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1.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(42): 8851-8861, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526111

ABSTRACT

Nanomaterial-based optical techniques for biomarker detection have garnered tremendous attention from the nanofabrication community due to their high precision and enhanced limit of detection (LoD) features. These nanomaterials are highly responsive to local refractive index (RI) fluctuations, and their RI unit sensitivity can be tuned by varying the chemical composition, geometry, and dimensions of the utilized nanostructures. To improve the sensitivity and LoD values of these nanomaterials, it is common to increase both dimensions and aspect ratios of the fabricated nanostructures. However, limited by the complexity, prolonged duration, and elevated costs of the available nanofabrication techniques, mass production of these nanostructures remains challenging. To address not only high accuracy, but also speed and production effectiveness in these nanostructures' fabrication, our work reports, for the first time, a fast, high-throughput, and cost-effective nanofabrication protocol for routine manufacturing of polymer-based nanostructures with high sensitivity and calculated LoD in the pM range by utilizing anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes as templates. Specifically, our developed platform consists of arrays of nearly uniform polystyrene nanopillars with an average diameter of ∼185 nm and aspect ratio of ∼11. We demonstrate that these nanostructures can be produced at a high speed and a notably low price, and that they can be efficiently applied for biosensing purposes after being coated with aluminum-doped silver (Ag/Al) thin films. Our platform successfully detected very low concentrations of human C-reactive protein (hCRP) and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein biomarkers in human plasma samples with LoDs of 11 and 5 pM, respectively. These results open new opportunities for day-to-day fabrication of high aspect ratio arrays of nanopillars that can be used as a base for nanoplasmonic sensors with competitive LoD values. This, in turn, contributes to the development of point-of-care devices and further improvement of the existing nanofabrication techniques, thereby enriching the fields of pharmacology, clinical analysis, and diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Aluminum Oxide/chemistry , Biomarkers/blood , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , Silver/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Dimethylpolysiloxanes/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Point-of-Care Systems , Polystyrenes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6671291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518179

ABSTRACT

Background: With the COVID-19 epidemic breakout in China, up to 25% of diagnosed cases are considered to be severe. To effectively predict the progression of COVID-19 via patients' clinical features at an early stage, the prevalence of these clinical factors and their relationships with severe illness were assessed. Methods: In this study, electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Chinese database) were searched to obtain relevant studies, including information on severe patients. Publication bias analysis, sensitivity analysis, prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio, diagnosis odds ratio calculation, and visualization graphics were achieved through software Review Manager 5.3, Stata 15, Meta-DiSc 1.4, and R. Results: Data of 3.547 patients from 24 studies were included in this study. The results revealed that patients with chronic respiratory system diseases (pooled positive likelihood 6.07, 95% CI: 3.12-11.82), chronic renal disease (4.79, 2.04-11.25), cardiovascular disease (3.45, 2.19-5.44), and symptoms of the onset of chest tightness (3.8, 1.44-10.05), shortness of breath (3.18, 2.24-4.51), and diarrhea (2.04, 1.38-3.04) exhibited increased probability of progressing to severe illness. C-reactive protein, ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate increased a lot in severe patients compared to nonsevere. Yet, it was found that clinical features including fever, cough, and headache, as well as some comorbidities, have little warning value. Conclusions: The clinical features and laboratory examination could be used to estimate the process of infection in COVID-19 patients. The findings contribute to the more efficient prediction of serious illness for patients with COVID-19 to reduce mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Fever/virology , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21514, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500512

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with systemic inflammation. A wide range of adipokines activities suggests they influence pathogenesis and infection course. The aim was to assess concentrations of chemerin, omentin, and vaspin among COVID-19 patients with an emphasis on adipokines relationship with COVID-19 severity, concomitant metabolic abnormalities and liver dysfunction. Serum chemerin, omentin and vaspin concentrations were measured in serum collected from 70 COVID-19 patients at the moment of admission to hospital, before any treatment was applied and 20 healthy controls. Serum chemerin and omentin concentrations were significantly decreased in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy volunteers (271.0 vs. 373.0 ng/ml; p < 0.001 and 482.1 vs. 814.3 ng/ml; p = 0.01, respectively). There were no correlations of analyzed adipokines with COVID-19 severity based on the presence of pneumonia, dyspnea, or necessity of Intensive Care Unit hospitalization (ICU). Liver test abnormalities did not influence adipokines levels. Elevated GGT activity was associated with ICU admission, presence of pneumonia and elevated concentrations of CRP, ferritin and interleukin 6. Chemerin and omentin depletion in COVID-19 patients suggests that this adipokines deficiency play influential role in disease pathogenesis. However, there was no relationship between lower adipokines level and frequency of COVID-19 symptoms as well as disease severity. The only predictive factor which could predispose to a more severe COVID-19 course, including the presence of pneumonia and ICU hospitalization, was GGT activity.


