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1.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(6): 493-499, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123140

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) remains the only curative treatment option for many children with relapsed leukaemia, primary immunodeficiencies and haemoglobinopathies. Unfortunately, infectious and noninfectious pulmonary complications following HSCT continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality. This review will focus on recent advances in the field that enhance clinically available diagnostic tools and the role of novel diagnostic techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Research continues to highlight the role of standard diagnostic modalities, including imaging using computed topography chest and Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the diagnosis of posttransplant pulmonary infections. Similarly, bronchoalveolar lavage using bronchoscopy to obtain samples for microbiological analysis remains an important tool in the clinical and diagnostic algorithm for these children. The application of more novel diagnostic techniques such as metagenomic next-generation sequencing and the use of specific biomarkers remain potential future tools in children in whom the aetiology of posttransplant lung disease is unknown. The impact of the pulmonary microbiome on infectious and noninfectious pulmonary disease post HSCT is a future research direction. SUMMARY: Pulmonary infectious complications post HSCT remain a devastating complication for children and their families. Despite improvements in standard and novel diagnostic modalities, the aetiology of pulmonary disease remains unknown for many patients. There is an urgent need for ongoing collaborative research to bridge this critical knowledge gap and lead to better patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Lung Diseases , Pneumonia , Child , Humans , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Bronchoscopy/adverse effects , Bronchoscopy/methods , Lung
2.
Respirology ; 27(10): 863-873, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchoscopy is an airborne particle-generating procedure. However, few methods for safe bronchoscopy have been developed. To reduce airborne particles during bronchoscopy, we created an 'e-mask', which is a simple, disposable mask for patients. Our objective was to evaluate the e-mask's protective ability against airborne particles and to assess respiratory adverse events and complications. METHODS: Patients with stage 2-4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were excluded. We performed visualization and quantifying experiments on airborne particles with and without the e-mask. We prospectively evaluated whether wearing the e-mask during bronchoscopy was associated with the incidence of patients requiring >5 L/min oxygen to maintain >90% oxygen saturation, and patients with >45 mm Hg end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2 ) elevation, in addition to complications, compared to historical controls. RESULTS: In the visualization experiment, more than ten thousand times of airborne particles were generated without the e-mask than with the e-mask. The volume of airborne particles was significantly reduced with the e-mask, compared to that without the e-mask (p = 0.011). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that wearing the e-mask had no significant effect on the incidence of patients requiring >5 L/min oxygen to maintain >90% oxygen saturation, (p = 0.959); however, wearing the e-mask was a significant factor in >45 mm Hg EtCO2 elevation (p = 0.026). No significant differences in complications were observed between the e-mask and control groups (5.8% vs. 2.5%, p = 0.395). CONCLUSION: Wearing the e-mask during bronchoscopy significantly reduced the generation of airborne particles during bronchoscopy without increasing complications.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy , Carbon Dioxide , Bronchoscopy/adverse effects , Bronchoscopy/methods , Endoscopy , Humans , Masks/adverse effects , Oxygen , Respiratory Rate
3.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ; 29(3): 186-190, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy is a widely use technique in critically ill patients. Nosocomial coinfections are a cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to describe bronchoscopy findings and analyze microbiological profile and probably coinfection through bronchial aspirate (BA) samples in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission. METHODS: Retrospective observational study analyzing the BA samples collected from intubated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in a referral Hospital (Spain). RESULTS: One hundred fifty-five consecutive BA samples were collected from 75 patients. Ninety (58%) were positive cultures for different microorganisms, 11 (7.1%) were polymicrobial, and 37 (23.7%) contained resistant microorganisms. There was a statistically significant association between increased days of orotracheal intubation and positive BA (18.9 vs. 10.9 d, P<0.01), polymicrobial infection (22.11 vs. 13.54, P<0.01) and isolation of resistant microorganisms (18.88 vs. 10.94, P<0.01). In 88% of the cases a new antibiotic or change in antibiotic treatment was made. CONCLUSION: Bronchoscopy in critically ill patient was safe and could be useful to manage these patients and conduct the microbiological study, that seems to be higher and different than in nonepidemic periods. The longer the intubation period, the greater the probability of coinfection, isolation of resistant microorganisms and polymicrobial infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Bronchoscopy/methods , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units
4.
Lung ; 200(2): 153-159, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894645

