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Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674736


Butyrate is a major gut microbiome metabolite that regulates several defense mechanisms against infectious diseases. Alterations in the gut microbiome, leading to reduced butyrate production, have been reported in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A new butyrate releaser, useful for all the known applications of butyrate, presenting physiochemical characteristics suitable for easy oral administration, (N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide (FBA), has been recently developed. We investigated the protective action of FBA against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human small intestine and enterocytes. Relevant aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed: infectivity, host functional receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), neuropilin-1 (NRP1), pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, genes involved in the antiviral response and the activation of Nf-kB nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like) 2 (Nfr2) pathways. We found that FBA positively modulates the crucial aspects of the infection in small intestinal biopsies and human enterocytes, reducing the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and NRP1, pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-15, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TNF-α, and regulating several genes involved in antiviral pathways. FBA was also able to reduce the number of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, and ACE2, TMPRSS2 and NRP1 expression. Lastly, through the inhibition of Nf-kB and the up-regulation of Nfr2, it was also able to reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-15, MCP-1 and TNF-α in human enterocytes. The new butyrate releaser, FBA, exerts a preventive action against SARS-CoV-2 infection. It could be considered as an innovative strategy to limit COVID-19.

Butyrates/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Butyrates/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Caco-2 Cells , Enterocytes/drug effects , Enterocytes/metabolism , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines/metabolism , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369745


Hypertension is associated with gut bacterial dysbiosis and gut pathology in animal models and people. Butyrate-producing gut bacteria are decreased in hypertension. RNA-seq analysis of gut colonic organoids prepared from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats was used to test the hypothesis that impaired interactions between the gut microbiome and gut epithelium are involved and that these would be remediated with butyrate supplementation. Gene expressions in immune responses including antigen presentation and antiviral pathways were decreased in the gut epithelium of the SHR in organoids and confirmed in vivo; these deficits were corrected by butyrate supplementation. Deficits in gene expression driving epithelial proliferation and differentiation were also observed in SHR. These findings highlight the importance of aligned interactions of the gut microbiome and gut immune responses to blood pressure homeostasis.

Colon/microbiology , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Hypertension/microbiology , Animals , Butyrates/pharmacology , Colon/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Male , Organoids , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Transcriptome
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725538


At the moment, there are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA)-approved drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, although several antiviral drugs are available for repurposing. Many of these drugs suffer from polymorphic transformations with changes in the drug's safety and efficacy; many are poorly soluble, poorly bioavailable drugs. Current tools to reformulate antiviral APIs into safer and more bioavailable forms include pharmaceutical salts and cocrystals, even though it is difficult to classify solid forms into these regulatory-wise mutually exclusive categories. Pure liquid salt forms of APIs, ionic liquids that incorporate APIs into their structures (API-ILs) present all the advantages that salt forms provide from a pharmaceutical standpoint, without being subject to solid-state matter problems. In this perspective article, the myths and the most voiced concerns holding back implementation of API-ILs are examined, and two case studies of API-ILs antivirals (the amphoteric acyclovir and GSK2838232) are presented in detail, with a focus on drug property improvement. We advocate that the industry should consider the advantages of API-ILs which could be the genesis of disruptive innovation and believe that in order for the industry to grow and develop, the industry should be comfortable with a certain element of risk because progress often only comes from trying something different.

Acyclovir/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Butyrates/chemistry , Chrysenes/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Acyclovir/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Availability , Butyrates/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Chrysenes/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Ionic Liquids/chemistry , Pandemics , Pentacyclic Triterpenes , SARS-CoV-2 , Solubility