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1.
Aging Cell ; 21(4): e13582, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788809

ABSTRACT

Older humans and animals often exhibit reduced immune responses to infection and vaccination, and this often directly correlates to the numbers and frequency of naive T (Tn) cells. We found such a correlation between reduced numbers of blood CD8+ Tn cells and severe clinical outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) in both humans naturally exposed to, and mice experimentally infected with, WNV. To examine possible causality, we sought to increase the number of CD8 Tn cells by treating C57BL/6 mice with IL-7 complexes (IL-7C, anti-IL-7 mAb bound to IL-7), shown previously to efficiently increase peripheral T-cell numbers by homeostatic proliferation. T cells underwent robust expansion following IL-7C administration to old mice increasing the number of total T cells (>fourfold) and NS4b:H-2Db -restricted antigen-specific CD8 T cells (twofold). This improved the numbers of NS4b-specific CD8 T cells detected at the peak of the response against WNV, but not survival of WNV challenge. IL-7C-treated old animals also showed no improvement in WNV-specific effector immunity (neutralizing antibody and in vivo T-cell cytotoxicity). To test quantitative limits to which CD8 Tn cell restoration could improve protective immunity, we transferred graded doses of Ag-specific precursors into old mice and showed that injection of 5400 (but not of 1800 or 600) adult naive WNV-specific CD8 T cells significantly increased survival after WNV. These results set quantitative limits to the level of Tn reconstitution necessary to improve immune defense in older organisms and are discussed in light of targets of immune reconstitution.


Subject(s)
West Nile Fever , West Nile virus , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cell Count , Interleukin-7 , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
2.
EBioMedicine ; 77: 103904, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nearly 4 billion doses of the BNT162b2-mRNA and CoronaVac-inactivated vaccines have been administrated globally, yet different vaccine-induced immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) remain incompletely investigated. METHODS: We compare the immunogenicity and durability of these two vaccines among fully vaccinated Hong Kong people. FINDINGS: Standard BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccinations were tolerated and induced neutralizing antibody (NAb) (100% and 85.7%) and spike-specific CD4 T cell responses (96.7% and 82.1%), respectively. The geometric mean NAb IC50 and median frequencies of reactive CD4 subsets were consistently lower among CoronaVac-vaccinees than BNT162b2-vaccinees. CoronaVac did not induce measurable levels of nucleocapsid protein-specific IFN-γ+ CD4+ T or IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells compared with unvaccinated. Against VOCs, NAb response rates and geometric mean IC50 titers against B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) were significantly lower for CoronaVac (50%, 23.2 and 7.1%, <20) than BNT162b2 (94.1%, 131 and 58.8%, 35.0), respectively. Three months after vaccinations, NAbs to VOCs dropped near to detection limit, along with waning memory T cell responses, mainly among CoronaVac-vaccinees. INTERPRETATION: Our results indicate that vaccinees especially CoronaVac-vaccinees with significantly reduced NAbs may probably face higher risk to pandemic VOCs breakthrough infection. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council Collaborative Research Fund (C7156-20GF and C1134-20GF); the Wellcome Trust (P86433); the National Program on Key Research Project of China (Grant 2020YFC0860600, 2020YFA0707500 and 2020YFA0707504); Shenzhen Science and Technology Program (JSGG20200225151410198 and JCYJ20210324131610027); HKU Development Fund and LKS Faculty of Medicine Matching Fund to AIDS Institute; Hong Kong Innovation and Technology Fund, Innovation and Technology Commission and generous donation from the Friends of Hope Education Fund. Z.C.'s team was also partly supported by the Theme-Based Research Scheme (T11-706/18-N).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 861666, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785350

