24; I2 = 71%; 2 studies, 625 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) However, inconsistencies in the results from the two trials in this comparison indicate that the apparent aggregated similarities may not be reliable. There was no evidence of a difference in antibiotic resistance between groups (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.48; I2 = 60%; 2 studies, 624 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Serious adverse events, adverse effects, lung function and health-related quality of life did not differ between the two antibiotic regimens. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Overall, in adults who have frequent chest infections, long-term antibiotics given at 14-day on/off intervals slightly reduces the frequency of those infections and increases antibiotic resistance. Intermittent antibiotic regimens result in little to no difference in serious adverse events. The impact of intermittent antibiotic therapy on children with bronchiectasis is unknown due to an absence of evidence, and further research is needed to establish the potential risks and benefits.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bronchiectasis/drug therapy , Child , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , Female , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged
11.
Radiology ; 305(2): 479-485, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pneumonia may lead to pulmonary fibrosis in the long term. Chest CT is useful to evaluate changes in the lung parenchyma over time. PURPOSE: To illustrate the temporal change of lung abnormalities on chest CT scans associated with COVID-19 pneumonia over 1 year. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, patients previously hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia who visited the radiology department of a tertiary care center for imaging follow-up were consecutively enrolled between March 2020 and July 2021. Exclusion criteria were acute respiratory distress syndrome, requirement of intubation and/or mechanical ventilation, pulmonary embolism, and any interstitial lung disease. High-resolution volumetric noncontrast chest CT scans were acquired at 3, 6, and 12 months from the first diagnosis and were compared with baseline CT scans. The imaging features analyzed were ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, pleuroparenchymal band, linear atelectasis, bronchiectasis and/or bronchiolectasis, reticulation, traction bronchiectasis and/or bronchiolectasis, and honeycombing. The prevalence distribution of lung abnormalities was recorded at all time points. RESULTS: Eighty-four participants (56 men; mean age, 61 years ± 11 [SD]) were studied. GGOs and consolidations represented the main baseline lung abnormalities, accounting for a median severity score of 9 (IQR, 7-12.7; maximum possible score, 20), which indicates moderate lung involvement. The baseline prevalence of GGOs decreased from 100% to 2% of participants at 1 year, and that of consolidations decreased from 71% to 0% at 6 months. Fibrotic-like abnormalities (pleuroparenchymal bands, linear atelectasis, bronchiectasis and/or bronchiolectasis) were detected at 3 months (50% of participants), 6 months (42% of participants), and 1 year (5% of participants). Among these, pleuroparenchymal bands were the most represented finding. Fibrotic changes (reticulation and traction bronchiectasis and/or bronchiolectasis) were detected at 3-6 months (2%) and remained stable at 1 year, with no evidence of honeycombing. At 1 year, lung abnormalities due to COVID-19 pneumonia were completely resolved in 78 of 84 (93%) participants. CONCLUSION: Residual lung abnormalities in individuals hospitalized with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia were infrequent, with no evidence of fibrosis at 1-year chest CT. © RSNA, 2022.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Bronchiectasis/diagnostic imaging
12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(5): 495-506, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816972

ABSTRACT

The term "advanced sarcoidosis" is used for forms of sarcoidosis with a significant risk of loss of organ function or death. Advanced sarcoidosis often involves the lung and is described as "advanced pulmonary sarcoidosis" (APS), which includes advanced pulmonary fibrosis, associated complications such as bronchiectasis and infections, and pulmonary hypertension. Although APS affects a small proportion of patients with sarcoidosis, it is the leading cause of poor outcomes, including death. Here we review the major patterns of APS with a focus on the current management as well as potential approaches for improved outcomes for this most serious sarcoidosis phenotype.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary , Sarcoidosis , Humans , Lung , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/complications , Sarcoidosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
13.
J Bras Pneumol ; 48(1): e20220023, 2022 02 02.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798565
14.
Tomography ; 8(3): 1184-1195, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792427