Subject(s)
Adipokines/blood , Chemokines/blood , Cytokines/blood , Lectins/blood , Serpins/blood , Aged , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/metabolism
6.
Pulm Med ; 2021: 4496488, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495709

ABSTRACT

When managing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, radiological imaging complements clinical evaluation and laboratory parameters. We aimed to assess the sensitivity of chest radiography findings in detecting COVID-19, describe those findings, and assess the association of positive chest radiography findings with clinical and laboratory findings. A multicentre, cross-sectional study was conducted involving all primary health care corporation-registered patients (2485 patients) enrolled over a 1-month period during the peak of the 2020 pandemic wave in Qatar. These patients had reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 and underwent chest radiography within 72 hours of the swab test. A positive result on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was the gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19. The sensitivity of chest radiography was calculated. The airspace opacities were mostly distributed in the peripheral and lower lung zones, and most of the patients had bilateral involvement. Pleural effusion was detected in some cases. The risk of having positive chest X-ray findings increased with age, Southeast Asian nationality, fever, or a history of fever and diarrhoea. Patients with cardiac disease, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease were at a higher risk of having positive chest X-ray findings. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean serum albumin, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, and serum C-reactive protein, hepatic enzymes, and total bilirubin with an increase in the radiographic severity score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Bilirubin/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fever , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Noncommunicable Diseases , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Primary Health Care , Qatar/epidemiology , Race Factors , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serum Albumin , X-Rays , Young Adult
7.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(4): 539-552, 2021 Oct.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478367

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are enveloped, positivepolarity, single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections, less likely to cause infections with hepatic, neurological and nephrotic involvement. A novel coronavirus termed as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in the city of Wuhan, China, and caused an outbreak of unusual viral pneumonia at the end of 2019. This study aimed to reveal the relationship between systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and viral dynamics in COVID-19 patients. This retrospective, single-center study was conducted in Ankara City Hospital from April 1 to May 31, 2020. A total of 338 hospitalized patients who had positive results in SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcrytase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal samples during their hospital admission were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups according to their ward/intensive care unit, intubation and mortality situation and their clinical data were evaluated. Correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between viral dynamics and laboratory parameters such as SII, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the lymphocyte-to-CRP ratio (LCR), the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), CRP, IL-6 ferritin, albumin levels and lymphocyte count. Advanced age, low Ct value, increase in IL-6, increase in SII, decrease in albumin, increase in ferritin, decrease in lymphocyte count, increase in NLR, decrease in LCR, decrease in LMR, increase in PLR and increase in CRP levels were found statistically significantly different in all three groups (p<0.001; p= 0.02; p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001, respectively). Statistical analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between serum IL-6, NLR, LCR and CRP values with Ct values (p<0.01, r= -0.233; p= 0.021, r= -0.126; p=0.004, r= -0.156 and p= 0.011, r= -0.138, respectively) and a significant positive correlation between Ct values and lymphocyte count and albumin levels (p= 0.005; r= 0.151 and p= 0.050; r= 0.106, respectively). Severe progression was observed in patients with advanced age, low Ct value, high IL-6 levels, high SII, hypoalbuminemia, high ferritin levels, lymphopenia, high NLR, low LCR, low LMR, high PLR and high CRP. In these patients hospitalization in intensive care unit, intubation and mortality were found to be higher. High levels of IL-6, NLR, LCR and CRP, lymphopenia and hypoalbuminemia were associated with low PCR Ct values.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Humans , Inflammation , Neutrophils/chemistry , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): e1151-e1156, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467423

