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1.
Andes Pediatr ; 92(6): 854-861, 2021 Dec.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918329

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic has meant adapting to a different reality, with long-term lockdowns that might cause an increase of burns in children at home. OBJECTIVE: To compare the epidemiological situation of patients admitted to the Corporación de Ayuda al Niño Quemado (COANIQUEM) due to out patient burn injuries management at the beginning of COVID-19 lockdown with the same period the year before. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Analytical and cross-sectional study. A population of 2,027 patients under the age of 20, who were admitted to COANIQUEM for the first time with burn inju ries, between April and July of 2019 and 2020 was analyzed. The number of patients admitted each month was registered as well as their demographic, social, and clinical characteristics. The monthly percentage variation was calculated by comparing patient data in both years. RESULTS: During 2020, there was a 48.7% decrease in overall outpatient admissions. There was a relative increase of 10.5% in burns in patients under 5 years old, 18.3% in scalds, 33.1% in the number of burns in 3 or more body locations, and 16.8% in burns occurring at home. These parameters were not influenced by geographic location, sex, or socioeconomic level. CONCLUSIONS: In the first period of the COVID-19 pandemic, with strict lockdown strategies, there was a decrease in the demand for burn care, affecting both outpatients with acute burns and those who were admitted for sequelae rehabilitation, as a result of the effective decrease in the burns incidence and the reduced access to health care.


Subject(s)
Burns , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Burns/epidemiology , Burns/etiology , Burns/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Chile/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266400, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burn injuries trigger a greater and more persistent inflammatory response than other trauma cases. Exercise has been shown to positively influence inflammation in healthy and diseased populations, however little is known about the latent effect of exercise on chronic inflammation in burn injured patients. The aims of the pilot study were to assess the feasibility of implementing a long duration exercise training program, in burn injured individuals including learnings associated with conducting a clinical trial in COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Fifteen participants with a burn injury between 5-20% total body surface area acquired greater than a year ago were randomised in a within-subject designed study, into one of two conditions, exercise-control or control-exercise. The exercise condition consisted of six weeks of resistance and cardiovascular exercises, completed remotely or supervised in a hospital gym. A comprehensive outcome measurement was completed at the initial, mid and end point of each exercise and control condition. To determine the success of implementation, the feasibility indicator for the data completeness across the comprehensive outcome battery was set at 80%. RESULTS: Half (49%) of eligible participants in the timeframe, were recruited and commenced the study. Six participants withdrew prior to completion and a total of 15 participants completed the study. Eight participants were randomised to the exercise-control and seven to the control exercise group. Five participants trained remotely and seven did supervised training. Three participants completed a mix of both supervised and remote training initiated due to COVID restrictions. Outcome measures were completed on 97% of protocolised occasions and 100% of participants completed the exercise training. CONCLUSIONS: Conducting a long duration exercise training study on burn injured individuals is feasible using the described methods. The knowledge gained helps improve the methodology in larger-scale projects. Insights into the impact of COVID-19 on this clinical trial and success enhancing adaptations for the researcher, research practice and the participant, are presented.


Subject(s)
Burns , COVID-19 , Burns/complications , Burns/therapy , Exercise Therapy/methods , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Inflammation , Pandemics , Pilot Projects
4.
BMJ ; 377: o1435, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891797
5.
Cir Cir ; 90(3): 419-426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876411

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a public health problem, so any burn patient who is managed as an outpatient or requires hospital management is a potential carrier of SARS-CoV-2. Burn patients are susceptible to COVID-19 due to the burn and its immunosuppressive effect, the procedures they undergo and other factors related to the burn, which makes them at high risk of contracting the disease and transmitting it, especially to the healthcare team involved in its management. Therefore, it is important to organize strategies in the services that care for burn patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this paper is to present a proposal for response, organizational management and strategic planning in a burns service in times of COVID-19, based on the lessons and experience acquired.


La COVID-19 es un problema de salud pública, por lo que cualquier paciente quemado que se maneje como externo o que requiera manejo hospitalario es un potencial portador del SARS-CoV-2. El paciente quemado es susceptible a la COVID-19 debido a la quemadura y a su efecto inmunodepresor, a los procedimientos a los que es sometido y a otros factores inherentes a la quemadura, lo que le hace un paciente con alto riesgo de contraer la enfermedad y trasmitirla, especialmente al equipo de salud que está involucrado en su manejo. Por lo anterior, es importante organizar estrategias en los servicios que atienden pacientes con quemaduras durante la pandemia de COVID-19. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una propuesta para la respuesta, el manejo organizativo y la planeación estratégica en un servicio de quemados en tiempos de COVID-19, basándonos en las lecciones aprendidas y la experiencia adquirida.