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that spread around the world during the past 2 years, has infected more than 260 million people worldwide and has imposed an important burden on the healthcare system. Several risk factors associated with unfavorable outcome were identified, including elderly age, selected comorbidities, immune suppression as well as laboratory markers. The role of immune system in the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection is indisputable: while an appropriate function of the immune system is important for a rapid clearance of the virus, progression to the severe and critical phases of the disease is related to an exaggerated immune response associated with a cytokine storm. We analyzed differences and longitudinal changes in selected immune parameters in 823 adult COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the Martin University Hospital, Martin, Slovakia. Examined parameters included the differential blood cell counts, various parameters of cellular and humoral immunity (serum concentration of immunoglobulins, C4 and C3), lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, NK cells, CD4+CD45RO+), expression of activation (HLA-DR, CD38) and inhibition markers (CD159/NKG2A). Besides already known changes in the differential blood cell counts and basic lymphocyte subsets, we found significantly higher proportion of CD8+CD38+ cells and significantly lower proportion of CD8+NKG2A+ and NK NKG2A+ cells on admission in non-survivors, compared to survivors; recovery in survivors was associated with a significant increase in the expression of HLA-DR and with a significant decrease of the proportion of CD8+CD38+cells. Furthermore, patients with fatal outcome had significantly lower concentrations of C3 and IgM on admission. However, none of the examined parameters had sufficient sensitivity or specificity to be considered a biomarker of fatal outcome. Understanding the dynamic changes in immune profile of COVID-19 patients may help us to better understand the pathophysiology of the disease, potentially improve management of hospitalized patients and enable proper timing and selection of immunomodulator drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 848886, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785346

ABSTRACT

Long-COVID is a new emerging syndrome worldwide that is characterized by the persistence of unresolved signs and symptoms of COVID-19 more than 4 weeks after the infection and even after more than 12 weeks. The underlying mechanisms for Long-COVID are still undefined, but a sustained inflammatory response caused by the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in organ and tissue sanctuaries or resemblance with an autoimmune disease are within the most considered hypotheses. In this study, we analyzed the usefulness of several demographic, clinical, and immunological parameters as diagnostic biomarkers of Long-COVID in one cohort of Spanish individuals who presented signs and symptoms of this syndrome after 49 weeks post-infection, in comparison with individuals who recovered completely in the first 12 weeks after the infection. We determined that individuals with Long-COVID showed significantly increased levels of functional memory cells with high antiviral cytotoxic activity such as CD8+ TEMRA cells, CD8±TCRγδ+ cells, and NK cells with CD56+CD57+NKG2C+ phenotype. The persistence of these long-lasting cytotoxic populations was supported by enhanced levels of CD4+ Tregs and the expression of the exhaustion marker PD-1 on the surface of CD3+ T lymphocytes. With the use of these immune parameters and significant clinical features such as lethargy, pleuritic chest pain, and dermatological injuries, as well as demographic factors such as female gender and O+ blood type, a Random Forest algorithm predicted the assignment of the participants in the Long-COVID group with 100% accuracy. The definition of the most accurate diagnostic biomarkers could be helpful to detect the development of Long-COVID and to improve the clinical management of these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779779

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 T cell responses are associated with COVID-19 recovery, and Class I- and Class II-restricted epitopes have been identified in the spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) and membrane (M) proteins and others. This prospective COVID-19 Health Action Response for Marines (CHARM) study enabled assessment of T cell responses against S, N and M proteins in symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected participants. At enrollment all participants were negative by qPCR; follow-up occurred biweekly and bimonthly for the next 6 weeks. Study participants who tested positive by qPCR SARS-CoV-2 test were enrolled in an immune response sub-study. FluoroSpot interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and IL2 responses following qPCR-confirmed infection at enrollment (day 0), day 7 and 14 and more than 28 days later were measured using pools of 17mer peptides covering S, N, and M proteins, or CD4+CD8 peptide pools containing predicted epitopes from multiple SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Among 124 asymptomatic and 105 symptomatic participants, SARS-CoV-2 infection generated IFN-γ responses to the S, N and M proteins that persisted longer in asymptomatic cases. IFN-γ responses were significantly (p = 0.001) more frequent to the N pool (51.4%) than the M pool (18.9%) among asymptomatic but not symptomatic subjects. Asymptomatic IFN-γ responders to the CD4+CD8 pool responded more frequently to the S pool (55.6%) and N pool (57.1%), than the M pool (7.1%), but not symptomatic participants. The frequencies of IFN-γ responses to the S and N+M pools peaked 7 days after the positive qPCR test among asymptomatic (S pool: 22.2%; N+M pool: 28.7%) and symptomatic (S pool: 15.3%; N+M pool 21.9%) participants and dropped by >28 days. Magnitudes of post-infection IFN-γ and IL2 responses to the N+M pool were significantly correlated with IFN-γ and IL2 responses to the N and M pools. These data further support the central role of Th1-biased cell mediated immunity IFN-γ and IL2 responses, particularly to the N protein, in controlling COVID-19 symptoms, and justify T cell-based COVID-19 vaccines that include the N and S proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-2 , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 840610, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775674

