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1.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 150, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 constitutes a global health emergency of unprecedented proportions. Preventive measures, however, have run up against certain difficulties in low and middle-income countries. This is the case in socially and geographically marginalized communities, which are excluded from information about preventive measures. This study contains a dual objective, i) to assess knowledge of COVID-19 and the preventive measures associated with it concerning indigents in the villages of Diebougou's district in Burkina Faso. The aim is to understand if determinants of this understanding exist, and ii) to describe how their pathways to healthcare changed from 2019 to 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Diebougou healthcare district, in the south-west region of Burkina Faso. We relied on a cross-sectional design and used data from the fourth round of a panel survey conducted among a sample of ultra-poor people that had been monitored since 2015. Data were collected in August 2020 and included a total of 259 ultra-poor people. A multivariate logistic regression to determine the factors associated with the respondents' knowledge of COVID-19 was used. RESULTS: Half of indigents in the district said they had heard about COVID-19. Only 29% knew what the symptoms of the disease were. The majority claimed that they protected themselves from the virus by using preventive measures. This level of knowledge of the disease can be observed with no differences between the villages. Half of the indigents who expressed themselves agreed with government measures except for the closure of markets. An increase of over 11% can be seen in indigents without the opportunity for getting healthcare compared with before the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This research indicates that COVID-19 is partially known and that prevention measures are not universally understood. The study contributes to reducing the fragmentation of knowledge, in particular on vulnerable and marginalized populations. Results should be useful for future interventions for the control of epidemics that aim to leave no one behind.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Cross-Sectional Studies , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poverty
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1857, 2022 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global evidence indicates increases in gender-based violence (GBV) during the COVID-19 pandemic following mitigation measures, such as stay at home orders. Indirect effects of the pandemic, including income loss, strained social support, and closed or inaccessible violence response services, may further exacerbate GBV and undermine help-seeking. In Kenya and Burkina Faso, as in many settings, GBV was prevalent prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies specific to COVID-impact on GBV in Kenya indicate mixed results and there remains a lack of evidence from Burkina Faso. Our study takes a comprehensive lens by addressing both intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-partner household abuse through the COVID-19 pandemic in two priority settings. METHODS: Annual, national cross-sections of women ages 15-49 completed survey data collection in November-December 2020 and December 2020-March 2021; the GBV module was limited to one woman per household [Kenya n = 6715; Burkina n = 4065]. Descriptive statistics, Venn diagrams, and logistic and multinomial regression characterized prevalence of IPV and other household abuse, frequency relative to the COVID-19 pandemic, help-seeking behaviors, and predictors of IPV and household abuse across the socioecological framework. RESULTS: In both settings, past-year IPV prevalence exceeded non-partner household abuse (Kenya: 23.5%IPV, 11.0%household; Burkina Faso: 25.7%IPV, 16.2%household). Over half of those affected in each setting did not seek help; those that did turned first to family. Among those with past-year experiences, increased frequency since COVID-19 was noted for IPV (16.0%Burkina Faso; 33.6%Kenya) and household violence (14.3%Burkina Faso; 26.2%Kenya). Both context-specific (i.e., financial autonomy in Burkina Faso) and universal (i.e., COVID-related income loss) risk factors emerged. CONCLUSION: Past-year IPV and household violence against women in Kenya and Burkina Faso were prevalent, and in some cases, intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Across settings, help-seeking from formal services was notably low, likely reflecting shame, blame, and stigmatization identified as barriers in pre-COVID literature. Both primary prevention and survivor-centered support services, including those related to economic empowerment, should be integrated within COVID-recovery efforts, and extended into the post-pandemic period to fully meet women's safety needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Adolescent , Adult , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Sexual Partners , Young Adult
3.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 8239915, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053437