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) is an accepted alternative to surgical lung biopsy (SLB) for diagnosing diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) that is less invasive and results in comparable diagnostic yields. Performing lung biopsies on hospitalized patients, however, has increased risk due to the patient's underlying disease severity. Data evaluating the safety and efficacy of TBLC in hospitalized patients are limited. We present a comparison of TBLC for hospitalized and outpatients and provide the safety and diagnostic yields in these populations. METHODS: Demographic data, pulmonary function values, chest imaging pattern, procedural information, and diagnosis were recorded from enrolled patients. Complications from the procedure were the primary outcomes and diagnostic yield was the secondary outcome. RESULTS: 77 patients (n = 22 hospitalized vs n = 55 outpatient) underwent TBLC during the study period. Comparing adverse events between hospitalized and outpatients revealed no statistically significant differences in pneumothorax (9%, n = 2 vs 5%,n = 3), tube thoracostomy placement (5%, n = 1 vs 2%, n = 1), grade 2 bleeding (9%, n = 2 vs 0%, n = 0), escalation in level of care (5%, n = 1 vs 0%, n = 0), 30-day mortality (9%, n = 2 vs 2%, n = 1), and 60-day mortality (9%, n = 2 vs 4%, n = 2) (p > 0.05 for all). No deaths were attributed to the procedure. 95% of cases received a multidisciplinary conference diagnosis (hospitalized 100%, n = 22 vs outpatients 93%, n = 51, p = 0.32). CONCLUSION: Our experience supports that TBLC may be a safe and effective modality for acutely ill-hospitalized patients with DPLD. Further efforts to enhance procedural safety and to determine the impact of an expedited tissue diagnosis on patient outcomes are needed.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pneumothorax , Biopsy/adverse effects , Biopsy/methods , Bronchoscopy/adverse effects , Bronchoscopy/methods , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Pneumothorax/etiology
5.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(2): 361-369, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has not been precisely known in bronchoscopy procedures. We have designed a cabinet device called Ankara University Bronchoscopy Cabinet (Aubrocab®) to protect healthcare. We aimed to evaluate preventing effect of Aubrocab® on aerosol spreading by measuring the particles in the bronchoscopy suite. METHODS: The patients were categorized into two groups as those who underwent bronchoscopy with and without Aubrocab®. We measured PM 0.5 levels before and after bronchoscopy in the bronchoscopy suite. RESULTS: A total of 82 patients, 62 of whom underwent bronchoscopy with Aubrocab®, were enrolled in the study. The PM 0.5 level measured before bronchoscopy was similar in both groups, whereas the PM 0.5 level measured after bronchoscopy was lower in the Aubrocab® group (42,603 ± 8,632 vs. 50,377 ± 10,487, p = 0.001). The percent of particle change (50.76 ± 19.91 vs 67.15 ± 24.24, p = 0.003) and the difference of the particle numbers between pre and postprocedure (13,638 ± 4,292 and 19,501 ± 5,891, p < 0.001) were lower in the Aubrocab® group. DISCUSSION: Our institution developed a barrier device named Aubrocab® which was shown to prevent excessive aerosol release in addition to routine precautions during bronchoscopy procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets
6.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 49: e20223202, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760016

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous tracheostomy has been considered the standard method today, the bronchoscopy-guided technique being the most frequently performed. A safe alternative is ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, which can be carried out by the surgeon, avoiding the logistical difficulties of having a specialist in bronchoscopy. Studies prove that the efficacy and safety of the ultrasound-guided technique are similar when compared to the bronchoscopy-guided one. Thus, it is of paramount importance that surgeons have ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy as a viable and beneficial alternative to the open procedure. In this article, we describe eight main steps in performing ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, highlighting essential technical points that can reduce the risk of complications from the procedure. Furthermore, we detail some precautions that one must observe to reduce the risk of aerosolization and contamination of the team when percutaneous tracheostomy is indicated in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Bronchoscopy/methods , Humans , Tracheostomy/methods , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods
7.
Chest ; 161(2): e97-e101, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664781