ABSTRACT

T lymphocytes (T cells) are divided into two functionally different subgroups the CD4+ T helper cells (Th) and the CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Adequate CD4 and CD8 T cell activation to proliferation, clonal expansion and effector function is crucial for efficient clearance of infection by pathogens. Failure to do so may lead to T cell exhaustion. Upon activation by antigen presenting cells, T cells undergo metabolic reprograming that support effector functions. In this review we will discuss how metabolic reprograming dictates functionality during viral infections using severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as examples. Moreover, we will briefly discuss T cell metabolic programs during bacterial infections exemplified by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) infection.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(5): 242, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772889

ABSTRACT

The novel virus "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" has been responsible for the worldwide pandemic causing huge devastation and deaths since December 2019. The disease caused by this virus is known as COVID-19. The present study is based on immuno-informatics approach to develop a multi-epitope-loaded peptide vaccine to combat the COVID-19 menace. Here, we have reported the 9-mer CD8 T cell epitopes and 15-mer CD4 T cell epitopes, free from glycosylation sites, belonging to three proteins, viz. surface glycoprotein, membrane glycoprotein and envelope protein of this virus. Immunogenicity, aliphatic amino acid, antigenicity and hydrophilicity scores of the predicted epitopes were estimated. In addition, other physicochemical parameters, namely net charge, Boman index and amino acid contents, were also accounted. Out of all the epitopes, three CD8 T cell epitopes viz. PDPSKPSKR, DPSKPSKRS and QTQTNSPRR and three CD4 T cell epitopes viz. ASYQTQTNSPRRARS, RIGNYKLNTDHSSSS and RYRIGNYKLNTDHSS were found to be efficient targets for raising immunity in human against this virus. With the help of our identified potent epitopes, various pharma industries might initiate efforts to incorporate those epitopes with carrier protein or adjuvant to develop a multi-epitope-loaded peptide vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The peptide vaccines are usually cost-effective and therefore, could be administered as a preventive measure to combat the spread of this disease. Proper clinical trials must be conducted prior to the use of identified epitopes as vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Subunit
8.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(13): 1522-1534, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769417

