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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e056853, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583091

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The current COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the entire world with increasing morbidity and mortality and has resulted in serious economic and social consequences. Assessing the burden of COVID-19 is essential for developing efficient pandemic preparedness and response strategies and for determining the impact of implemented control measures. Population-based seroprevalence surveys are critical to estimate infection rates, monitor the progression of the epidemic and to allow for the identification of persons exposed to the infection who may either have been asymptomatic or were never tested. This is especially important for countries where effective testing and tracking systems could not be established and where non-severe cases or under-reported deaths might have blurred the true burden of COVID-19. Most seroprevalence surveys performed in sub-Saharan Africa have targeted specific high risk or more easily accessible populations such as healthcare workers or blood donors, and household-based estimates are rarely available. Here, we present the study protocol for a SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimation in the general population of Burkina Faso, Ghana and Madagascar in 2021. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The SeroCoV study is a household-based cross-sectional prevalence investigation in persons aged 10 years and older living in urban areas in six cities using a two-stage geographical cluster sampling method stratified by age and sex. The presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies will be determined using a sensitive and specific SARS-CoV-2 IgG ELISA. In addition, questionnaires will cover sociodemographic information, episodes of diseases and history of testing and treatment for COVID-like symptoms, travel history and safety measures. We will estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2, taking into account test performance and adjusting for the age and sex of the respective populations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was received for all participating countries. Results will be disseminated through reports and presentations at the country level as well as peer-reviewed publications and international scientific conferences presentations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Burkina Faso , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
2.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 198, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the delivery of immunisation services globally. Many countries have postponed vaccination campaigns out of concern about infection risks to the staff delivering vaccination, the children being vaccinated, and their families. The World Health Organization recommends considering both the benefit of preventive campaigns and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when making decisions about campaigns during COVID-19 outbreaks, but there has been little quantification of the risks. METHODS: We modelled excess SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators, vaccinees, and their caregivers resulting from vaccination campaigns delivered during a COVID-19 epidemic. Our model used population age structure and contact patterns from three exemplar countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Brazil). It combined an existing compartmental transmission model of an underlying COVID-19 epidemic with a Reed-Frost model of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk to vaccinators and vaccinees. We explored how excess risk depends on key parameters governing SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, and aspects of campaign delivery such as campaign duration, number of vaccinations, and effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) and symptomatic screening. RESULTS: Infection risks differ considerably depending on the circumstances in which vaccination campaigns are conducted. A campaign conducted at the peak of a SARS-CoV-2 epidemic with high prevalence and without special infection mitigation measures could increase absolute infection risk by 32 to 45% for vaccinators and 0.3 to 0.5% for vaccinees and caregivers. However, these risks could be reduced to 3.6 to 5.3% and 0.1 to 0.2% respectively by use of PPE that reduces transmission by 90% (as might be achieved with N95 respirators or high-quality surgical masks) and symptomatic screening. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection risks to vaccinators, vaccinees, and caregivers during vaccination campaigns can be greatly reduced by adequate PPE, symptomatic screening, and appropriate campaign timing. Our results support the use of adequate risk mitigation measures for vaccination campaigns held during SARS-CoV-2 epidemics, rather than cancelling them entirely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Brazil , Burkina Faso , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment
3.
Fam Med Community Health ; 9(3)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476699

