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1.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 49: e20223202, 2022. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1760016

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Percutaneous tracheostomy has been considered the standard method today, the bronchoscopy-guided technique being the most frequently performed. A safe alternative is ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, which can be carried out by the surgeon, avoiding the logistical difficulties of having a specialist in bronchoscopy. Studies prove that the efficacy and safety of the ultrasound-guided technique are similar when compared to the bronchoscopy-guided one. Thus, it is of paramount importance that surgeons have ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy as a viable and beneficial alternative to the open procedure. In this article, we describe eight main steps in performing ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, highlighting essential technical points that can reduce the risk of complications from the procedure. Furthermore, we detail some precautions that one must observe to reduce the risk of aerosolization and contamination of the team when percutaneous tracheostomy is indicated in patients with COVID-19.


RESUMO A traqueostomia percutânea tem sido considerada o método padrão atualmente, sendo a técnica guiada por broncoscopia a mais realizada. Uma alternativa segura é a traqueostomia percutânea guiada por ultrassonografia, que pode ser feita pelo próprio cirurgião, evitando-se as dificuldades logísticas de disponibilidade de um especialista em broncoscopia. Estudos comprovam que a eficácia e a segurança da técnica guiada por ultrassonografia, comparada à guiada por broncoscopia, são semelhantes. Assim, é de suma importância que os cirurgiões tenham a traqueostomia percutânea guiada por ultrassonografia como alternativa viável e benéfica em relação ao procedimento aberto. Neste artigo, descrevemos oito passos principais da realização da traqueostomia percutânea ecoguiada, destacando pontos técnicos essenciais que podem reduzir o risco de complicações do procedimento. Ainda, detalhamos alguns cuidados que devem ser observados, com o intuito de reduzir o risco de aerolização e contaminação da equipe, quando a traqueostomia percutânea é indicada no paciente com COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tracheostomy/methods , COVID-19 , Bronchoscopy/methods , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods
2.
Panminerva Med ; 63(4): 529-538, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689607

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has changed bronchoscopy practices worldwide. Bronchoscopy is a high-risk aerosol-generating procedure with a potential for direct SARS-CoV-2 exposure and hospital-acquired infection. Current guidelines about personal protective equipment and environment considerations represent key competencies to minimize droplets dispersion and reduce the risk of transmission. Different measures should be put in field based on setting, patient's clinical characteristics, urgency and indications of bronchoscopy. The use of this technique in SARS-CoV-2 patients is reported primarily for removal of airway plugs and for obtaining microbiological culture samples. In mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2, bronchoscopy is commonly used to manage complications such as hemoptysis, atelectasis or lung collapse when prone positioning, physiotherapy or recruitment maneuvers have failed. Further indications are represented by assistance during percutaneous tracheostomy. Continuous positive airway pressure, non-invasive ventilation support and high flow nasal cannula oxygen are frequently used in patient affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): management of patients' airways and ventilation strategies differs from bronchoscopy indications, patient's clinical status and in course or required ventilatory support. Sedation is usually administered by the pulmonologist (performing the bronchoscopy) or by the anesthetist depending on the complexity of the procedure and the level of sedation required. Lastly, elective bronchoscopy for diagnostic indications during COVID-19 pandemic should be carried on respecting rigid standards which allow to minimize potential viral transmission, independently from patient's COVID-19 status. This narrative review aims to evaluate the indications, procedural measures and ventilatory strategies of bronchoscopy performed in different settings during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cannula , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Chest ; 161(2): e97-e101, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664781

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old man with an active smoking habit presented to the ED with dyspnea, hemoptysis, and thick phlegm that was difficult to clear. He reported no weight loss, no fever, and no chest pain or dysphonia. He denied both international travel and previous contact with confirmed cases of TB or SARS-CoV-2. He had no known occupational exposures. The patient's personal history included a resolved complete atrioventricular block that required a permanent pacemaker, moderate-to-severe COPD, rheumatoid arthritis (treated with oral prednisone, 2.5 mg/d) and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (treated with methotrexate and prophylactic oral supplements of ferrous sulfate). Moreover, he was in medical follow up because of a peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis, and colonic diverticulosis. The patient also had a history of thoracic surgery after an episode of acute mediastinitis from an odontogenic infection, which required ICU management and temporal tracheostomy.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ferrous Compounds , Lung Diseases , Multiple Chronic Conditions/therapy , Respiratory Aspiration , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy/methods , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Ferrous Compounds/administration & dosage , Ferrous Compounds/adverse effects , Hematinics/administration & dosage , Hematinics/adverse effects , Hemoptysis/diagnosis , Hemoptysis/etiology , Humans , Lung Diseases/chemically induced , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Respiratory Aspiration/complications , Respiratory Aspiration/diagnosis , Respiratory Aspiration/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Withholding Treatment
4.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S1): e2021514, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631599