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Respiratory viruses are major human pathogens that cause approximately 200 million pneumonia cases annually and induce various comorbidities with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), resulting in significant health concerns and economic burdens. Clinical manifestations in respiratory viral infections and inflammations vary from asymptomatic, mild, to severe, depending on host immune cell responses to pathogens and interactions with airway epithelia. We critically review the activation, effector, and regulation of T cells in respiratory virus infections and chronic inflammations associated with COPD. Crosstalk among T cells, innate immune cells, and airway epithelial cells is discussed as essential parts of pathogenesis and protection in viral infections and COPD. We emphasize the specificity of peptide antigens and the functional heterogeneity of conventional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to shed some light on potential cellular and molecular candidates for the future development of therapeutics and intervention against respiratory viral infections and inflammations.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans
9.
Virol J ; 19(1): 57, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profiles have been observed in most patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we explore the role of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines on hospital admission in predicting the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This study included 214 patients with COVID-19 who were treated at Chongqing University Three Gorges Hospital from January 19, 2020 to April 30, 2020. Any mutants were not detected in the studied patients. Patients were divided into non-intensive care unit (ICU) (mild/moderate) group and ICU (severe/critical) group, according to the severity of the disease. Clinical and laboratory data, including peripheral lymphocyte subsets and cytokines, were analyzed and compared. Logistic regression was used to analyze the predictive factors for ICU admission. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to evaluate the predictive value of selected indicators for the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 214 patients enrolled, 161 were non-ICU patients and 53 were ICU patients. Lymphopenia was observed in nearly all of ICU patients (96.2%) and 84.5% of non-ICU patients on hospital admission. The absolute number of lymphocytes, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells were lower in ICU group (659.00 × 106/L, 417.00 × 106/L, 261.00 × 106/L, 140.00 × 106/L, 109.00 × 106/L, 102.00 × 106/L, respectively) than in non-ICU group (1063.00 × 109/L, 717.00 × 106/L, 432.00 × 106/L, 271.00 × 106/L, 133.00 × 106/L, 143.00 × 106/L, respectively). Interleukin (IL)-6 was significantly higher in ICU patients than in non-ICU patients (18.08 pg/mL vs. 3.13 pg/mL, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio: 1.067 [1.034-1.101]), diabetes mellitus (odds ratio: 9.154 [2.710-30.926]), CD3+ T cells (odds ratio: 0.996 [0.994-0.997]), and IL-6 (odds ratio: 1.006 [1.000-1.013]) were independent predictors for the development of severe disease. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of CD3+ T cells and IL-6 was 0.806 (0.737-0.874) and 0.785 (0.705-0.864), respectively, and the cutoff values were 510.50 × 106/L (sensitivity, 71.7%; specificity, 79.5%) and 6.58 pg/mL (77.4%, 74.5%), respectively. There were no statistical differences among all tested indicators of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines between severe group (n = 38) and critical group (n = 15) on hospital admission or ICU admission, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The levels of lymphocyte subsets decreased and the level of IL-6 increased significantly in ICU COVID-19 patients compared with non-ICU COVID-19 patients. Therefore, the number of CD3+ T cells and the level of IL-6 on hospital admission may serve as predictive factors for identifying patients with wild-type virus infection who will have severe disease.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Killer Cells, Natural , Lymphocyte Subsets , Prognosis
10.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 41(11): 407-414, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758604

ABSTRACT

Genetic polymorphisms at the IFNL4 loci are known to influence the clinical outcome of several different infectious diseases. Best described is the association between the IFNL4 genotype and hepatitis C virus clearance. However, an influence of the IFNL4 genotype on the adaptive immune system was suggested by several studies but never investigated in humans. In this cross-sectional study, we have genotyped 201 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive participants for 3 IFNL4 polymorphisms (rs368234815, rs12979860, and rs117648444) and stratified them according to the IFNλ4 activity. Based on this stratification, we investigated the association between the IFNL4 genotype and the antibody as well as the CD8+ T cell response in the acute phase of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We observed no differences in the genotype distribution compared with a Danish reference cohort or the 1,000 Genome Project, and we were not able to link the IFNL4 genotype to changes in either the antibody or CD8+ T cell responses of these patients.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genotype , Humans , Interleukins/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753507