ABSTRACT

Although low-income countries have recently seen an exponential flourishing of digital health initiatives, the landscape is characterised by a myriad of small pilots that rarely reach scaling, sustainability and wide adoption. The case of Burkina Faso represents an exception where a digital health initiative initially conceived to improve the diagnosis of sick children under 5 has supported millions of consultations. Technical aspects such as interoperability, standardisation, and adaptation to the existing infrastructure were considered as they are prerequisites for scaling; so was the demonstration of the health impact and affordability of the initiative. Beyond those factors which are largely documented in the literature, the experience in Burkina Faso showed that the positive outcome was also determined by the support of numerous stakeholders. A vast network of stakeholders from the Ministry of Health to child caregivers is involved and each of them could have either blocked or promoted the digital health initiative. Thanks to an extensive, time-consuming and tailored stakeholder strategy, it was possible to avoid potential blockages from multiple actors and gain their engagement.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Stakeholder Participation , Burkina Faso , Child , Family , Humans , Referral and Consultation
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 896, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The world has high hopes of vaccination against COVID-19 to protect the population, boost economies and return to normal life. Vaccination programmes are being rolled out in high income countries, but the pandemic continues to progress in many low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) despite implementation of strict hygiene measures. We aim to present a comprehensive research protocol that will generate epidemiological, sociological and anthropological data about the COVID-19 epidemic in Burkina Faso, a landlocked country in West Africa with scarce resources. METHODS: We will perform a multidisciplinary research using mixed methods in the two main cities in Burkina Faso (Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso). Data will be collected in the general population and in COVID-19 patients, caregivers and health care professionals in reference care centers: (i) to determine cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Burkinabe population using blood samples collected from randomly selected households according to the WHO-recommended protocol; (ii) develop a score to predict severe complications of COVID-19 in persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 using retrospective and prospective data; (iii) perform semi-structured interviews and direct observation on site, to describe and analyze the healthcare pathways and experiences of patients with COVID-19 attending reference care centers, and to identify the perceptions, acceptability and application of preventive strategies among the population. DISCUSSION: This study will generate comprehensive data that will contribute to improving COVID-19 response strategies in Burkina Faso. The lessons learned from the management of this epidemic may serve as examples to the country authorities to better design preventive strategies in the case of future epidemics or pandemics. The protocol was approved by the Ministry for Health (N° 2020-00952/MS/CAB/INSP/CM) and the Health Research Ethics Committee in Burkina Faso (N° 2020-8-140).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 45-52, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The overall death toll from COVID-19 in Africa is reported to be low but there is little individual-level evidence on the severity of the disease. This study examined the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients monitored in COVID-19 care centres (CCCs) in two West-African countries. METHODS: Burkina Faso and Guinea set up referral CCCs to hospitalise all symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers, regardless of the severity of their symptoms. Data collected from hospitalised patients by November 2020 are presented. RESULT: A total of 1,805 patients (64% men, median age 41 years) were admitted with COVID-19. Symptoms lasted for a median of 7 days (IQR 4-11). During hospitalisation, 443 (25%) had a SpO2 < 94% at least once, 237 (13%) received oxygen and 266 (15%) took corticosteroids. Mortality was 5% overall, and 1%, 5% and 14% in patients aged <40, 40-59 and ≥60 years, respectively. In multivariable analysis, the risk of death was higher in men (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1; 3.6), people aged ≥60 years (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7; 4.8) and those with chronic hypertension (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2; 3.4). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is as severe in Africa as elsewhere, and there must be more vigilance for common risk factors such as older age and hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 289-295, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351679