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has spread all around the world in less than four months. However, the pattern of the epidemic was different according to the countries. We propose this paper to describe the transmission network and to estimate the serial interval and the reproductive number of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Burkina Faso, a Sub-Saharan African country. Data from the COVID-19 response team was analyzed. Information on the 804 first detected cases were pulled together. From contact tracing information, 126 infector-infectee pairs were built. The principal infection clusters with their index cases were observed, principally the two major identified indexes in Burkina. However, the generations of infections were usually short (less than four). The serial interval was estimated to follow a gamma distribution with a shape parameter 1.04 (95% credibility interval: 0.69-1.57) and a scale parameter of 5.69 (95% credibility interval: 3.76-9.11). The basic reproductive number was estimated at 2.36 (95% confidence interval: 1.46-3.26). However, the effective reproductive number decreases very quickly, reaching a minimum value of 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.34). Estimated parameters are made available to monitor the outbreak in Sub-Saharan African countries. These show serial intervals like in the other continents but less infectiousness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Basic Reproduction Number , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1676, 2022 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic affects the entire world population and has serious health, economic and social consequences. Assessing the prevalence of COVID-19 through population-based serological surveys is essential to monitor the progression of the epidemic, especially in African countries where the extent of SARS-CoV-2 spread remains unclear. METHODS: A two-stage cluster population-based SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence survey was conducted in Bobo-Dioulasso and in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Fianarantsoa, Madagascar and Kumasi, Ghana between February and June 2021. IgG seropositivity was determined in 2,163 households with a specificity improved SARS-CoV-2 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Population seroprevalence was evaluated using a Bayesian logistic regression model that accounted for test performance and age, sex and neighbourhood of the participants. RESULTS: Seroprevalence adjusted for test performance and population characteristics were 55.7% [95% Credible Interval (CrI) 49·0; 62·8] in Bobo-Dioulasso, 37·4% [95% CrI 31·3; 43·5] in Ouagadougou, 41·5% [95% CrI 36·5; 47·2] in Fianarantsoa, and 41·2% [95% CrI 34·5; 49·0] in Kumasi. Within the study population, less than 6% of participants performed a test for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection since the onset of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: High exposure to SARS-CoV-2 was found in the surveyed regions albeit below the herd immunity threshold and with a low rate of previous testing for acute infections. Despite the high seroprevalence in our study population, the duration of protection from naturally acquired immunity remains unclear and new virus variants continue to emerge. This highlights the importance of vaccine deployment and continued preventive measures to protect the population at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Bayes Theorem , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ghana/epidemiology , Humans , Madagascar/epidemiology , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 295: 454-457, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924040

ABSTRACT

Mobile technology is widely used in healthcare. However, designers and developers in many cases have focused on developing solutions that are often tailored to highly literate people. While the advent of the pandemic has called for people to seek and use Covid-19 related information to adapt their behaviors, it is relatively difficult for low literate to get easily access to health information through digital technologies. In this study, we present a Mobile based Interactive Voice Response service designed particularly for low-literate people which provides validated Covid-19 related health information in local African languages. We conducted a field study, among high school students, through a usability study to assess users' perception. The service received an excellent numerical usability score of 78.75.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Voice , Adolescent , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Literacy/standards , Humans , Language , Students , User-Centered Design
6.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 40, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893209