ABSTRACT

CD8+ T lymphocytes are a heterogeneous class of cells that play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens and cancer. During their lifetime, they acquire cytotoxic functions to ensure the clearance of infected or transformed cells and, in addition, they turn into memory lymphocytes, thus providing a long-term protection. During ageing, the thymic involution causes a reduction of circulating T cells and an enrichment of memory cells, partially explaining the lowering of the response towards novel antigens with implications in vaccine efficacy. Moreover, the persistent stimulation by several antigens throughout life favors the switching of CD8+ T cells towards a senescent phenotype contributing to a low-grade inflammation that is a major component of several ageing-related diseases. In genetically predisposed young people, an immunological stress caused by viral infections (e.g., HIV, CMV, SARS-CoV-2), autoimmune disorders or tumor microenvironment (TME) could mimic the ageing status with the consequent acceleration of T cell senescence. This, in turn, exacerbates the inflamed conditions with dramatic effects on the clinical progression of the disease. A better characterization of the phenotype as well as the functions of senescent CD8+ T cells can be pivotal to prevent age-related diseases, to improve vaccine strategies and, possibly, immunotherapies in autoimmune diseases and cancer.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Neoplasms , Virus Diseases , CD28 Antigens , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cellular Senescence , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Microenvironment
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 807332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753361

ABSTRACT

In the early stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), most cases are identified as mild or moderate illnesses. Approximately 20% of hospitalised patients become severe or critical at the middle or late stage of the disease. The predictors and risk factors for prognosis in those with mild or moderate disease remain to be determined. Of 694 patients with COVID-19, 231 patients with mild or moderate disease, who were hospitalised at 10 hospitals in Wenzhou and nearby counties in China, were enrolled in this retrospective study from 17 January to 20 March 2020. The outcomes of these patients included progression from mild/moderate illness to severe or critical conditions. Among the 231 patients, 49 (21.2%) had a poor prognosis in the hospital. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher inflammation/coagulopathy/immunology responsive index (ICIRI=[c-reactive protein × fibrinogen × D-dimer]/CD8 T cell count) on admission (OR=345.151, 95% CI=23.014-5176.318) was associated with increased odds ratios for poor prognosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ICIRI predicting severe and critical condition progression was 0.65 (95% CI=0.519-0.782) and 0.80 (95% CI=0.647-0.954), with cut-off values of 870.83 and 535.44, respectively. Conversely, age, sex, comorbidity, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, CD8 T cell count, and c-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels alone at admission were not good predictors of poor prognosis in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. At admission, a novel index, ICIRI, tends to be the most promising predictor of COVID-19 progression from mild or moderate illness to severe or critical conditions.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Inflammation/virology , C-Reactive Protein , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinogen , Humans , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
13.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 324, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745431

ABSTRACT

High-throughput single-cell technologies hold the promise of discovering novel cellular relationships with disease. However, analytical workflows constructed for these technologies to associate cell proportions with disease often employ unsupervised clustering techniques that overlook the valuable hierarchical structures that have been used to define cell types. We present treekoR, a framework that empirically recapitulates these structures, facilitating multiple quantifications and comparisons of cell type proportions. Our results from twelve case studies reinforce the importance of quantifying proportions relative to parent populations in the analyses of cytometry data - as failing to do so can lead to missing important biological insights.


Subject(s)
Flow Cytometry/methods , Phenotype , CD8 Antigens , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Gene Expression Profiling , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Single-Cell Analysis/methods
14.
Nat Immunol ; 23(4): 543-555, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1738613

ABSTRACT

Despite the success of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, the immunological mechanisms that underlie its efficacy are poorly understood. Here we analyzed the innate and adaptive responses to BNT162b2 in mice, and show that immunization stimulated potent antibody and antigen-specific T cell responses, as well as strikingly enhanced innate responses after secondary immunization, which was concurrent with enhanced serum interferon (IFN)-γ levels 1 d following secondary immunization. Notably, we found that natural killer cells and CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph nodes are the major producers of this circulating IFN-γ. Analysis of knockout mice revealed that induction of antibody and T cell responses to BNT162b2 was not dependent on signaling via Toll-like receptors 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 nor inflammasome activation, nor the necroptosis or pyroptosis cell death pathways. Rather, the CD8+ T cell response induced by BNT162b2 was dependent on type I interferon-dependent MDA5 signaling. These results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms by which the BNT162b2 vaccine stimulates immune responses.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Vaccines , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Mice , Vaccines, Synthetic
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736946