ABSTRACT

TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04420468. OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is frequently associated with shock; endothelial involvement may be one of the underlying mechanisms. We sought to describe endothelial dysfunction during multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with shock and then assess the relationship between the degree of endothelial involvement and the severity of shock. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: A PICU in a tertiary hospital. PATIENTS: Patients aged under 18 (n = 28) with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and shock, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Correlations between endothelial marker levels and shock severity were assessed using Spearman coefficient. The median (interquartile range) age was 9 years (7.5-11.2 yr). Sixteen children presented with cardiogenic and distributive shock, 10 presented with cardiogenic shock only, and two presented with distributive shock only. The median left ventricular ejection fraction, troponin level, and lactate level were, respectively, 40% (35-45%), 261 ng/mL (131-390 ng/mL), and 3.2 mmol/L (2-4.2 mmol/L). Twenty-five children received inotropes and/or vasopressors; the median Vasoactive and Inotropic Score was 8 (5-28). Plasma levels of angiopoietin-2 (6,426 pg/mL [2,814-11,836 pg/mL]), sE-selectin (130,405 pg/mL [92,987-192,499 pg/mL]), von Willebrand factor antigen (344% [288-378%]), and the angiopoietin-2/angiopoietin-1 ratio (1.111 [0.472-1.524]) were elevated and significantly correlated with the Vasoactive and Inotropic Score (r = 0.45, p = 0.016; r = 0.53, p = 0.04; r = 0.46, p = 0.013; and r = 0.46, p = 0.012, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial dysfunction is associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children with shock and may constitute one of the underlying mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Shock/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Angiopoietin-2/blood , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Interleukin-6/blood , Lactic Acid/blood , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Troponin/blood , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Ventricular Function, Left
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20289, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467125

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease (CD) continues to be a major public health burden in Latina America. Information on the interplay between COVID-19 and CD is lacking. Our aim was to assess clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients with CD and COVID-19, and to compare it to non-CD patients. Consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 were included from March to September 2020. Genetic matching for sex, age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hospital was performed in a 4:1 ratio. Of the 7018 patients who had confirmed COVID-19, 31 patients with CD and 124 matched controls were included (median age 72 (64-80) years-old, 44.5% were male). At baseline, heart failure (25.8% vs. 9.7%) and atrial fibrillation (29.0% vs. 5.6%) were more frequent in CD patients than in the controls (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein levels were lower in CD patients compared with the controls (55.5 [35.7, 85.0] vs. 94.3 [50.7, 167.5] mg/dL). In-hospital management, outcomes and complications were similar between the groups. In this large Brazilian COVID-19 Registry, CD patients had a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation and chronic heart failure compared with non-CD controls, with no differences in-hospital outcomes. The lower C-reactive protein levels in CD patients require further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Chagas Disease/pathology , Hospitalization/trends , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation , Brazil , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/virology , Coinfection , Diabetes Mellitus , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Hypertension , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19728, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454814

ABSTRACT

Life-threatening COVID-19 is associated with strong inflammation, where an IL-6-driven cytokine storm appears to be a cornerstone for enhanced pathology. Nonetheless, the specific inhibition of such pathway has shown mixed outcomes. This could be due to variations in the dose of tocilizumab used, the stage in which the drug is administered or the severity of disease presentation. Thus, we performed a retrospective multicentric study in 140 patients with moderate to critical COVID-19, 79 of which received tocilizumab in variable standard doses (< 400 mg, 400-800 mg or > 800 mg), either at the viral (1-7 days post-symptom onset), early inflammatory (8-15) or late inflammatory (16 or more) stages, and compared it with standard treated patients. Mortality, reduced respiratory support requirements and pathology markers were measured. Tocilizumab significantly reduced the respiratory support requirements (OR 2.71, CI 1.37-4.85 at 95%) and inflammatory markers (OR 4.82, CI 1.4-15.8) of all patients, but mortality was only reduced (4.1% vs 25.7%, p = 0.03) when the drug was administered at the early inflammatory stage and in doses ranging 400-800 mg in severely-ill patients. Despite the apparent inability of Tocilizumab to prevent the progression of COVID-19 into a critical presentation, severely-ill patients may be benefited by its use in the early inflammatory stage and moderate doses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257646, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450727

ABSTRACT

Dialysis patients are both the most likely to benefit from vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 and at the highest risk of not developing an immune response. Data from the medical field are thus mandatory. We report our experience with a BNT162b2-mRNA vaccine in a retrospective analysis of 241 dialysis patients including 193 who underwent anti-Spike-Protein-Receptor-Binding-Domain (RBD) IgG analysis. We show that a pro-active vaccine campaign is effective in convincing most patients to be vaccinated (95%) and frequently elicits a specific antibody response (94.3% after two doses and 98.4% after three doses). Only immunocompromised Status is associated with lack of seroconversion (OR 7.6 [1.5-38.2], p = 0.02). We also identify factors associated with low response (last quartile; IgG<500AU/mL): immunocompromised status, age, absence of RAAS inhibitors, low lymphocytes count, high C Reactive Protein; and with high response (high quartile; IgG>7000AU/mL): age; previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and active Cancer. From this experience, we propose a strategy integrating anti-spike IgG monitoring to guide revaccination and dialysis center management in pandemic times.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211045902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443743