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is one of the world's major health crises. The objective of this study was to determine the predictive factors of severe hypoxemia in patients hospitalized in COVID-19 health facilities in Burkina Faso. PATIENTS AND METHOD: This study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. The data collected relate to the period of the first wave of the epidemic (March 9 to June 30, 2020). All patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in the requisitioned health facilities of Ouagadougou were included in this study. Predictors of severe hypoxemia were identified using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, 442 patients were included, representing 45.7% of the total number of positive patients in the entire country. The most common co-morbidities were diabetes (55; 12.4%) and arterial hypertension (97; 21.9%). Severe hypoxemia (SpO2 < 90%) was observed in 64 patients (14.5%). Age over 65 years (OR = 8.24; 95% CI: 2.83-24.01) and diabetes (OR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.17-5.06) were the predictors for occurrence of severe hypoxemia in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The predictive factors of COVID-19 are similar in African and Caucasian populations. The surveillance of COVID-19 in risk groups should be strengthened to reduce their morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1490, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In early March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic hit West Africa. In response, countries in the region quickly set up crisis management committees and implemented drastic measures to stem the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The objective of this article is to analyse the epidemiological evolution of COVID-19 in seven Francophone West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal) as well as the public health measures decided upon during the first 7 months of the pandemic. METHODS: Our method is based on quantitative and qualitative data from the pooling of information from a COVID-19 data platform and collected by a network of interdisciplinary collaborators present in the seven countries. Descriptive and spatial analyses of quantitative epidemiological data, as well as content analyses of qualitative data on public measures and management committees were performed. RESULTS: Attack rates (October 2020) for COVID-19 have ranged from 20 per 100,000 inhabitants (Benin) to more than 94 per 100,000 inhabitants (Senegal). All these countries reacted quickly to the crisis, in some cases before the first reported infection, and implemented public measures in a relatively homogeneous manner. None of the countries implemented country-wide lockdowns, but some implemented partial or local containment measures. At the end of June 2020, countries began to lift certain restrictive measures, sometimes under pressure from the general population or from certain economic sectors. CONCLUSION: Much research on COVID-19 remains to be conducted in West Africa to better understand the dynamics of the pandemic, and to further examine the state responses to ensure their appropriateness and adaptation to the national contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Benin , Burkina Faso , Communicable Disease Control , Cote d'Ivoire , Guinea , Humans , Mali/epidemiology , Niger , SARS-CoV-2 , Senegal/epidemiology
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 539, 2021 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, acute respiratory infections (ARI), acute gastrointestinal infections (GI) and acute febrile disease of unknown cause (AFDUC) have a large disease burden, especially among children, while respective aetiologies often remain unresolved. The need for robust infectious disease surveillance to detect emerging pathogens along with common human pathogens has been highlighted by the ongoing novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The African Network for Improved Diagnostics, Epidemiology and Management of Common Infectious Agents (ANDEMIA) is a sentinel surveillance study on the aetiology and clinical characteristics of ARI, GI and AFDUC in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: ANDEMIA includes 12 urban and rural health care facilities in four African countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of South Africa). It was piloted in 2018 in Côte d'Ivoire and the initial phase will run from 2019 to 2021. Case definitions for ARI, GI and AFDUC were established, as well as syndrome-specific sampling algorithms including the collection of blood, naso- and oropharyngeal swabs and stool. Samples are tested using comprehensive diagnostic protocols, ranging from classic bacteriology and antimicrobial resistance screening to multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems and High Throughput Sequencing. In March 2020, PCR testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and analysis of full genomic information was included in the study. Standardised questionnaires collect relevant clinical, demographic, socio-economic and behavioural data for epidemiologic analyses. Controls are enrolled over a 12-month period for a nested case-control study. Data will be assessed descriptively and aetiologies will be evaluated using a latent class analysis among cases. Among cases and controls, an integrated analytic approach using logistic regression and Bayesian estimation will be employed to improve the assessment of aetiology and associated risk factors. DISCUSSION: ANDEMIA aims to expand our understanding of ARI, GI and AFDUC aetiologies in sub-Saharan Africa using a comprehensive laboratory diagnostics strategy. It will foster early detection of emerging threats and continued monitoring of important common pathogens. The network collaboration will be strengthened and site diagnostic capacities will be reinforced to improve quality management and patient care.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Sentinel Surveillance , Bayes Theorem , Burkina Faso , Case-Control Studies , Cote d'Ivoire , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/microbiology , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , South Africa
10.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 105: 106402, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188374