Subject(s)
Burns , COVID-19 , Burns/complications , Burns/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 53(5): 232-240, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834972

ABSTRACT

Background Nurses caring for pediatric patients who have burns need to be properly trained to provide optimal care. The aims of this pilot study were to (1) develop a pediatric nursing burn care e-learning training for novice nurses; (2) assess the feasibility and acceptability of this educational intervention; and (3) evaluate the preliminary effects of this intervention on novice nurses' knowledge of pediatric nursing burn care. Method A quasi-experimental, one-group, pre-test-posttest design was used. Results Feasibility was achieved because all of the participants completed the study. A significant difference was observed in the mean knowledge level of the novice nurses from before training to after training (87.7% ± 8.7% vs. 58.6% ± 14.5%; p < .001). The novice nurses' had a mean satisfaction of 95.5% after the intervention. Conclusion This new, evidence-based pediatric nursing burn care e-learning training appeared to be feasible. The novice nurses found it to be satisfactory, and it improved their knowledge regarding pediatric burn care. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(5):232-240.].


Subject(s)
Burns , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Nurses , Child , Clinical Competence , Humans , Pediatric Nursing , Pilot Projects
7.
J Burn Care Res ; 43(4): 766-771, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831230

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to anxiety and fears for the general public. It is unclear how the behavior of people with acute burns and the services available to them has changed during the pandemic. The aim of our observational study was to evaluate our clinic's experience with patients presenting with burns during the first 10 months of the COVID-19 pandemic and determine if delays in presentation and healthcare delivery exist within our burn population. Patients referred to our clinic from March 1, 2020 to December 15, 2020 were reviewed for time of presentation after injury. We defined a true delay in presentation of >5 days from date of injury to date of referral for patients who were not inpatients at our facility or received initial care elsewhere prior to referral. Of the 246 patients who were referred to our clinic, during this time period, 199 patients (80.89%) attended their appointments. Our in-person clinic volume from referrals increased in July 2020 with a sharp decrease in August 2020. Our total clinic volume decreased in 2020 from 2019 by about 14%. Referrals to our clinic decreased in 2020 from 2019 by about 34%. Video telehealth visits did not account for the decrease in visits. There was low incidence of delays in presentation to our clinic during the pandemic. Additional investigation is necessary to see if the incidence of burn injury decreased. Despite the pandemic, our clinic remained ready and open to serve the burn population.


Subject(s)
Burns , COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Burns/epidemiology , Burns/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation
9.
Burns ; 48(4): 976-983, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social isolation, imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, may imply changes in the clinical-demographic and epidemiological profiles of burn trauma victims. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the changes in the epidemiological profile of patients with burns that resulted in hospitalization during the social isolation period due to the COVID-19 pandemic, comparing with the same period in the previous year. METHODS: The medical records of burn patients who were hospitalized in our Burn Center during the local confinement period (March 18th to August 31st, 2020) and during the same period in 2019 were analyzed. Data on demographic, clinical and hospitalization aspects were studied. RESULTS: 470 patients were evaluated. In the pediatric population, a significant increase in the number of cases up to 2 years old (P = 0.0003), median of %TBSA (P = 0.037), full-thickness burns (P < 0.0001), involvement of hands (P = 0.024), debridement (P = 0.046) and grafting (P = 0.032) procedures, and higher scores of severity (P < 0.0001) were noted. In the adult population, it was only observed an increase in the burn-hospitalization interval (P = 0.029). CONCLUSION: The pediatric population was heavily impacted by the imposed period of social isolation, presenting a greater severity of burns. In contrast, the epidemiology of burns for the adult population was slightly altered during the pandemic period.


Subject(s)
Burns , COVID-19 , Adult , Burn Units , Burns/epidemiology , Burns/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Social Isolation
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(13): e2120691119, 2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774042

