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1.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211050764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477207

ABSTRACT

A pandemic of coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a major public health emergency that has spread in the fastest speed, and caused the most extensive infection world widely. Transbronchial biopsy (TBB) and computed tomography guided percutaneous needle biopsy (CTPNB) is the most common and significant method for the diagnosis of lung cancer. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the indications of TBB and CTPNB must be managed strictly. Therefore, it is extremely indispensable to perform meticulous and individualized management for lung cancer patients to protect the patients from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Medical Oncology/methods , Postoperative Period , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(22): 3072-3075, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452830

ABSTRACT

A 66-year-old man with squamous cell carcinoma had been receiving chemoradiation therapy after stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastases. Atezolizumab was initiated as second-line therapy, after which the patient became progression- and recurrence-free. Four days after his second dose of tozinameran (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech), the patient developed persistent hemoptysis. The patient had no thrombocytopenia or coagulation abnormalities. Bronchoscopy revealed active bleeding from the left lingual tracheal branch. The patient was intubated and admitted to the intensive care unit because of increased bleeding. Subsequently, left bronchial artery embolization was performed using a Serescue. Hemostasis was achieved after the procedure, and the patient was discharged 7 days after the onset of hemoptysis. Vaccination against coronavirus disease has been reported to be associated with thrombosis and cerebral hemorrhage, and the hemoptysis in this case was suspected to be induced by vaccination. In summary, the benefits of vaccination exceeded the risks of adverse events in a patient with cancer. However, in conditions such as after chemoradiation, especially in patients with radiation pneumonitis wherein the vasculature is vulnerable, patients should be carefully monitored for hemorrhagic events after vaccination.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/complications , Hemoptysis/diagnosis , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/therapy , Hemoptysis/chemically induced , Hemoptysis/complications , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Male , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 307, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main clinical consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are pneumonia and respiratory failure even requiring mechanical ventilation. In this context, the lung parenchyma is highly prone to ventilator-related injury, with pneumothorax and persistent air leak as the most serious adverse events. So far, endobronchial valve (EBV) positioning has proved efficacious in treating air leaks with a high success rate. CASE PRESENTATION: We report, for the first time, two cases of patients affected by SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia complicated with bacterial super-infection, experiencing pneumothorax and persistent air leaks after invasive mechanical ventilation. Despite the severity of respiratory failure both patients underwent rigid interventional bronchoscopy and were successfully treated through EBV positioning. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent air leaks may result from lung tissue damage due to a complex interaction between inflammation and ventilator-related injury (VILI), especially in the advanced stages of ARDS. EBV positioning seems to be a feasible and effective minimally invasive therapeutic option for treating this subset of patients.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , COVID-19/therapy , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Pneumothorax/surgery , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Respiratory Tract Fistula/surgery , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(4): 456-459, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315993

ABSTRACT

Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a method that produces microscopic imaging of a lung tissue during bronchoscopy. We report a case ot a patient with negative nasopharyngeal swabs and suspected lung cancer who underwent pCLE. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed by PCR analyses of lavage fluid and transbrohial biopsy. The pCLE image shows density of alveolar thickened fibres, disorganization of elastin network, and multiple large drops of intraalveolar secretions. As far as we know, this is the first pCLE image discribed in patient with COVID-19 at that moment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biopsy/methods , Bronchoscopy/methods , Humans
10.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(4): 448-450, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196089

ABSTRACT

Bronchoscopy is an aerosol-generating procedure and involves a high risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to health care workers. There are very few indications for performing bronchoscopy in a patient with confirmed COVID-19. These include atelectasis, foreign body aspiration, and suspected superinfection in immunocompromised patients. Proper use of standard personal protective equipment is mandatory to reduce the risk of transmission to health care workers. In this article, we describe a case of acute lung collapse in a 16-year-old boy with cerebral palsy who was infected with COVID-19. This patient responded to therapeutic bronchoscopy and had complete resolution of lung collapse within 24 hours of the procedure.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Pulmonary Atelectasis/therapy , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Bronchoscopes , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Pulmonary Atelectasis/etiology , Treatment Outcome
12.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(6): 773-779, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165209

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Bronchoscopy and related procedures have unambiguously been affected during the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS COV-2). Ordinary bronchoscopy practices and lung cancer services might have changed over this pandemic and for the years to come.Areas covered: This manuscript summarizes the utility of bronchoscopy in COVID-19 patients, and the impact of the pandemic in lung cancer diagnostic services, in view of possible viral spread during these We conducted a literature review of articles published in PubMed/Medline from inception to November 5th, 2020 using relevant terms.Expert opinion: Without doubt this pandemic has changed the way bronchoscopy and related procedures are being performed. Mandatory universal personal protective equipment, pre-bronchoscopy PCR tests, dedicated protective barriers and disposable bronchoscopes might be the safest and simpler way to perform even the most complicated procedures.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Bronchoscopes/microbiology , Bronchoscopes/standards , Bronchoscopes/virology , Bronchoscopy/instrumentation , Bronchoscopy/methods , Bronchoscopy/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , History, 21st Century , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Medical Oncology/instrumentation , Medical Oncology/methods , Medical Oncology/standards , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
A A Pract ; 15(3): e01417, 2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151700