ABSTRACT

Post-natal HIV infection through breastfeeding remains a challenge in many low and middle-income countries, particularly due to non-availability of alternative infant feeding options and the suboptimal Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV-1 (PMTCT) cascade implementation and monitoring. The PROMISE-EPI study aims to address the latter by identifying HIV infected mothers during an almost never-missed visit for their infant, the second extended program on immunization visit at 6-8 weeks of age (EPI-2). The study is divided into 3 components inclusive of an open-label randomized controlled trial aiming to assess the efficacy of a responsive preventive intervention compared to routine intervention based on the national PMTCT guidelines for HIV-1 uninfected exposed breastfeeding infants. The preventive intervention includes: a) Point of care testing for early infant HIV diagnosis and maternal viral load; b) infant, single-drug Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) (lamivudine) if mothers are virally unsuppressed. The primary outcome is HIV-transmission rate from EPI-2 to 12 months. The study targets to screen 37,000 mother/infant pairs in Zambia and Burkina Faso to identify 2000 mother/infant pairs for the clinical trial. The study design and challenges faced during study implementation are described, including the COVID-19 pandemic and the amended HIV guidelines in Zambia in 2020 (triple-drug PrEP in HIV exposed infants guided by quarterly maternal viral load). The changes in the Zambian guidelines raised several questions including the equipoise of PrEP options, the standard of care-triple-drug (control arm in Zambia) versus the study-single-drug (intervention arm). Trial registration number (www.clinicaltrials.gov): NCT03869944. Submission category: Study Design, Statistical Design, Study Protocols.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Feeding , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Burkina Faso , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Infant , Lamivudine/administration & dosage , Lamivudine/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Young Adult , Zambia
11.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 113(4): 222-227, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172022

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on some representations of the origin of AIDS and Ebola in Burkina Faso, against a new background of Covid-19 which began in early 2020 in connection with two animals: the spider and the bat. These are also, if not first and foremost, heroes of oral literature (from tales to myths) from this region of West Africa. It is up to anthropologists to explore the meandering symbolism and imagination of these liminal animals that move back and forth between the worlds inhabited by humans and the "bush" worlds of non-humans. Here arises a mythological anamnesis. These "trickster" animals challenge categories and understanding of both virologists and anthropologists.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Spiders/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/history , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Animals , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/history , Congresses as Topic , Disease Vectors , Epidemics , HIV/physiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/history , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/transmission , History, 21st Century , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Museums , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
12.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(3): e1008776, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117465

ABSTRACT

In an epidemic, individuals can widely differ in the way they spread the infection depending on their age or on the number of days they have been infected for. In the absence of pharmaceutical interventions such as a vaccine or treatment, non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g. physical or social distancing) are essential to mitigate the pandemic. We develop an original approach to identify the optimal age-stratified control strategy to implement as a function of the time since the onset of the epidemic. This is based on a model with a double continuous structure in terms of host age and time since infection. By applying optimal control theory to this model, we identify a solution that minimizes deaths and costs associated with the implementation of the control strategy itself. We also implement this strategy for three countries with contrasted age distributions (Burkina-Faso, France, and Vietnam). Overall, the optimal strategy varies throughout the epidemic, with a more intense control early on, and depending on host age, with a stronger control for the older population, except in the scenario where the cost associated with the control is low. In the latter scenario, we find strong differences across countries because the control extends to the younger population for France and Vietnam 2 to 3 months after the onset of the epidemic, but not for Burkina Faso. Finally, we show that the optimal control strategy strongly outperforms a constant uniform control exerted over the whole population or over its younger fraction. This improved understanding of the effect of age-based control interventions opens new perspectives for the field, especially for age-based contact tracing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Computational Biology , Contact Tracing/methods , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mathematical Concepts , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Vietnam/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 37, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100367

ABSTRACT

Le monde entier est touché par un bouleversement sans précédent, crée par un virus incontrôlable et qui a pris le pas sur les théories scientifiques les plus élaborées. Les grandes puissances peinent à empêcher l'hécatombe dans les effectifs de leurs citoyens infectés, en dépit de toutes les avancées scientifiques et technologiques. Les pays à ressources limitées et dans lesquels vivent des populations parmi les plus vulnérables apparaissent comme les cibles sur lesquelles le virus est susceptible de faire le maximum de dégâts. Cette note discute des approches stratégiques, propose des mesures politiques et suggère des recommandations. La capacité de dépistage/diagnostic, les mesures de protection et d'assainissement, la communication et l'implication de la communauté seraient des priorités de riposte.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Vulnerable Populations , Burkina Faso , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Developing Countries , Humans
14.
Rev Mal Respir ; 38(3): 240-248, 2021 Mar.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087254