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In sub-Saharan Africa, extensive migratory activities and interactions exist especially amongst unmanned cross-border communities between countries sharing common borders which complicate emergency public health interventions. Understanding the nature of these activities and interactions will help strengthen public health interventions and control of pandemics such as the Ebola outbreak and COVID-19. Objective: The study aimed to understand the nature of contiguous border communities' interactions and to seek community solutions for building efficient and resilient health systems to combat a possible Ebola outbreak in Ghana and Burkina Faso and the control of future pandemics. Methods: A qualitative cross sectional study design using focused group discussions and key informant interviews involving six focused groups and forty-six key informants were conducted amongst six Kasem-speaking contiguous border communities, three-each in Ghana and Burkina Faso. Findings: Findings of interactions consisted of social interactions such as marriage ceremonies; traditional and religious practices; informal trade; and health seeking behavior in the study communities. Collaborative disease surveillance systems; constructive dialogue involving community traditional leaders; incorporation of health education into social, traditional and religious activities; retraining of health personnel; effective communication including networking; and inter-governmental collaborations were identified as solutions to the effective control of the Ebola outbreak and for future public health interventions in general. Conclusion: Understanding community interactions and seeking community solutions were identified to be crucial in building efficient health systems that are resilient and responsive to the Ebola outbreak and for future pandemics in contiguous border communities in sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Pandemics , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ghana/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Qualitative Research
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 224-229, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to assess the statistical relationship between the use of chloroquine phosphate or hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (CQ/HCQ + AZ) and virological recovery, disease worsening, and death among out- and inpatients with COVID-19 in Burkina Faso. METHODS AND DESIGNS: This was a retrospective observational study that compared outcomes in terms of time to recovery, worsening, and death in patients who received CQ/HCQ + AZ and those who did not using a multivariable Cox or Poisson model before and after propensity matching. RESULTS: Of the 863 patients included in the study, about 50% (432/863) were home-based follow-up patients and 50% were inpatients. Of these, 83.3% (746/863) received at least 1 dose of CQ/HCQ + AZ and 13.7% (118/863) did not. There were no significant differences in associated time to recovery for patients receiving any CQ/HCQ + AZ (adjusted HR 1.44; 95% CI 0.76-2.71). Similarly, there was no significant association between CQ/HCQ + AZ use and worsening (adjusted IRR 0.80; 95% CI 0.50-1.50). However, compared with the untreated group, the treated group had a lower risk of death (adjusted HR 0.20; 95% CI 0.10-0.44). CONCLUSIONS: The study provided valuable additional information on the use of CQ/HCQ in patients with COVID-19 and did not show any harmful outcomes of CQ/HCQ + AZ treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Inpatients , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Malar J ; 21(1): 103, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a WHO-recommended intervention for children aged 3-59 months living in areas of high malaria transmission to provide protection against malaria during the rainy season. Operational guidelines were developed, based on WHO guidance, to support countries to mitigate the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission within communities and among community distributors when delivering SMC. METHODS: A cross-sectional study to determine adherence to infection prevention and control (IPC) measures during two distribution cycles of SMC in Nigeria, Chad and Burkina Faso. Community distributors were observed receiving equipment and delivering SMC. Adherence across six domains was calculated as the proportion of indications in which the community distributor performed the correct action. Focus group discussions were conducted with community distributors to understand their perceptions of the IPC measures and barriers and facilitators to adherence. RESULTS: Data collectors observed community distributors in Nigeria (n = 259), Burkina Faso (n = 252) and Chad (n = 266) receiving IPC equipment and delivering SMC. Adherence to IPC indications varied. In all three countries, adherence to mask use was the highest (ranging from 73.3% in Nigeria to 86.9% in Burkina Faso). Adherence to hand hygiene for at least 30 s was low (ranging from 3.6% in Nigeria to 10.3% in Burkina Faso) but increased substantially when excluding the length of time spent hand washing (ranging from 36.7% in Nigeria to 61.4% in Burkina Faso). Adherence to safe distancing in the compound ranged from 5.4% in Chad to 16.4% in Nigeria. In Burkina Faso and Chad, where disinfection wipes widely available compliance with disinfection of blister packs for SMC was low (17.4% in Burkina Faso and 16.9% in Chad). Community distributors generally found the IPC measures acceptable, however there were barriers to optimal hand hygiene practices, cultural norms made social distancing difficult to adhere to and caregivers needed assistance to administer the first dose of SMC. CONCLUSION: Adherence to IPC measures for SMC delivery during the COVID-19 pandemic varied across domains of IPC, but was largely insufficient, particularly for hand hygiene and safe distancing. Improvements in provision of protective equipment, early community engagement and adaptations to make IPC measures more feasible to implement could increase adherence.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Malaria , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chad , Chemoprevention , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Malaria/prevention & control , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seasons
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 743248, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731860