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is the most common of comorbidity in patients with SARS-COV-2 pneumonia. Coagulation abnormalities with D-dimer levels are increased in this disease. OBJECTIFS: We aimed to compare the levels of D-dimer in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with COVID 19. A link between D-dimer and mortality has also been established. MATERIALS: A retrospective study was carried out at the University Hospital Center of Oujda (Morocco) from November 01st to December 01st, 2020. Our study population was divided into two groups: a diabetic group and a second group without diabetes to compare clinical and biological characteristics between the two groups. In addition, the receiver operator characteristic curve was used to assess the optimal D-dimer cut-off point for predicting mortality in diabetics. RESULTS: 201 confirmed-COVID-19-patients were included in the final analysis. The median age was 64 (IQR 56-73), and 56% were male. Our study found that D-dimer levels were statistically higher in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. (1745 vs 845 respectively, P = 0001). D-dimer level > 2885 ng/mL was a significant predictor of mortality in diabetic patients with a sensitivity of 71,4% and a specificity of 70,7%. CONCLUSION: Our study found that diabetics with COVID-19 are likely to develop hypercoagulation with a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Inflammation/immunology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidative Stress , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/immunology
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 658, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whilst the impact of Covid-19 infection in pregnant women has been examined, there is a scarcity of data on pregnant women in the Middle East. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of Covid-19 infection on pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates population. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out to compare the clinical course and outcome of pregnancy in 79 pregnant women with Covid-19 and 85 non-pregnant women with Covid-19 admitted to Latifa Hospital in Dubai between March and June 2020. RESULTS: Although Pregnant women presented with fewer symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and shortness of breath compared to non-pregnant women; yet they ran a much more severe course of illness. On admission, 12/79 (15.2%) Vs 2/85 (2.4%) had a chest radiograph score [on a scale 1-6] of ≥3 (p-value = 0.0039). On discharge, 6/79 (7.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) had a score ≥3 (p-value = 0.0438). They also had much higher levels of laboratory indicators of severity with values above reference ranges for C-Reactive Protein [(28 (38.3%) Vs 13 (17.6%)] with p < 0.004; and for D-dimer [32 (50.8%) Vs 3(6%)]; with p < 0.001. They required more ICU admissions: 10/79 (12.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0036; and suffered more complications: 9/79 (11.4%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0066; of Covid-19 infection, particularly in late pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women presented with fewer Covid-19 symptoms but ran a much more severe course of illness compared to non-pregnant women with the disease. They had worse chest radiograph scores and much higher levels of laboratory indicators of disease severity. They had more ICU admissions and suffered more complications of Covid-19 infection, such as risk for miscarriage and preterm deliveries. Pregnancy with Covid-19 infection, could, therefore, be categorised as high-risk pregnancy and requires management by an obstetric and medical multidisciplinary team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Radiography, Thoracic , Symptom Assessment , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
14.
J Int Med Res ; 49(9): 3000605211046112, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the associations of the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and C-reactive protein (CRP)-albumin ratio (CAR) with the duration of hospital stay and fatality rate in geriatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Patients older than 65 years with polymerase chain reaction-positive COVID-19 were included. Neutrophil, lymphocyte, CRP, albumin, and demographic data and the duration of hospitalization were recorded. RESULTS: The mean length of stay was 15 days. NLR and CAR were significantly higher in patients who died than in those who survived. The cutoffs predictive of mortality were 4.02 (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.717) for NLR and 23 for CAR (AUC = 0.781). The fatality rate among patients who required inpatient treatment was 33%. CONCLUSION: NLR and CAR, which can be calculated inexpensively and quickly at the first admission to the hospital, are extremely useful for estimating the duration of hospitalization and risk of mortality in geriatric patients with COVID-19. Using these data, treatment can quickly be intensified when needed.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 , Aged , Albumins , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Lymphocytes , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14186, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434143