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The development of acute respiratory distress syndrome indicates a serious form of COVID-19. Although there have been several studies on the prognostic factors of its severe form, no such study has been conducted in Burkina Faso. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted from March 9 to June 9, 2020 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso which involved 456 patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Nearly a quarter of the patients (23.2%) had presented with acute respiratory distress and 44.3% of them died. Being over 65 years old (HR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.5-5.1) and having hypertension (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1-3.5) were independently associated with the risk of mortality. However, after adjustment, only age over 65 years (HR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.3) was a risk factor for death. The survival rate for patients over 65 was 38.5% at 7 days and 30.3% at 15 days. CONCLUSIONS: Acute respiratory distress leading to death is mainly found in older people with COVID-19. Close monitoring of these high-risk patients may reduce the risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
15.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 47(4): 252-260, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082260

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Evidence from health emergencies suggests COVID-19 will disrupt women's sexual and reproductive health (SRH). In sub-Saharan Africa, which experiences the highest rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion globally, COVID-19 is projected to slow recent progress toward universal access to contraceptive services. METHODS: We used longitudinal data collected from women at risk of unintended pregnancy in Burkina Faso (n=1186) and Kenya (n=2784) before (November 2019-February 2020) and during (May-July 2020) COVID-19 to quantify contraceptive dynamics during COVID-19; examine sociodemographic factors and COVID-19 experiences related to contraceptive dynamics; and assess COVID-19-related reasons for contraceptive non-use. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine correlates of contraceptive dynamics amid COVID-19. RESULTS: Most women did not change their contraceptive status during COVID-19 (68.6% in Burkina Faso and 81.6% in Kenya) and those who did were more likely to adopt a method (25.4% and 13.1%, respectively) than to discontinue (6.0% and 5.3%, respectively). Most women who switched contraceptives were using methods as or more effective than their pre-pandemic contraception. Economic instability related to COVID-19 was associated with increased contraceptive protection in Burkina Faso but not in Kenya. Altogether, 14.4% of non-contraceptive users in Kenya and 3.8% in Burkina Faso identified COVID-19-related reasons for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of women at risk of unintended pregnancy did not change their contraceptive status during COVID-19, and more women adopted than discontinued methods. A minority of women reported COVID-19-related reasons for non-use, underscoring the importance of expanding safe modes of service delivery during health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contraceptive Agents , Burkina Faso , Contraception Behavior , Female , Humans , Kenya , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 101: 194-200, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Absolute numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths reported to date in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region have been significantly lower than those across the Americas, Asia and Europe. As a result, there has been limited information about the demographic and clinical characteristics of deceased cases in the region, as well as the impacts of different case management strategies. METHODS: Data from deceased cases reported across SSA through 10 May 2020 and from hospitalized cases in Burkina Faso through 15 April 2020 were analyzed. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical information on deceased cases in SSA was derived through a line-list of publicly available information and, for cases in Burkina Faso, from aggregate records at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Tengandogo in Ouagadougou. A synthetic case population was probabilistically derived using distributions of age, sex and underlying conditions from populations of West African countries to assess individual risk factors and treatment effect sizes. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the adjusted odds of survival for patients receiving oxygen therapy or convalescent plasma, based on therapeutic effectiveness observed for other respiratory illnesses. RESULTS: Across SSA, deceased cases for which demographic data were available were predominantly male (63/103, 61.2%) and aged >50 years (59/75, 78.7%). In Burkina Faso, specifically, the majority of deceased cases either did not seek care at all or were hospitalized for a single day (59.4%, 19/32). Hypertension and diabetes were often reported as underlying conditions. After adjustment for sex, age and underlying conditions in the synthetic case population, the odds of mortality for cases not receiving oxygen therapy were significantly higher than for those receiving oxygen, such as due to disruptions to standard care (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.56-2.75). Cases receiving convalescent plasma had 50% reduced odds of mortality than those who did not (95% CI 0.24-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Investment in sustainable production and maintenance of supplies for oxygen therapy, along with messaging around early and appropriate use for healthcare providers, caregivers and patients could reduce COVID-19 deaths in SSA. Further investigation into convalescent plasma is warranted until data on its effectiveness specifically in treating COVID-19 becomes available. The success of supportive or curative clinical interventions will depend on earlier treatment seeking, such that community engagement and risk communication will be critical components of the response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Asia/epidemiology , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Young Adult
18.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(3)2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696409