ABSTRACT

Health care workers performing aerosolizing procedures on patients with transmissible infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are at high-risk for disease acquisition. Current guidelines designed to protect health care workers during aerosolizing procedures prioritize personal protective equipment and enhanced infection control techniques, in particular during procedures such as intubation. To date, little emphasis has been placed on risk mitigation in the setting of bronchoscopy, a procedure that has significant aerosolization potential. Herein, we present an innovative closed bronchoscopy system designed to reduce aerosolization during bronchoscopy.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Inventions , Manikins , Bronchoscopy/instrumentation , COVID-19/transmission , Health Personnel , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment
15.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(1): 72-74, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143743

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 diagnosis is usually based on PCR detection of viral RNA in airway specimens in a patient with typical clinical fea-tures. Histological features of the COVID-19 lung disease are reported from autopsies. Transbronchial cryobiopsy (TBCB) is an evolving technique usually performed in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. We report a TBCB in a 76-year-old female patient who had repeatedly tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathological examination revealed the presence of interstitial pneumonia with lymphocytic infiltration. The qRT-PCR against SARS-CoV-2 from a pharyngeal swab was positive after performing the TBCB.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cryosurgery/methods , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Aged , Biopsy/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Female , Humans
16.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 1957-1966, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137066

ABSTRACT

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the pandemic because of a novel coronavirus, called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In January 2020, the first transmission to healthcare workers (HCWs) was described. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted between people because of contact, droplets, and airborne. Airborne transmission is caused by aerosols that remain infectious when suspended in air over long distances and time. In the clinical setting, airborne transmission may occur during aerosol generating procedures like flexible bronchoscopy. To date, although the role of children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is not clear the execution of bronchoscopy is associated with a considerably increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to HCWs. The aim of this overview is to summarize available recommendations and to apply them to pediatric bronchoscopy. We performed systematic literature searches using the MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) and Scopus databases. We reviewed major recommendations and position statements published at the moment by the American Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology, WHO, European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and expert groups on the management of patients with COVID-19 to limit transmission among HCWs. To date there is a lack of recommendations for safe bronchoscopy during the pandemic period. The main indications concern adults and little has been said about children. We have summarized available recommendations and we have applied them to pediatric bronchoscopy.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Aerosols , Bronchoscopy/instrumentation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Pulmonary Medicine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(5): e144-e147, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120812

ABSTRACT

The current global COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, acquired tracheoesophageal fistulas are mainly iatrogenic lesions produced by prolonged tracheal intubation. We present a case of tracheoesophageal fistula with severe tracheal stenosis following tracheal intubation in a patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/surgery , Adult , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Operating Rooms , Patient Isolators , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tracheal Stenosis/etiology , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/etiology
19.
Respiration ; 100(1): 27-33, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopic sampling of bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) should be safe and effective. Current sampling practice risks loss of sample to the attached negative flow, aerosolisation, or spillage, due to repeated circuit breaks, when replacing sample containers. Such concerns were highlighted during the recent coronavirus pandemic. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of an alternative integrated sampling solution, with the Ambu Bronchosampler with aScope 4, by an experienced bronchoscopist in ICU. METHODS: An observational study of 20 sequential bronchoscopic diagnostic sampling procedures was performed on mechanically ventilated patients with suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia. Mixed methods assessment was done. The predefined outcome measures were (1) ease of set up, (2) ease of specimen collection, (3) ease of protecting specimen from loss or spillage, and (4) overall workflow. The duration of the procedure and the % volume of sample retrieved were recorded. RESULTS: The mean (±standard deviation [SD]) time for collecting 1 sample was 2.5 ± 0.8 min. The mean (±SD) specimen yield for instilled miniBAL was 54.2 ± 17.9%. Compared with standard sampling, the set-up was much easier in 18 (90%), or easier in 2 (10%) of procedures, reducing the connection steps. It was much more intuitive to use in 14 (70%), more intuitive in 4 (20%), and no more intuitive to use in 2 (10%). The overall set-up and workflow was much easier in 69% of the 13 intraprocedural connections and easier or as easy in the remaining 31% procedures. All procedures where pre connection was established were much easier (7, 100%). The Ambu Bronchosampler remained upright in all procedures with no loss or spillage of sample. Obtaining a sample was much easier in 60%, easier in 10%, no different in 20%, and worse in 10%. The ability to protect a sample from start to finish compared to standard procedures was much easier in 80%, easier in 15%, and no different in 5% of procedures. Overall workflow was much easier in 14 (70%), easier in 4 (20%), and no different in 2 (10%) of procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The Ambu Bronchosampler unit was a reliable, effective, and possibly safer technique for diagnostic sampling in ICU. It may improve safety standards during the coronavirus pandemic. A randomized control trial against the standard sampling technique is warranted.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopes , Bronchoscopy/methods , Disposable Equipment , Respiration, Artificial , Specimen Handling/methods , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/instrumentation , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Bronchoscopy/instrumentation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Patient Isolators , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
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