ABSTRACT

Fatty acid composition in the Western diet has shifted from saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and specifically to linoleic acid (LA, 18:2), which has gradually increased in the diet over the past 50 y to become the most abundant dietary fatty acid in human adipose tissue. PUFA-derived oxylipins regulate a variety of biological functions. The cytochrome P450 (CYP450)­formed epoxy fatty acid metabolites of LA (EpOMEs) are hydrolyzed by the soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme (sEH) to dihydroxyoctadecenoic acids (DiHOMEs). DiHOMEs are considered cardioprotective at low concentrations but at higher levels have been implicated as vascular permeability and cytotoxic agents and are associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe COVID-19 patients. High EpOME levels have also correlated with sepsis-related fatalities; however, those studies failed to monitor DiHOME levels. Considering the overlap of burn pathophysiology with these pathologies, the role of DiHOMEs in the immune response to burn injury was investigated. 12,13-DiHOME was found to facilitate the maturation and activation of stimulated neutrophils, while impeding monocyte and macrophage functionality and cytokine generation. In addition, DiHOME serum concentrations were significantly elevated in burn-injured mice and these increases were ablated by administration of 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), a sEH inhibitor. TPPU also reduced necrosis of innate and adaptive immune cells in burned mice, in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest DiHOMEs are a key driver of immune cell dysfunction in severe burn injury through hyperinflammatory neutrophilic and impaired monocytic actions, and inhibition of sEH might be a promising therapeutic strategy to mitigate deleterious outcomes in burn patients.


Subject(s)
Burns , Sepsis , Animals , Epoxide Hydrolases/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/drug therapy , Linoleic Acid/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Piperidines/pharmacology , Sepsis/drug therapy
11.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(4): 512-513, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767474
12.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 149(5): 985e-994e, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The conventional way of treating burn victims with mainstream pain control modalities is costly and has many negative side effects. In this study, the authors aim to present the findings from the major clinical trials on three nonpharmacologic interventions-hypnosis, virtual/augmented reality, and yoga-as supplements to conventional pain regimens for burn management. METHODS: A computerized literature search was conducted of the PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov databases in April of 2020. The online screening process was performed by two independent reviewers with the Covidence tool. The protocol was reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses, and it was registered at the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews of the National Institute for Health Research. RESULTS: The search yielded 254 articles from 1955 to 2020. Fifty-eight studies met the authors' inclusion criteria. Yoga reduced cognitive and somatic anxiety in burn survivors, and improved body image. Virtual reality is effective in pain reduction in both the pediatric and the adult burn population, and in faster burn wound reepithelialization. Hypnosis has similar results regarding reducing pain quality and anxiety in burn patients undergoing burn wound care and dressing changes but was not found to significantly accelerate the healing process. CONCLUSIONS: Nonpharmacologic interventions are not a substitute for conventional analgesics; however, they could help patients have better control over their pain, greater self-esteem, and less postburn traumatic experiences. Burn care centers should consider nonpharmacologic interventions to improve patient satisfaction and their participation in the treatment and rehabilitation process.


Subject(s)
Burns , Pain , Adult , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Burns/drug therapy , Burns/therapy , Child , Humans , Pain/psychology , Pain Management/methods , Systematic Reviews as Topic
13.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 75(5): 1602-1609, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729587

ABSTRACT

As the UK entered the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the National Health Service published consensus guidance to the UK burns services advising changes to the acute management of burns to allow the continuation of safe care while protecting limited hospital resources. We aimed to describe the demographics of burns service users, changes to clinical pathways and experiences of the burns team during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. All burns services in the UK were invited to participate in a national collaborative, trainee-led study supported by the Reconstructive Surgery Trials Network. The study consisted of (1) a service evaluation of patients receiving burns treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic; (2) a multidisciplinary team survey. Analyses were descriptive and narrative depending on data types. Collaborators from 18 sites contributed data from burns MDT surveys and 512 patients. Patient demographics were consistent with typical burns patterns in the UK. The delayed presentation occurred in 20% of cases, with 24 patients developing complications. MDT surveys indicated substantial adaptations and challenges as a result of the pandemic. Access to theatres and critical care were limited, yet a comprehensive acute burns service was maintained. Telemedicine was utilised heavily to reduce patient footfall. Adaptations in the provision of burns care, including greater outpatient care and telemedicine, have emerged out of necessity with reported success. The impact of reduced scar therapy and psychological interventions for burns patients during the pandemic requires longer-term follow-up. Lessons from the UK experience can be used to strategise for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Burns , COVID-19 , Burns/surgery , Burns/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Humans , Northern Ireland/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , United Kingdom , Wales
16.
Burns ; 48(4): 984-988, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the increased restrictions, isolation and stressors associated with COVID-19 led to an increase in rates or severity of self-immolation burn injuries. DESIGN: Retrospective review of a prospectively-collected database of New South Wales burn patients, comparing 2020 data with the preceding 5 years. SETTING: Both adult units in the New South Wales Statewide Burn Injury Service (Concord Repatriation General Hospital and Royal North Shore Hospital). PARTICIPANTS: All adult patients in New South Wales with self-inflicted burn injuries between 1st January 2015 and 31st December 2020. OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic information, precipitating factors, burn severity, morbidity and mortality outcomes. RESULTS: We found18 episodes of self-immolation in 2020, compared to an average of 10 per year previously. Burn size significantly increased (43% total body surface area vs 28%) as did revised Baux score (92 vs 77). Most patients had a pre-existing psychiatric illness. Family conflict and acute psychiatric illness were the most common precipitating factors. CONCLUSION: 2020 saw an increase in both the frequency and severity of self-inflicted burn injuries in New South Wales, with psychiatric illness a major factor.


