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1.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 843-855, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A previous efficacy trial found benefit from inhaled budesonide for COVID-19 in patients not admitted to hospital, but effectiveness in high-risk individuals is unknown. We aimed to establish whether inhaled budesonide reduces time to recovery and COVID-19-related hospital admissions or deaths among people at high risk of complications in the community. METHODS: PRINCIPLE is a multicentre, open-label, multi-arm, randomised, controlled, adaptive platform trial done remotely from a central trial site and at primary care centres in the UK. Eligible participants were aged 65 years or older or 50 years or older with comorbidities, and unwell for up to 14 days with suspected COVID-19 but not admitted to hospital. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care, usual care plus inhaled budesonide (800 µg twice daily for 14 days), or usual care plus other interventions, and followed up for 28 days. Participants were aware of group assignment. The coprimary endpoints are time to first self-reported recovery and hospital admission or death related to COVID-19, within 28 days, analysed using Bayesian models. The primary analysis population included all eligible SARS-CoV-2-positive participants randomly assigned to budesonide, usual care, and other interventions, from the start of the platform trial until the budesonide group was closed. This trial is registered at the ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN86534580) and is ongoing. FINDINGS: The trial began enrolment on April 2, 2020, with randomisation to budesonide from Nov 27, 2020, until March 31, 2021, when the prespecified time to recovery superiority criterion was met. 4700 participants were randomly assigned to budesonide (n=1073), usual care alone (n=1988), or other treatments (n=1639). The primary analysis model includes 2530 SARS-CoV-2-positive participants, with 787 in the budesonide group, 1069 in the usual care group, and 974 receiving other treatments. There was a benefit in time to first self-reported recovery of an estimated 2·94 days (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] 1·19 to 5·12) in the budesonide group versus the usual care group (11·8 days [95% BCI 10·0 to 14·1] vs 14·7 days [12·3 to 18·0]; hazard ratio 1·21 [95% BCI 1·08 to 1·36]), with a probability of superiority greater than 0·999, meeting the prespecified superiority threshold of 0·99. For the hospital admission or death outcome, the estimated rate was 6·8% (95% BCI 4·1 to 10·2) in the budesonide group versus 8·8% (5·5 to 12·7) in the usual care group (estimated absolute difference 2·0% [95% BCI -0·2 to 4·5]; odds ratio 0·75 [95% BCI 0·55 to 1·03]), with a probability of superiority 0·963, below the prespecified superiority threshold of 0·975. Two participants in the budesonide group and four in the usual care group had serious adverse events (hospital admissions unrelated to COVID-19). INTERPRETATION: Inhaled budesonide improves time to recovery, with a chance of also reducing hospital admissions or deaths (although our results did not meet the superiority threshold), in people with COVID-19 in the community who are at higher risk of complications. FUNDING: National Institute of Health Research and United Kingdom Research Innovation.


Subject(s)
Budesonide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Aged , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(7): 763-772, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multiple early reports of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 showed that patients with chronic respiratory disease were significantly under-represented in these cohorts. We hypothesised that the widespread use of inhaled glucocorticoids among these patients was responsible for this finding, and tested if inhaled glucocorticoids would be an effective treatment for early COVID-19. METHODS: We performed an open-label, parallel-group, phase 2, randomised controlled trial (Steroids in COVID-19; STOIC) of inhaled budesonide, compared with usual care, in adults within 7 days of the onset of mild COVID-19 symptoms. The trial was done in the community in Oxfordshire, UK. Participants were randomly assigned to inhaled budsonide or usual care stratified for age (≤40 years or >40 years), sex (male or female), and number of comorbidities (≤1 and ≥2). Randomisation was done using random sequence generation in block randomisation in a 1:1 ratio. Budesonide dry powder was delivered using a turbohaler at a dose of 400 µg per actuation. Participants were asked to take two inhalations twice a day until symptom resolution. The primary endpoint was COVID-19-related urgent care visit, including emergency department assessment or hospitalisation, analysed for both the per-protocol and intention-to-treat (ITT) populations. The secondary outcomes were self-reported clinical recovery (symptom resolution), viral symptoms measured using the Common Cold Questionnare (CCQ) and the InFLUenza Patient Reported Outcome Questionnaire (FLUPro), body temperature, blood oxygen saturations, and SARS-CoV-2 viral load. The trial was stopped early after independent statistical review concluded that study outcome would not change with further participant enrolment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04416399. FINDINGS: From July 16 to Dec 9, 2020, 167 participants were recruited and assessed for eligibility. 21 did not meet eligibility criteria and were excluded. 146 participants were randomly assigned-73 to usual care and 73 to budesonide. For the per-protocol population (n=139), the primary outcome occurred in ten (14%) of 70 participants in the usual care group and one (1%) of 69 participants in the budesonide group (difference in proportions 0·131, 95% CI 0·043 to 0·218; p=0·004). For the ITT population, the primary outcome occurred in 11 (15%) participants in the usual care group and two (3%) participants in the budesonide group (difference in proportions 0·123, 95% CI 0·033 to 0·213; p=0·009). The number needed to treat with inhaled budesonide to reduce COVID-19 deterioration was eight. Clinical recovery was 1 day shorter in the budesonide group compared with the usual care group (median 7 days [95% CI 6 to 9] in the budesonide group vs 8 days [7 to 11] in the usual care group; log-rank test p=0·007). The mean proportion of days with a fever in the first 14 days was lower in the budesonide group (2%, SD 6) than the usual care group (8%, SD 18; Wilcoxon test p=0·051) and the proportion of participants with at least 1 day of fever was lower in the budesonide group when compared with the usual care group. As-needed antipyretic medication was required for fewer proportion of days in the budesonide group compared with the usual care group (27% [IQR 0-50] vs 50% [15-71]; p=0·025) Fewer participants randomly assigned to budesonide had persistent symptoms at days 14 and 28 compared with participants receiving usual care (difference in proportions 0·204, 95% CI 0·075 to 0·334; p=0·003). The mean total score change in the CCQ and FLUPro over 14 days was significantly better in the budesonide group compared with the usual care group (CCQ mean difference -0·12, 95% CI -0·21 to -0·02 [p=0·016]; FLUPro mean difference -0·10, 95% CI -0·21 to -0·00 [p=0·044]). Blood oxygen saturations and SARS-CoV-2 load, measured by cycle threshold, were not different between the groups. Budesonide was safe, with only five (7%) participants reporting self-limiting adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Early administration of inhaled budesonide reduced the likelihood of needing urgent medical care and reduced time to recovery after early COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre and AstraZeneca.