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To limit the spread of COVID-19 due to imported cases, Burkina Faso has set up quarantine measures for arriving passengers. We aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of imported cases of COVID-19 in Burkina Faso. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed using data from passengers arriving at the airport from April 9 to August 31, 2020. The data was extracted from the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2) platform. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of imported cases of COVID-19. RESULTS: Among 6,332 travelers who arrived in the study period, 173 imported cases (2.7%) were recorded. The incidence rate was 1.9 cases per 1,000 traveler-days (95%CI: 1.6-2.2 per 1,000). Passengers arriving in April (Adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 3.56; 95%CI: 1.62-7.81) and May (aHR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.18-3.12) were more at risk of being tested positive compared to those arriving in August, as well as, passengers presenting with one symptom (aHR = 3.71; 95% CI: 1.63-8.43) and at least two symptoms (aHR = 10.82; 95% CI: 5.24-22,30) compared to asymptomatic travelers. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of imported cases was relatively low in Burkina Faso between April and August 2020. The period of travel and the presence of symptoms at arrival predicted the risk of being tested positive to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This is essential in the context of the high circulation of virus variants worldwide and the low local capacity to perform genotyping tests to strengthen the surveillance and screening capacities at the points of entry into the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 896, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The world has high hopes of vaccination against COVID-19 to protect the population, boost economies and return to normal life. Vaccination programmes are being rolled out in high income countries, but the pandemic continues to progress in many low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) despite implementation of strict hygiene measures. We aim to present a comprehensive research protocol that will generate epidemiological, sociological and anthropological data about the COVID-19 epidemic in Burkina Faso, a landlocked country in West Africa with scarce resources. METHODS: We will perform a multidisciplinary research using mixed methods in the two main cities in Burkina Faso (Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso). Data will be collected in the general population and in COVID-19 patients, caregivers and health care professionals in reference care centers: (i) to determine cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Burkinabe population using blood samples collected from randomly selected households according to the WHO-recommended protocol; (ii) develop a score to predict severe complications of COVID-19 in persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 using retrospective and prospective data; (iii) perform semi-structured interviews and direct observation on site, to describe and analyze the healthcare pathways and experiences of patients with COVID-19 attending reference care centers, and to identify the perceptions, acceptability and application of preventive strategies among the population. DISCUSSION: This study will generate comprehensive data that will contribute to improving COVID-19 response strategies in Burkina Faso. The lessons learned from the management of this epidemic may serve as examples to the country authorities to better design preventive strategies in the case of future epidemics or pandemics. The protocol was approved by the Ministry for Health (N° 2020-00952/MS/CAB/INSP/CM) and the Health Research Ethics Committee in Burkina Faso (N° 2020-8-140).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 45-52, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The overall death toll from COVID-19 in Africa is reported to be low but there is little individual-level evidence on the severity of the disease. This study examined the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients monitored in COVID-19 care centres (CCCs) in two West-African countries. METHODS: Burkina Faso and Guinea set up referral CCCs to hospitalise all symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers, regardless of the severity of their symptoms. Data collected from hospitalised patients by November 2020 are presented. RESULT: A total of 1,805 patients (64% men, median age 41 years) were admitted with COVID-19. Symptoms lasted for a median of 7 days (IQR 4-11). During hospitalisation, 443 (25%) had a SpO2 < 94% at least once, 237 (13%) received oxygen and 266 (15%) took corticosteroids. Mortality was 5% overall, and 1%, 5% and 14% in patients aged <40, 40-59 and ≥60 years, respectively. In multivariable analysis, the risk of death was higher in men (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1; 3.6), people aged ≥60 years (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7; 4.8) and those with chronic hypertension (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2; 3.4). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is as severe in Africa as elsewhere, and there must be more vigilance for common risk factors such as older age and hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 289-295, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351679