Subject(s)
Burns , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adult , Burns/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology
17.
Burns ; 47(7): 1547-1555, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the potential to significantly impact burns patients both directly through infective complications of an immunocompromised cohort, and indirectly through disruption of care pathways and resource limitations. The pandemic presents new challenges that must be overcome to maintain patient safety; in particular, the potential increased risks of surgical intervention, anaesthesia and ventilation. This study comprehensively reviews the measures implemented to adapt referral pathways and mitigate the risk posed by COVID-19 during the height of the pandemic, within a large Burns Centre. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was designed to assess patients treated at the Burns Centre during the UK COVID-19 pandemic peak (April-May 2020), following implementation of new safety measures. All patients were analysed for 30-day mortality. In addition, a prospective controlled cohort study was undertaken on all inpatients and a random sample of outpatients with telephone follow-up at 30 days. These patients were divided into three groups (operative inpatients, non-operative inpatients, outpatients). COVID-19 related data collected included test results, contact with proven cases, isolation status and symptoms. The implemented departmental service COVID-19 safety adaptations are described. RESULTS: Of 323 patients treated at the Burns Centre during the study period, no 30-day COVID-19 related deaths occurred (0/323). Of the 80 patients analysed in the prospective controlled cohort section of the study, 51 underwent COVID-19 testing, 3.9% (2/51) were positive. Both cases were in the operative group, however in comparison to the non-operative and outpatient groups, there was no significant increase in COVID-19 incidence in operative patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found no COVID-19 related mortality during the study period. With appropriate precautions, burns patients were not exposed to an increased COVID-19 risk. Similarly, burns patients undergoing operative management were not at a significantly increased risk of contracting COVID-19 in comparison to non-operative groups.


Subject(s)
Burns , COVID-19 , Patient Safety , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Burns/epidemiology , Burns/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , England , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Satisfaction , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
Bioorg Chem ; 119: 105550, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561636

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by new or unknown bacteria and viruses, such as anthrax, cholera, tuberculosis and even COVID-19, are a major threat to humanity. Thus, the development of new synthetic compounds with efficient antimicrobial activity is a necessity. Herein, rationally designed novel multifunctional cationic alternating copolymers were directly synthesized through a step-growth polymerization reaction using a bivalent electrophilic cross-linker containing disulfide bonds and a diamine heterocyclic ring. To optimize the activity of these alternating copolymers, several different diamines and cross-linkers were explored to find the highest antibacterial effects. The synthesized nanopolymers not only displayed good to excellent antibacterial activity as judged by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, but also reduced the number of biofilm cells even at low concentrations, without killing mammalian cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using infected burn wounds in mice demonstrated good antibacterial activity and stimulated wound healing, without causing systemic inflammation. These findings suggest that the multifunctional cationic nanopolymers have potential as a novel antibacterial agent for eradication of multidrug resistant bacterial infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Cations/pharmacology , Polymers/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Amines/chemistry , Animals , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Burns/complications , COVID-19 , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cross-Linking Reagents , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , HEK293 Cells/drug effects , Humans , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymers/chemistry
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(12)2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546483

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a female teenager who sustained nitrous oxide burns to the medial aspect of both thighs from contact with a nitrous oxide canister being used to fill balloons. There was a delay in presentation as the injury was not initially recognised. These burns were initially assessed as being superficial partial-thickness burns but took a prolonged time to heal despite regular wound care. This was complicated by a lack of adherence to recommended treatment for much of the patient care as well as the patient testing positive for COVID-19 during their management, which prevented surgery and significantly extended time to healing. While small numbers of similar cases have been previously described this is the first reported case outside of the Netherlands and in a child. Being aware of such cases ensures early referral to specialist burn care for appropriate management to give patients the best possible outcome.


Subject(s)
Burns , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Bandages , Burns/etiology , Burns/therapy , Child , Female , Humans , Nitrous Oxide/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
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