ABSTRACT

Infections cause varying degrees of haemostatic dysfunction which can be detected by clot waveform analysis (CWA), a global haemostatic marker. CWA has been shown to predict poor outcomes in severe infections with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The effect of less severe bacterial and viral infections on CWA has not been established. We hypothesized that different infections influence CWA distinctively. Patients admitted with bacterial infections, dengue and upper respiratory tract viral infections were recruited if they had an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) measured on admission. APTT-based CWA was performed on Sysmex CS2100i automated analyser using Dade Actin FSL reagent. CWA parameters [(maximum velocity (min1), maximum acceleration (min2) and maximum deceleration (max2)] were compared against control patients. Infected patients (n = 101) had longer aPTT than controls (n = 112) (34.37 ± 7.72 s vs 27.80 ± 1.59 s, p < 0.001), with the mean (± SD) aPTT longest in dengue infection (n = 36) (37.99 ± 7.93 s), followed by bacterial infection (n = 52) (33.96 ± 7.33 s) and respiratory viral infection (n = 13) (29.98 ± 3.92 s). Compared to controls (min1; min2; max2) (5.53 ± 1.16%/s; 0.89 ± 0.19%/s2; 0.74 ± 0.16%/s2), bacterial infection has higher CWA results (6.92 ± 1.60%/s; 1.04 ± 0.28%/s2; 0.82 ± 0.24%/s2, all p < 0.05); dengue infection has significantly lower CWA values (3.93 ± 1.32%/s; 0.57 ± 0.17%/s2; 0.43 ± 0.14%/s2, all p < 0.001) whilst respiratory virus infection has similar results (6.19 ± 1.32%/s; 0.95 ± 0.21%/s2; 0.73 ± 0.18%/s2, all p > 0.05). CWA parameters demonstrated positive correlation with C-reactive protein levels (min1: r = 0.54, min2: r = 0.44, max2: r = 0.34; all p < 0.01). Different infections affect CWA distinctively. CWA could provide information on the haemostatic milieu triggered by infection and further studies are needed to better define its application in this area.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/blood , Hemostasis , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Virus Diseases/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Dengue/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108137, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428075

ABSTRACT

A growing body of evidence indicates that neutrophil elastase (NE) is involved in the pathogenesis of respiratory infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aimed to analyze the dynamic changes in serum levels of NE associated with inflammation, disease activity, and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19. We measured the serum concentrations of NE, C-Reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)- 4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and vitamin D levels in 83 ICU and 69 non-ICU patients compared with 82 healthy subjects (HS) in three-time points (T1-T3). Serum levels of NE, IL-6, IL-8, and CRP in ICU and non-ICU patients were significantly higher than HS (P < 0.001) in three-time points. Also, serum levels of NE, IL-6, IL-8, and CRP in ICU patients were significantly higher than in non-ICU patients (P < 0.05). On the day of admission (T1), the levels of NE, CRP, IL-6, IL-8 were gradually decreased from T1 to T3. At the same time, IL-4 and IL-10 were gradually increased from T1 to T2 and then reduced to T3. Further analyses demonstrated that the levels of NE, IL-6, and IL-8 in deceased patients were significantly higher than in recovered patients (P < 0.05). The ROC curve analysis demonstrated that markers, including NE, IL-6, and IL-8, were valuable indicators in evaluating the activity of COVID-19. Overall, our results signify the critical role of NE in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and also, further support that NE has a potential therapeutic target for the attenuation of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Leukocyte Elastase/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Leukocyte Elastase/blood , Male , Middle Aged
17.
Biomark Med ; 15(15): 1435-1449, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430630

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become a global health concern, due to the high transmissible nature of its causal agent and lack of proper treatment. Early diagnosis and nonspecific medical supports of the patients appeared to be effective strategy so far to combat the pandemic caused by COVID-19 outbreak. Biomarkers can play pivotal roles in timely and proper diagnosis of COVID-19 patients, as well as for distinguishing them from other pulmonary infections. Besides, biomarkers can help in reducing the rate of mortality and evaluating viral pathogenesis with disease prognosis. This article intends to provide a broader overview of the roles and uses of different biomarkers in the early diagnosis of COVID-19, as well as in the classification of COVID-19 patients into multiple risk groups.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Platelet Count , Procalcitonin/analysis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serum Amyloid A Protein/analysis , Severity of Illness Index
18.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1086-1093, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405473