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old man with an active smoking habit presented to the ED with dyspnea, hemoptysis, and thick phlegm that was difficult to clear. He reported no weight loss, no fever, and no chest pain or dysphonia. He denied both international travel and previous contact with confirmed cases of TB or SARS-CoV-2. He had no known occupational exposures. The patient's personal history included a resolved complete atrioventricular block that required a permanent pacemaker, moderate-to-severe COPD, rheumatoid arthritis (treated with oral prednisone, 2.5 mg/d) and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (treated with methotrexate and prophylactic oral supplements of ferrous sulfate). Moreover, he was in medical follow up because of a peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis, and colonic diverticulosis. The patient also had a history of thoracic surgery after an episode of acute mediastinitis from an odontogenic infection, which required ICU management and temporal tracheostomy.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ferrous Compounds , Lung Diseases , Multiple Chronic Conditions/therapy , Respiratory Aspiration , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy/methods , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Ferrous Compounds/administration & dosage , Ferrous Compounds/adverse effects , Hematinics/administration & dosage , Hematinics/adverse effects , Hemoptysis/diagnosis , Hemoptysis/etiology , Humans , Lung Diseases/chemically induced , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Respiratory Aspiration/complications , Respiratory Aspiration/diagnosis , Respiratory Aspiration/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Withholding Treatment
8.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 92(3)2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593755

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary hamartomas represent the most frequent family of benign lung tumors that typically involve the lung parenchyma and only rarely grow as endobronchial tumors. The elective treatment of endobronchial hamartoma is the bronchoscopic resection, and in those cases in which tumor extension and localization makes it not possible, surgical treatment must be evaluated. Patients with symptomatic COVID-19, hospitalized, frequently undergo a chest CT scan and in some cases, occasional findings may emerge, requiring diagnostic investigations such as bronchoscopy and interventional pulmonology procedures. Therefore, in such a delicate pathological condition, such as COVID-19, the need to perform bronchoscopy and interventional pulmonology procedures, minimizing the risk of viral transmission and ensuring necessary assistance, represents a great challenge for pulmonologists. In this article authors describe, for the first time in literature, a rare case of endobronchial hamartoma, radically resected using a single use bronchoscope, in a young female patient hospitalized for symptomatic COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Diseases , COVID-19 , Hamartoma , Lung Neoplasms , Bronchial Diseases/pathology , Bronchoscopes , Bronchoscopy/methods , Female , Hamartoma/diagnosis , Hamartoma/pathology , Hamartoma/surgery , Humans
9.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(5): e137-e138, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502041

ABSTRACT

Pneumothoraces may occur rarely in coronavirus (COVID-19) patients, often resulting from a combination of fibrotic parenchymal changes and prolonged high-pressure ventilation. Very few studies have been published describing the management of pneumothorax in the novel COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Although chest drain insertion represents the first line of treatment, a persistent pneumothorax and air leak requiring intervention could be managed by a thoracoscopic procedure or, as is the case here, by endobronchial valve insertion. Endobronchial valve insertion is a minimally invasive technique that provides a treatment option in patients with severe parenchymal COVID-19 related lung disease. As far as the authors are aware this is the first report of the use of endobronchial valves in a COVID-19 patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/complications , Chest Tubes , Humans , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/surgery , Prostheses and Implants
10.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211050764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477207