Subject(s)
Budesonide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
3.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325786

ABSTRACT

Treatment options for COVID-19, a disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, are currently severely limited. Therefore, antiviral drugs that efficiently reduce SARS-CoV-2 replication or alleviate COVID-19 symptoms are urgently needed. Inhaled glucocorticoids are currently being discussed in the context of treatment for COVID-19, partly based on a previous study that reported reduced recovery times in cases of mild COVID-19 after inhalative administration of the glucocorticoid budesonide. Given various reports that describe the potential antiviral activity of glucocorticoids against respiratory viruses, we aimed to analyze a potential antiviral activity of budesonide against SARS-CoV-2 and circulating variants of concern (VOC) B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.351 (beta). We demonstrate a dose-dependent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 that was comparable between all viral variants tested while cell viability remains unaffected. Our results are encouraging as they could indicate a multimodal mode of action of budesonide against SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, which could contribute to an improved clinical performance.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Budesonide/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Budesonide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Humans , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Trials ; 21(1): 666, 2020 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656156

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of local intranasal treatment with budesonide (nasal irrigation), in addition to olfactory rehabilitation, in the management of loss of smell in COVID-19 patients without signs of severity and with persistent hyposmia 30 days after the onset of symptoms. To search for an association between the presence of an obstruction on MRI and the severity of olfactory loss, at inclusion and after 30 days of treatment. TRIAL DESIGN: Two center, open-label, 2-arm (1:1 ratio) parallel group randomized controlled superiority trial. PARTICIPANTS: Inclusion criteria - Patient over 18 years of age; - Patient with a suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, whether or not confirmed by PCR, or close contact with a PCR-confirmed case, typical chest CT scan (unsystematic frosted glass patches with predominantly sub-pleural appearance, and at a later stage, alveolar condensation without excavation or nodules or masses) or positive serology ; - Patient with isolated sudden onset hyposmia persisting 30 days after the onset of symptoms of CoV-2 SARS infection; - Affiliate or beneficiary of a social security scheme; - Written consent to participate in the study. Non-inclusion criteria - Known hypersensitivity to budesonide or any of the excipients; - Hemostasis disorder or epistaxis; - Oral-nasal and ophthalmic herpes virus infection; - Long-term corticosteroid treatment; - Treatment with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, clarithromycin, telithromycin, nefazodone and HIV protease inhibitors); - Severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 with respiratory or other signs; - Hyposmia persisting for more than 90 days after the onset of symptoms - Other causes of hyposmia found on interrogation or MRI; - Patient benefiting from a legal protection measure; - Pregnant or breastfeeding women. The participants will be recruited from: Hôpital Fondation Adolphe de Rothschild and Hôpital Lariboisière in Paris, France INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention: Experimental group: Nasal irrigation with budesonide and physiological saline (Budesonide 1mg/2mL diluted in 250mL of physiological saline 9°/00): 3 syringes of 20mL in each nasal cavity, morning and evening, for 30 days, in addition to olfactory rehabilitation twice a day. CONTROL GROUP: Nasal irrigation with physiological saline 9°/00 only: 3 syringes of 20cc in each nasal cavity, morning and evening, for 30 days, in addition to olfactory rehabilitation twice a day. MAIN OUTCOMES: Percentage of patients with an improvement of more than 2 points on the ODORATEST score after 30 days of treatment. RANDOMISATION: Patients will be randomized (1:1) between the experimental and control groups, using the e-CRF. The randomization list will be stratified by centre. BLINDING (MASKING): Participants and caregivers are aware of the group assignment. People assessing the outcomes are blinded to the group assignment Numbers to be randomised (sample size) 120 patients are planned to be randomized into two groups of 60 patients. TRIAL STATUS: MDL_2020_10. Version number 2, May 22, 2020. Recruitment started on May 22, 2020. The trial will finish recruiting by August 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EUDRACT number: 2020-001667-85; date of trial registration: 15 May 2020 Protocol registered on ClinicalTrial.gov, registration number: NCT04361474 ; date of trial registration: 24 April 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Budesonide/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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