ABSTRACT

Herpesviridae infection in COVID-19 patients has been reported, particularly muco-cutaneous lesions. Little is known about Herpesviridae lung infection in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Typical scattered lesions seen through fiberoptic bronchoscopy in these patients should raise the question as to whether to start empirically acyclovir treatment while a Herpesviridae diagnostics result becomes available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herpesviridae Infections , Bronchoscopy , Critical Illness , Herpesviridae Infections/diagnosis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ; 29(1): e10-e11, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598412
6.
Chest ; 161(1): e5-e11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595933

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old obese man (BMI 38.0) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic atrial fibrillation, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia stage II, stable for 8 years after chemotherapy, and a history of smoking presented to the ED with progressive dyspnea and fever due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. He was admitted to a general ward and treated with dexamethasone (6 mg IV once daily) and oxygen. On day 3 of hospital admission, he became progressively hypoxemic and was admitted to the ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation. Dexamethasone treatment was continued, and a single dose of tocilizumab (800 mg) was administered. On day 9 of ICU admission, voriconazole treatment was initiated after tracheal white plaques at bronchoscopy, suggestive of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, were noticed. However, his medical situation dramatically deteriorated.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Bronchoscopy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
7.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211013215, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598539

ABSTRACT

Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is associated with high morbidity if left untreated. Although rare, the frequency of BPF in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is becoming recognized in medical literature. We present a case of a 64-year-old male with BPF with persistent air leak due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia treated with Spiration Valve System endobronchial valve (EBV). An EBV was placed in the right middle lobe with successful cessation of air leak. In conclusion, the use of EBVs for BPF with persistent air leaks in SARS-CoV-2 patients who are poor surgical candidates is effective and safe.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/complications , Empyema, Pleural/surgery , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Surgical Instruments , Bronchial Fistula/etiology , Chest Tubes , Empyema, Pleural/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thoracostomy
8.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ; 29(1): e2, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583981
9.
Respir Care ; 67(2): 241-251, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy is an aerosol-generating procedure and routine use for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been discouraged. The purpose of this review was to discuss the indications, clinical utility, and risks associated with bronchoscopy in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. METHODS: A literature search was performed by using appropriate key terms to identify all relevant articles from medical literature databases up to August 1, 2021. RESULTS: Twelve cohorts (9 retrospective and 3 prospective) reported the performance of 2,245 bronchoscopies in 1,345 patients with COVID-19. The majority of the subjects were male. Nearly two thirds of the bronchoscopies (62%) were performed for therapeutic indications; the rest (38%) were for diagnostic purposes. Bronchoalveolar lavage had an overall yield of 33.1% for SARS-CoV-2 in subjects with negative results of real-time polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal specimens. The incidence of a secondary infection ranged from 9.3% to as high as 65%. Antibiotics were changed in a significant number of the subjects (14%-83%) based on the bronchoscopic findings. Bronchoscopy was well tolerated in most subjects except those who required noninvasive ventilation, in whom the intubation rate after the procedure was 60%. The rate of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among health-care workers was minimum. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchoscopy in patients with COVID-19 results in a significant change in patient management. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 seems to be low with consistent use of appropriate personal protective equipment by health-care workers. Therefore, bronchoscopic evaluation should be considered for all diagnostic and therapeutic indications in this patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bronchoscopy , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 70(3): 303-307, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527504

ABSTRACT

Laryngotracheal stenosis is a major side effect of intubation in patients with Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). However, no study has since reported tracheal stenosis in patients with COVID-19 without a history of tracheal intubation. The current study reports a 77-year-old male patient with the COVID-19 infection but without a history of tracheal intubation diagnosed with distal tracheal stenosis. Tracheal stenosis was successfully treated with rigid bronchoscopy. This study reported the first case of tracheal stenosis due to viral tracheitis associated with COVID-19 infection. However, further studies are required to investigate this speculation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheal Stenosis , Aged , Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheal Stenosis/diagnosis , Tracheal Stenosis/etiology , Tracheal Stenosis/therapy
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(11)2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526473

ABSTRACT

Patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia can suffer from pneumothorax and persistent air leak (PAL). The pneumothorax occurs with or without pre-existing lung disease. PAL refers to air leak lasting more than 5-7 days and arises due to bronchopleural or alveolopleural fistula. The management of PAL can be challenging as a standard management guideline is lacking. Here we present the case of a 42-year-old smoker with COVID-19 who presented to the hospital with fever, cough, acute left-sided chest pain and shortness of breath. He suffered from a large left-sided pneumothorax requiring immediate chest tube drainage. Unfortunately, the air leak persisted for 13 days before one-way endobronchial valve (EBV) was used with complete resolution of the air leak. We also review the literature regarding other cases of EBV utilisation for PAL in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Adult , Bronchoscopy , Humans , Male , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211050764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477207