ABSTRACT

Prior studies variably reported residual chest CT abnormalities after COVID-19. This study evaluates the CT patterns of residual abnormalities in severe COVID-19 pneumonia survivors. All consecutive COVID-19 survivors who received a CT scan 5-7 months after severe pneumonia in two Italian hospitals (Reggio Emilia and Parma) were enrolled. Individual CT findings were retrospectively collected and follow-up CT scans were categorized as: resolution, residual non-fibrotic abnormalities, or residual fibrotic abnormalities according to CT patterns classified following standard definitions and international guidelines. In 225/405 (55.6%) patients, follow-up CT scans were normal or barely normal, whereas in 152/405 (37.5%) and 18/405 (4.4%) patients, non-fibrotic and fibrotic abnormalities were respectively found, and 10/405 (2.5%) had post-ventilatory changes (cicatricial emphysema and bronchiectasis in the anterior regions of upper lobes). Among non-fibrotic changes, either barely visible (n = 110/152) or overt (n = 20/152) ground-glass opacities (GGO), resembling non-fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with or without organizing pneumonia features, represented the most common findings. The most frequent fibrotic abnormalities were subpleural reticulation (15/18), traction bronchiectasis (16/18) and GGO (14/18), resembling a fibrotic NSIP pattern. When multiple timepoints were available until 12 months (n = 65), residual abnormalities extension decreased over time. NSIP, more frequently without fibrotic features, represents the most common CT appearance of post-severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Respiratory System Abnormalities , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Disease Progression , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Survivors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Eur Radiol ; 32(7): 4427-4436, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study reports our experience with paired inspiration/expiration thin-section computed tomographic (CT) scans in the follow-up of COVID-19 patients with persistent respiratory symptoms. METHODS: From August 13, 2020, to May 31, 2021, 48 long-COVID patients with respiratory symptoms (27 men and 21 women; median age, 62.0 years; interquartile range: 54.0-69.0 years) underwent follow-up paired inspiration-expiration thin-section CT scans. Patient demographics, length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission rate, and clinical and laboratory features of acute infection were also included. The scans were obtained on a median of 72.5 days after onset of symptoms (interquartile range: 58.5-86.5) and at least 30 days after hospital discharge. Thin-section CT findings included ground-glass opacity, mosaic attenuation pattern, consolidation, traction bronchiectasis, reticulation, parenchymal bands, bronchial wall thickening, and air trapping. We used a quantitative score to determine the degree of air trapping in the expiratory scans. RESULTS: Parenchymal abnormality was found in 50% (24/48) of patients and included air trapping (37/48, 77%), ground-glass opacities (19/48, 40%), reticulation (18/48, 38%), parenchymal bands (15/48, 31%), traction bronchiectasis (9/48, 19%), mosaic attenuation pattern (9/48, 19%), bronchial wall thickening (6/48, 13%), and consolidation (2/48, 4%). The absence of air trapping was observed in 11/48 (23%), mild air trapping in 20/48 (42%), moderate in 13/48 (27%), and severe in 4/48 (8%). Independent predictors of air trapping were, in decreasing order of importance, gender (p = 0.0085), and age (p = 0.0182). CONCLUSIONS: Our results, in a limited number of patients, suggest that follow-up with paired inspiratory/expiratory CT in long-COVID patients with persistent respiratory symptoms commonly displays air trapping. KEY POINTS: • Our experience indicates that paired inspiratory/expiratory CT in long-COVID patients with persistent respiratory symptoms commonly displays air trapping. • Iterative reconstruction and dose-reduction options are recommended for demonstrating air trapping in long-COVID patients.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
17.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(12): 1607-1612, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614663

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this observational study was to highlight high resolution CT scan characteristics of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) with a focus on the detection of de-novo appeared or evolved bronchiectasis. METHODS: From March 2020 to May 2021, we enrolled 350 consecutive mechanically ventilated ICU patients with COVID-19. Patients with CAPA and at least one chest CT scan performed within 15 days from the diagnosis were included. Two radiologists were asked to identify typical and atypical signs of COVID-19 pneumonia. Bronchiectasis locations were described and a modified Reiff score was calculated, as severity score. A total of 19 CAPA patients (median age 71.0, Interquartile range (IQR) 62.5-75.0; male 16, 84.2%) were included. RESULTS: According to the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM criteria, 18 patients had probable CAPA and one had proven CAPA. The median time between hospital admission and CT scan was 21 days (IQR 14.5-25.0). The incidence of bronchiectasis in the study population was 57.9% (n = 11). Tubular bronchiectasis was detected in 10 patients and were scored as follows: three patients had a score of 1, three patients had a score of score 2, one patient had a score of 5 and four patients had a score of 6. Eight patients had a previous CT scan (performed at hospital admission), among them: 5 patients developed de-novo bronchiectasis, while 2 patients demonstrated a volumetric increase of bronchiectasis. At the 6-months follow-up, the mortality rate for patients with CAPA was >60%. CONCLUSION: the radiologic detection of de-novo appearance or volumetric increase of bronchiectasis in COVID-19 should lead clinicians to search for fungal superinfections.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , Bronchiectasis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 72: 286-297, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606955

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is caused by mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene, which impair the thymic negative selection of self-reactive T-cells and underlie the development of autoimmunity that targets multiple endocrine and non-endocrine tissues. Beyond autoimmunity, APECED features heightened susceptibility to certain specific infections, which is mediated by anti-cytokine autoantibodies and/or T-cell driven autoimmune tissue injury. These include the 'signature' APECED infection chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), but also life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, bronchiectasis-associated bacterial pneumonia, and sepsis by encapsulated bacteria. Here we discuss the expanding understanding of the immunological mechanisms that contribute to infection susceptibility in this prototypic syndrome of impaired central tolerance, which provide the foundation for devising improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for affected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transcription Factors/genetics , Animals , Autoimmunity , Bronchiectasis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/genetics , Clonal Selection, Antigen-Mediated/genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Immune Tolerance/genetics , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/genetics
20.
Thorax ; 77(5): 505-507, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484065

ABSTRACT

Interventions to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 have been associated with substantial reductions in exacerbations of airways diseases, likely through reduced transmission of other respiratory viruses. We surveyed 4442 people with airways disease (asthma=3627, bronchiectasis=258, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease=557) to gauge attitudes and intentions towards continuing such measures after the COVID-19 pandemic. 47% intended to continue wearing a face mask in indoor public spaces, and 61% thought everyone should be required to do so during the 'influenza season. Women, those with bronchiectasis, and older people were generally more cautious. Respiratory virus infection control measures should be considered in clinical guidelines and public health recommendations.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Respiration Disorders , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Hygiene , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
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