ABSTRACT

Africa is the World Health Organization-region least affected by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Here, we compare the situation in severely hit Italy with that in less hit Burkina Faso, focussing on the differences in epidemiological, geographical, demographical, cultural and medical conditions to highlight how a full-blown war on the pandemic can impact on other, equally important aspects of global child health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Italy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008305, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The dengue virus is endemic in many low- and middle-income countries. In Burkina Faso, the proportion of fevers that could be due to dengue is growing. In 2013, a dengue epidemic spread there, followed by other seasonal outbreaks. Dengue is often confused with malaria, and health workers are not trained to distinguish between them. Three training videos using different narrative genres were tested with nursing students from two institutions in Ouagadougou: journalistic, dramatic and animated video. The study aimed to determine if video is an effective knowledge transfer tool, if narrative genre plays a role in knowledge acquisition, and which narrative elements are the most appreciated. METHODOLOGY: A mixed method research design was used. The relative effectiveness of the videos was verified through a quasi-experimental quantitative component with a comparison group and post-test measurements. A qualitative component identified participants' perceptions regarding the three videos. Data were drawn from a knowledge test (n = 482), three focus groups with health professionals' students (n = 46), and individual interviews with health professionals (n = 10). Descriptive statistics and single-factor variance analysis were produced. A thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results showed that all three videos led to significant rates of knowledge improvement when compared with the comparison group (p <0.05): 12.31% for the journalistic video, 20.58% for the dramatic video, and 18.91% for the animated video. The dramatic and animated videos produced a significantly higher increase in knowledge than did the journalistic video (with respectively 8.27% (p = 0.003) and 6.59% (p = 0.029) and can be considered equivalent with a difference of 1.68% (p = 0.895). Thematic analysis also revealed that these two videos were considered to be better knowledge transfer tools. Four key aspects are important to consider for a video to be effective: 1) transmitting information in a narrative form, 2) choosing good communicators, 3) creating a visual instrument that reinforces the message and 4) adapting the message to the local context. CONCLUSIONS: Video has proven to be an effective and appreciated knowledge transfer and training tool for health professionals, but the narrative genre of the videos can influence knowledge acquisition. The production of other videos should be considered for training or updating health professionals and their narrative genre taken into consideration. The actual context of constant circulation of new diseases, such as COVID-19, reaffirms the need to train health professionals.


Subject(s)
Audiovisual Aids , Health Personnel/education , Narration , Burkina Faso , Dengue/diagnosis , Diagnostic Errors/prevention & control , Focus Groups , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Inservice Training , Knowledge
20.
Infect Dis Health ; 25(3): 186-193, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pathogens are transmitted by contamination of surfaces causing healthcare-associated infections (HAI). The impact of locally produced disinfectant with operational training as a means to improve hygiene in resource-limited healthcare facilities and prevent HAI was evaluated. METHOD: In Burkina Faso, 4 types of electro-chlorinator devices that convert salt and water into sodium hypochlorite through electrolysis were installed in 26 healthcare facilities distributed across 3 sanitary districts. The program was evaluated at 4 months and 11 months and performance compared with a control group. RESULTS: After 11 months, over 90% of the facilities applied 8 of the 11 essential hygiene practices defined by the Ministry of Health, compared to 20% in the control group. 61.5% of the healthcare facilities improved the chlorine concentration of their sodium hypochlorite solutions, reaching an average concentration of 5.1 g/L compared to an average of 2.1 g/L in the control group. Additionally, a cost-benefit analysis demonstrated that locally produced sodium hypochlorite led to daily savings ranging between 2.7 and 53 euros depending on the device compared with the purchase of chlorine tablets. CONCLUSION: Results, therefore, suggest that electro-chlorinator devices in addition to hygiene sensitization can be a simple, cost-effective and tailored intervention to reduce the prevalence of HAI in low-resource settings.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Hygiene , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Electrolysis , Halogenation , Health Facilities , Humans
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