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is one of the world's major health crises. The objective of this study was to determine the predictive factors of severe hypoxemia in patients hospitalized in COVID-19 health facilities in Burkina Faso. PATIENTS AND METHOD: This study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. The data collected relate to the period of the first wave of the epidemic (March 9 to June 30, 2020). All patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in the requisitioned health facilities of Ouagadougou were included in this study. Predictors of severe hypoxemia were identified using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, 442 patients were included, representing 45.7% of the total number of positive patients in the entire country. The most common co-morbidities were diabetes (55; 12.4%) and arterial hypertension (97; 21.9%). Severe hypoxemia (SpO2 < 90%) was observed in 64 patients (14.5%). Age over 65 years (OR = 8.24; 95% CI: 2.83-24.01) and diabetes (OR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.17-5.06) were the predictors for occurrence of severe hypoxemia in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The predictive factors of COVID-19 are similar in African and Caucasian populations. The surveillance of COVID-19 in risk groups should be strengthened to reduce their morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Hypoxia/epidemiology , Hypoxia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 351-362, 2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280858

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a public health emergency affecting the lives of millions of people globally. Different measures and extraordinary steps are being taken to contain the transmission of the virus. The levels of knowledge and implementation of preventive practices related to COVID-19 in sub-Saharan African countries are unclear. Additionally, there is a lack of evidence regarding the impacts of the pandemic on mental health. This study aimed to describe knowledge and practices related to COVID-19 and to assess mental health status among adults in three sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nigeria. A total of 1,797 adults were included in the survey, and data were collected using computer-assisted telephone interviews. The proportions of adults who identified more than 80% of COVID-19 symptoms, transmission methods, and prevention mechanisms were 69.9%, 79.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The practice of preventive measures was relatively lower for avoiding social gatherings and disinfecting contaminated surfaces. Better education, urban residence, and believing the pandemic is real were factors associated with good knowledge on COVID-19 symptoms, transmission methods, and preventive actions. Additionally, being male was associated with good knowledge on symptoms and transmission methods, whereas being in an older age group was associated with knowledge of transmission methods. Mild, moderate, and severe psychological distress was reported by 20.6%, 5.9%, and 1.1% of the participants, respectively. Although this study found high levels of knowledge regarding COVID-19, interventions are needed to increase the uptake of recommended preventive practices among adults in sub-Saharan Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 342-350, 2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280857

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented public health crisis globally. Understanding healthcare providers' (HCPs') knowledge and perceptions of COVID-19 is crucial to identifying effective strategies to improve their ability to respond to the pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. A phone-based survey of 900 HCPs in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nigeria (300 per country) was conducted to assess knowledge, perceptions, COVID-19 prevention measures, stigma, and mental health of HCPs. Modified Poisson regression models were used to evaluate predictors of knowledge, perceptions, and prevention measures; adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Three-fourths of the HCPs had adequate knowledge, and over half had correct perceptions of risk and high levels of self-reported prevention measures. The majority of the HCPs (73.7%) reported self-perceived social stigma. There was relatively low prevalence of depression (6.6%), anxiety (6.6%), or psychological distress (18%). Compared with doctors, being a nurse was associated with lower levels of knowledge (ARR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.77-0.90) and was also negatively associated with having correct perceptions toward COVID-19 (AOR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73-0.92). HCPs treating COVID-19 patients had higher likelihood of having high levels of prevention measures (AOR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.23-1.53). Despite high levels of knowledge among HCPs in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a need to improve COVID-19 perceptions and compliance with prevention measures as well as address social stigma toward HCPs to better ensure their safety and prepare them to deliver health services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Aged , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Telephone , Urban Population , Young Adult
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 323-330, 2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280855