ABSTRACT

A pandemic of coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a major public health emergency that has spread in the fastest speed, and caused the most extensive infection world widely. Transbronchial biopsy (TBB) and computed tomography guided percutaneous needle biopsy (CTPNB) is the most common and significant method for the diagnosis of lung cancer. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the indications of TBB and CTPNB must be managed strictly. Therefore, it is extremely indispensable to perform meticulous and individualized management for lung cancer patients to protect the patients from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Medical Oncology/methods , Postoperative Period , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ; 29(2): 146-154, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amid the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the benefits and risks of bronchoscopy remain uncertain. This study was designed to characterize bronchoscopy-related practice patterns, diagnostic yields, and adverse events involving patients with known or suspected COVID-19. METHODS: An online survey tool retrospectively queried bronchoscopists about their experiences with patients with known or suspected COVID-19 between March 20 and August 20, 2020. Collected data comprised the Global Pandemic SARS-CoV-2 Bronchoscopy Database (GPS-BD). All bronchoscopists and patients were anonymous with no direct investigator-to-respondent contact. RESULTS: Bronchoscopy procedures involving 289 patients from 26 countries were analyzed. One-half of patients had known COVID-19. Most (82%) had at least 1 pre-existing comorbidity, 80% had at least 1 organ failure, 51% were critically ill, and 37% were intubated at the time of the procedure. Bronchoscopy was performed with diagnostic intent in 166 (57%) patients, yielding a diagnosis in 86 (52%). and management changes in 80 (48%). Bronchoscopy was performed with therapeutic intent in 71 (25%) patients, mostly for secretion clearance (87%). Complications attributed to bronchoscopy or significant clinical decline within 12 hours of the procedure occurred in 24 (8%) cases, with 1 death. CONCLUSION: Results from this international database provide a widely generalizable characterization of the benefits and risks of bronchoscopy in patients with known or suspected COVID-19. Bronchoscopy in this setting has reasonable clinical benefit, with diagnosis and/or management change resulting from about half of the diagnostic cases. However, it is not without risk, especially in patients with limited physiological reserve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(22): 3072-3075, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452830

ABSTRACT

A 66-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma had been receiving chemoradiation therapy after stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastases. Atezolizumab was initiated as second-line therapy, after which the patient became progression- and recurrence-free. Four days after his second dose of tozinameran (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech), the patient developed persistent hemoptysis. The patient had no thrombocytopenia or coagulation abnormalities. Bronchoscopy revealed active bleeding from the left lingual tracheal branch. The patient was intubated and admitted to the intensive care unit because of increased bleeding. Subsequently, left bronchial artery embolization was performed using a Serescue. Hemostasis was achieved after the procedure, and the patient was discharged 7 days after the onset of hemoptysis. Vaccination against coronavirus disease has been reported to be associated with thrombosis and cerebral hemorrhage, and the hemoptysis in this case was suspected to be induced by vaccination. In summary, the benefits of vaccination exceeded the risks of adverse events in a patient with cancer. However, in conditions such as after chemoradiation, especially in patients with radiation pneumonitis wherein the vasculature is vulnerable, patients should be carefully monitored for hemorrhagic events after vaccination.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/complications , Hemoptysis/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Hemoptysis/chemically induced , Hemoptysis/complications , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Male , Vaccination/adverse effects
19.
Panminerva Med ; 63(4): 529-538, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451032

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has changed bronchoscopy practices worldwide. Bronchoscopy is a high-risk aerosol-generating procedure with a potential for direct SARS-CoV-2 exposure and hospital-acquired infection. Current guidelines about personal protective equipment and environment considerations represent key competencies to minimize droplets dispersion and reduce the risk of transmission. Different measures should be put in field based on setting, patient's clinical characteristics, urgency and indications of bronchoscopy. The use of this technique in SARS-CoV-2 patients is reported primarily for removal of airway plugs and for obtaining microbiological culture samples. In mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2, bronchoscopy is commonly used to manage complications such as hemoptysis, atelectasis or lung collapse when prone positioning, physiotherapy or recruitment maneuvers have failed. Further indications are represented by assistance during percutaneous tracheostomy. Continuous positive airway pressure, non-invasive ventilation support and high flow nasal cannula oxygen are frequently used in patient affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): management of patients' airways and ventilation strategies differs from bronchoscopy indications, patient's clinical status and in course or required ventilatory support. Sedation is usually administered by the pulmonologist (performing the bronchoscopy) or by the anesthetist depending on the complexity of the procedure and the level of sedation required. Lastly, elective bronchoscopy for diagnostic indications during COVID-19 pandemic should be carried on respecting rigid standards which allow to minimize potential viral transmission, independently from patient's COVID-19 status. This narrative review aims to evaluate the indications, procedural measures and ventilatory strategies of bronchoscopy performed in different settings during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cannula , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
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