ABSTRACT

A pandemic of coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a major public health emergency that has spread in the fastest speed, and caused the most extensive infection world widely. Transbronchial biopsy (TBB) and computed tomography guided percutaneous needle biopsy (CTPNB) is the most common and significant method for the diagnosis of lung cancer. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the indications of TBB and CTPNB must be managed strictly. Therefore, it is extremely indispensable to perform meticulous and individualized management for lung cancer patients to protect the patients from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Medical Oncology/methods , Postoperative Period , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ; 29(2): 146-154, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Amid the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the benefits and risks of bronchoscopy remain uncertain. This study was designed to characterize bronchoscopy-related practice patterns, diagnostic yields, and adverse events involving patients with known or suspected COVID-19. METHODS: An online survey tool retrospectively queried bronchoscopists about their experiences with patients with known or suspected COVID-19 between March 20 and August 20, 2020. Collected data comprised the Global Pandemic SARS-CoV-2 Bronchoscopy Database (GPS-BD). All bronchoscopists and patients were anonymous with no direct investigator-to-respondent contact. RESULTS: Bronchoscopy procedures involving 289 patients from 26 countries were analyzed. One-half of patients had known COVID-19. Most (82%) had at least 1 pre-existing comorbidity, 80% had at least 1 organ failure, 51% were critically ill, and 37% were intubated at the time of the procedure. Bronchoscopy was performed with diagnostic intent in 166 (57%) patients, yielding a diagnosis in 86 (52%). and management changes in 80 (48%). Bronchoscopy was performed with therapeutic intent in 71 (25%) patients, mostly for secretion clearance (87%). Complications attributed to bronchoscopy or significant clinical decline within 12 hours of the procedure occurred in 24 (8%) cases, with 1 death. CONCLUSION: Results from this international database provide a widely generalizable characterization of the benefits and risks of bronchoscopy in patients with known or suspected COVID-19. Bronchoscopy in this setting has reasonable clinical benefit, with diagnosis and/or management change resulting from about half of the diagnostic cases. However, it is not without risk, especially in patients with limited physiological reserve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(22): 3072-3075, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452830

ABSTRACT

A 66-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma had been receiving chemoradiation therapy after stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastases. Atezolizumab was initiated as second-line therapy, after which the patient became progression- and recurrence-free. Four days after his second dose of tozinameran (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech), the patient developed persistent hemoptysis. The patient had no thrombocytopenia or coagulation abnormalities. Bronchoscopy revealed active bleeding from the left lingual tracheal branch. The patient was intubated and admitted to the intensive care unit because of increased bleeding. Subsequently, left bronchial artery embolization was performed using a Serescue. Hemostasis was achieved after the procedure, and the patient was discharged 7 days after the onset of hemoptysis. Vaccination against coronavirus disease has been reported to be associated with thrombosis and cerebral hemorrhage, and the hemoptysis in this case was suspected to be induced by vaccination. In summary, the benefits of vaccination exceeded the risks of adverse events in a patient with cancer. However, in conditions such as after chemoradiation, especially in patients with radiation pneumonitis wherein the vasculature is vulnerable, patients should be carefully monitored for hemorrhagic events after vaccination.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/complications , Hemoptysis/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Hemoptysis/chemically induced , Hemoptysis/complications , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Male , Vaccination/adverse effects
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 307, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main clinical consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are pneumonia and respiratory failure even requiring mechanical ventilation. In this context, the lung parenchyma is highly prone to ventilator-related injury, with pneumothorax and persistent air leak as the most serious adverse events. So far, endobronchial valve (EBV) positioning has proved efficacious in treating air leaks with a high success rate. CASE PRESENTATION: We report, for the first time, two cases of patients affected by SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia complicated with bacterial super-infection, experiencing pneumothorax and persistent air leaks after invasive mechanical ventilation. Despite the severity of respiratory failure both patients underwent rigid interventional bronchoscopy and were successfully treated through EBV positioning. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent air leaks may result from lung tissue damage due to a complex interaction between inflammation and ventilator-related injury (VILI), especially in the advanced stages of ARDS. EBV positioning seems to be a feasible and effective minimally invasive therapeutic option for treating this subset of patients.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , COVID-19/therapy , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Pneumothorax/surgery , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Respiratory Tract Fistula/surgery , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(4): 456-459, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315993

ABSTRACT

Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a method that produces microscopic imaging of a lung tissue during bronchoscopy. We report a case ot a patient with negative nasopharyngeal swabs and suspected lung cancer who underwent pCLE. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed by PCR analyses of lavage fluid and transbrohial biopsy. The pCLE image shows density of alveolar thickened fibres, disorganization of elastin network, and multiple large drops of intraalveolar secretions. As far as we know, this is the first pCLE image discribed in patient with COVID-19 at that moment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biopsy/methods , Bronchoscopy/methods , Humans
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