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have short-term and long-term impacts on health services across sub-Saharan African countries. A telephone survey in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nigeria was conducted to assess the effects of the pandemic on healthcare services from the perspectives of healthcare providers (HCPs) and community members. A total of 900 HCPs (300 from each country) and 1,797 adult community members (approximately 600 from each country) participated in the study. Adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using modified Poisson regression. According to the HCPs, more than half (56%) of essential health services were affected. Child health services and HIV/surgical/other services had a slightly higher percentage of interruption (33%) compared with maternal health services (31%). A total of 21.8%, 19.3%, and 7.7% of the community members reported that their family members and themselves had difficulty accessing childcare services, maternal health, and other health services, respectively. Nurses had a lower risk of reporting high service interruptions than physicians (ARR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.56-0.95). HCPs at private facilities (ARR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59-0.84) had a lower risk of reporting high service interruptions than those at governmental facilities. Health services in Nigeria were more likely to be interrupted than those in Burkina Faso (ARR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.19-1.59). Health authorities should work with multiple stakeholders to ensure routine health services and identify novel and adaptive approaches to recover referral services, medical care, maternal and child health, family planning, immunization and health promotion, and prevention during the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Child , Child Health Services/standards , Child Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Maternal Health Services/standards , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Telephone , Young Adult
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 295-309, 2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280853

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can have far-reaching consequences for developing countries through the combined effects of infection and mortality, and the mitigation measures that can impact food systems and diets. Using a mobile platform, this cross-sectional study evaluated the effect of COVID-19 on food prices and dietary quality for 1797 households in Nouna and Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso, Addis Ababa and Kersa in Ethiopia, and Lagos and Ibadan in Nigeria. We assessed the consumption of 20 food groups during the previous 7 days. The dietary diversity scores (DDS) and Prime Diet Quality Scores (PDQS) were used to assess dietary diversity and quality. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) linear models to evaluate associations between price changes for staples, pulses, vegetables, fruits, and animal source foods (ASFs) with the DDS and PDQS PDQS. Most participants reported increasing prices of staples, pulses, fruits, vegetables and ASF, and ≥ 40% reported the decreased consumption of staples, legumes, and other vegetables and fruits. The DDS (except in Kersa and Ouagadougou) and PDQS were lower during the COVID-19 pandemic. Higher pulse prices were associated with lower DDS (estimate, -0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.74 to 0.03; P = 0.07) in the combined analysis and in Burkina Faso (estimate, -0.47; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.11). Higher vegetable prices were positively associated with the DDS (estimate, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.37). Lower crop production (estimate, -0.54; 95% CI, -0.80 to -0.27) was associated with lower DDS. The price increases and worsening dietary diversity and quality call for social protection and other strategies to increase the availability and affordability of nutrient-rich foods during the COVID-19 pandemic and public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Diet/standards , Food Security , Nutritional Status , Adult , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/economics , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior , Female , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply/standards , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
17.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 113(4): 222-227, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172022

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on some representations of the origin of AIDS and Ebola in Burkina Faso, against a new background of Covid-19 which began in early 2020 in connection with two animals: the spider and the bat. These are also, if not first and foremost, heroes of oral literature (from tales to myths) from this region of West Africa. It is up to anthropologists to explore the meandering symbolism and imagination of these liminal animals that move back and forth between the worlds inhabited by humans and the "bush" worlds of non-humans. Here arises a mythological anamnesis. These "trickster" animals challenge categories and understanding of both virologists and anthropologists.


Cet article porte sur quelques représentations de l'origine du sida et d'Ebola en pays lobi burkinabè, avec la Covid-19 en nouvel arrière-plan depuis le début de l'année 2020, en lien avec deux animaux : l'araignée et la chauve-souris. Ce sont aussi, voire d'abord, des héros de la littérature orale (des contes aux mythes) de cette région d'Afrique de l'Ouest. Des anthropologues ont exploré les méandres des symboliques et des imaginaires de ces animaux liminaires qui vont et viennent entre les mondes habités par les humains et les univers de « brousse ¼ des non-humains. Une anamnèse mythologique est mise à jour. Ces animaux rusés se jouent de nos catégories et de notre entendement, virologues et anthropologues ici confondus.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Spiders/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/history , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Animals , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/history , Congresses as Topic , Disease Vectors , Epidemics , HIV/physiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/history , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/transmission , History, 21st Century , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Humans , Museums , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(3): e1008776, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117465