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is paucity of data regarding C reactive protein/Albumin (CRP/Alb) ratio in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to evaluate the significance of CRP/Alb ratio in COVID-19 patients. METHODOLOGY: Patients hospitalized between March - April 2020 with COVID-19, who had CRP and Albumin levels documented within 24 hours from admission were retrospectively analyzed. Unpaired Student's t-test was used for continuous and Pearson Chi-square (χ²) test for categorical variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the relationship between CRP/Alb and mortality. Nonparametric correlations were calculated using Spearman's Rho correlation coefficient. RESULTS: 75 patients were included. Mean age was 62.92, 26 females (34.67%) and 49 males (65.33%), mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 29.86, mean body temperature 101.3 and mean length of stay (LOS) was 14.80 days. 24 (32%) patients required invasive mechanical ventilation and 51 (68%) did not, mean CRP/Alb ratio was 6.89 and 4.7 respectively (p = 0.036). 15 (20%) patients died, 60 (80%) survived and the mean CRP/Alb difference between these groups was also statistically significant (7.74 vs 4.83, p = 0.02). LOS (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57.-0.88, p < 0.001) and BUN (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01.-1.07, p = 0.006) were independent predictors of mortality by multivariate logistic regression, whereas CRP/Alb (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.96.-1.51, p = 0.06) was not. CONCLUSIONS: CRP/Alb ratio could be useful as a prognostic indicator of disease severity in COVID-19, but we could not corroborate its potential to predict mortality. The work was conducted at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons at Harlem Hospital.


Subject(s)
Albumins/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17885, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402124

ABSTRACT

We propose a classification method using the radiomics features of CT chest images to identify patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other pneumonias. The chest CT images of two groups of participants (90 COVID-19 patients who were confirmed as positive by nucleic acid test of RT-PCR and 90 other pneumonias patients) were collected, and the two groups of data were manually drawn to outline the region of interest (ROI) of pneumonias. The radiomics method was used to extract textural features and histogram features of the ROI and obtain a radiomics features vector from each sample. Then, we divided the data into two independent radiomic cohorts for training (70 COVID-19 patients and 70 other pneumonias patients), and validation (20 COVID-19 patients and 20 other pneumonias patients) by using support vector machine (SVM). This model used 20 rounds of tenfold cross-validation for training. Finally, single-shot testing of the final model was performed on the independent validation cohort. In the COVID-19 patients, correlation analysis (multiple comparison correction-Bonferroni correction, P < 0.05/7) was also conducted to determine whether the textural and histogram features were correlated with the laboratory test index of blood, i.e., blood oxygen, white blood cell, lymphocytes, neutrophils, C-reactive protein, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The final model showed good discrimination on the independent validation cohort, with an accuracy of 89.83%, sensitivity of 94.22%, specificity of 85.44%, and AUC of 0.940. This proved that the radiomics features were highly distinguishable, and this SVM model can effectively identify and diagnose patients with COVID-19 and other pneumonias. The correlation analysis results showed that some textural features were positively correlated with WBC, and NE, and also negatively related to SPO2H and NE. Our results showed that radiomic features can classify COVID-19 patients and other pneumonias patients. The SVM model can achieve an excellent diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Support Vector Machine , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Biomedical Engineering , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108127, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection of oxidant-antioxidant levels and special care in severe patients are important in combating the COVID-19 epidemic. However, this process is costly and time consuming. Therefore, there is a need for faster, reliable and economical methods. METHODS: In this study, antioxidant/oxidant levels of patients were estimated by Expert-models using biomarkers, which are effective in the diagnosis/prognosis of COVID-19 disease. For this purpose, Expert-models were trained and created between the white-blood-cell-count (WBC), lymphocyte-count (LYM), C-reactive-protein (CRP), D-dimer, ferritin values of 35 patients with COVID-19 and antioxidant/oxidant parameter values of the same patients. Error criteria and R2 ratio were taken into account for the performance of the models. The validity of the all models was checked by the Box-Jenkis-method. RESULTS: Antioxidant/Oxidant levels were estimated with 95% confidence-coefficient using the values of WBC, LYM, CRP, D-dimer, ferritin of different 500 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 with the trained models. The error rate of all models was low and the coefficients of determination were sufficient. In the first data set, there was no significant difference between measured antioxidant/oxidant levels and predicted antioxidant/oxidant levels. This result showed that the models are accurate and reliable. In determining antioxidant/oxidant levels, LYM and ferritin biomarkers had the most effect on models, while WBC and CRP biomarkers had the least effect. The antioxidant/oxidant parameter estimated with the highest accuracy was Native-Thiol divided by Total-Thiol. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the antioxidant/oxidant levels of infected patients can be estimated accurately and reliably with LYM, ferritin, D-dimer, WBC, CRP biomarkers in the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidants/metabolism , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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