ABSTRACT

In an epidemic, individuals can widely differ in the way they spread the infection depending on their age or on the number of days they have been infected for. In the absence of pharmaceutical interventions such as a vaccine or treatment, non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g. physical or social distancing) are essential to mitigate the pandemic. We develop an original approach to identify the optimal age-stratified control strategy to implement as a function of the time since the onset of the epidemic. This is based on a model with a double continuous structure in terms of host age and time since infection. By applying optimal control theory to this model, we identify a solution that minimizes deaths and costs associated with the implementation of the control strategy itself. We also implement this strategy for three countries with contrasted age distributions (Burkina-Faso, France, and Vietnam). Overall, the optimal strategy varies throughout the epidemic, with a more intense control early on, and depending on host age, with a stronger control for the older population, except in the scenario where the cost associated with the control is low. In the latter scenario, we find strong differences across countries because the control extends to the younger population for France and Vietnam 2 to 3 months after the onset of the epidemic, but not for Burkina Faso. Finally, we show that the optimal control strategy strongly outperforms a constant uniform control exerted over the whole population or over its younger fraction. This improved understanding of the effect of age-based control interventions opens new perspectives for the field, especially for age-based contact tracing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Models, Biological , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Computational Biology , Contact Tracing/methods , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mathematical Concepts , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Vietnam/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
Rev Mal Respir ; 38(3): 240-248, 2021 Mar.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087254

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The development of acute respiratory distress syndrome indicates a serious form of COVID-19. Although there have been several studies on the prognostic factors of its severe form, no such study has been conducted in Burkina Faso. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted from March 9 to June 9, 2020 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso which involved 456 patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Nearly a quarter of the patients (23.2%) had presented with acute respiratory distress and 44.3% of them died. Being over 65 years old (HR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.5-5.1) and having hypertension (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1-3.5) were independently associated with the risk of mortality. However, after adjustment, only age over 65 years (HR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.3) was a risk factor for death. The survival rate for patients over 65 was 38.5% at 7 days and 30.3% at 15 days. CONCLUSIONS: Acute respiratory distress leading to death is mainly found in older people with COVID-19. Close monitoring of these high-risk patients may reduce the risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/mortality , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 101: 194-200, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Absolute numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths reported to date in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region have been significantly lower than those across the Americas, Asia and Europe. As a result, there has been limited information about the demographic and clinical characteristics of deceased cases in the region, as well as the impacts of different case management strategies. METHODS: Data from deceased cases reported across SSA through 10 May 2020 and from hospitalized cases in Burkina Faso through 15 April 2020 were analyzed. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical information on deceased cases in SSA was derived through a line-list of publicly available information and, for cases in Burkina Faso, from aggregate records at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Tengandogo in Ouagadougou. A synthetic case population was probabilistically derived using distributions of age, sex and underlying conditions from populations of West African countries to assess individual risk factors and treatment effect sizes. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the adjusted odds of survival for patients receiving oxygen therapy or convalescent plasma, based on therapeutic effectiveness observed for other respiratory illnesses. RESULTS: Across SSA, deceased cases for which demographic data were available were predominantly male (63/103, 61.2%) and aged >50 years (59/75, 78.7%). In Burkina Faso, specifically, the majority of deceased cases either did not seek care at all or were hospitalized for a single day (59.4%, 19/32). Hypertension and diabetes were often reported as underlying conditions. After adjustment for sex, age and underlying conditions in the synthetic case population, the odds of mortality for cases not receiving oxygen therapy were significantly higher than for those receiving oxygen, such as due to disruptions to standard care (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.56-2.75). Cases receiving convalescent plasma had 50% reduced odds of mortality than those who did not (95% CI 0.24-0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Investment in sustainable production and maintenance of supplies for oxygen therapy, along with messaging around early and appropriate use for healthcare providers, caregivers and patients could reduce COVID-19 deaths in SSA. Further investigation into convalescent plasma is warranted until data on its effectiveness specifically in treating COVID-19 becomes available. The success of supportive or curative clinical interventions will depend on earlier treatment seeking, such that community engagement and risk communication will be critical components of the response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Africa South of the Sahara , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Asia/epidemiology , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Young Adult
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