ABSTRACT

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) represents a major burden to global health, and refined vaccines are needed. Replication-deficient lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV)-based vaccine vectors against cytomegalovirus have proven safe for human use and elicited robust T cell responses in a large proportion of vaccine recipients. Here, we developed an rLCMV vaccine expressing the Mtb antigens TB10.4 and Ag85B. In mice, rLCMV elicited high frequencies of polyfunctional Mtb-specific CD8 and CD4 T cell responses. CD8 but not CD4 T cells were efficiently boosted upon vector re-vaccination. High-frequency responses were also observed in neonatally vaccinated mice, and co-administration of rLCMV with Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) vaccines did not result in substantial reciprocal interference. Importantly, rLCMV immunization significantly reduced the lung Mtb burden upon aerosol challenge, resulting in improved lung ventilation. Protection was associated with increased CD8 T cell recruitment but reduced CD4 T cell infiltration upon Mtb challenge. When combining rLCMV with BCG vaccination in a heterologous prime-boost regimen, responses to the rLCMV-encoded Mtb antigens were further augmented, but protection was not significantly different from rLCMV or BCG vaccination alone. This work suggests that rLCMV may show utility for neonatal and/or adult vaccination efforts against pulmonary tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Animals , Antigens, Bacterial , BCG Vaccine , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/genetics , Mice , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 804808, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731770

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a serious global threat until we identify the effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by various immunopathological consequences including lymphocyte activation and dysfunction, lymphopenia, cytokine storm, increased level of neutrophils, and depletion and exhaustion of lymphocytes. Considering the low level of antibody-mediated protection during coronavirus infection, understanding the role of T cell for long-term protection is decisive. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response is imperative for cell-mediated immune response during COVID-19. However, the level of CD8+ T cell response reduced to almost half as compared to CD4+ after 6 months of infection. The long-term protection is mediated via generation of immunological memory response during COVID-19. The presence of memory CD4+ T cells in all the severely infected and recovered individuals shows that the memory response is predominated by CD4+ T cells. Prominently, the antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are specifically observed during day 0 to day 28 in COVID-19-vaccinated individuals. However, level of antigen-specific T memory cells in COVID-19-vaccinated individuals defines the long-term protection against forthcoming outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans
17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731296

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against COVID-19 is critical for immuno-compromised individuals, including patients with cancer. Systemic reactogenicity, a manifestation of the innate immune response to vaccines, occurs in up to 69% of patients following vaccination with RNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. Tumor regression can occur following an intense immune-inflammatory response and novel strategies to treat cancer rely on manipulating the host immune system. Here, we report spontaneous regression of metastatic salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma in a patient who experienced grade 3 systemic reactogenicity, following vaccination with the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Histological and immunophenotypic inspection of the postvaccination lung biopsy specimens showed a massive inflammatory infiltrate with scant embedded tumor clusters (<5%). Highly multiplexed imaging mass cytometry showed that the postvaccination lung metastasis samples had remarkable immune cell infiltration, including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, B cells, and dendritic cells, which contrasted with very low levels of these cells in the prevaccination primary tumor and lung metastasis samples. CT scans obtained 3, 6, and 9 months after the second vaccine dose demonstrated persistent tumor shrinkage (50%, 67%, and 73% reduction, respectively), suggesting that vaccination stimulated anticancer immunity. Insight: This case suggests that the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine stimulated anticancer immunity and tumor regression.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung Neoplasms/immunology , Myoepithelioma/immunology , Parotid Neoplasms/surgery , B-Lymphocytes , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/secondary , Middle Aged , Myoepithelioma/diagnostic imaging , Myoepithelioma/secondary , Parotid Neoplasms/pathology
18.
J Immunol Methods ; 502: 113230, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720358

ABSTRACT

Innate immune mechanisms are central players in response to the binding of pathogens to pattern-recognition receptors providing a crucial initial block on viral replication. Moreover, innate immune response mobilizes cells of the cellular-mediated immune system, which develop into effector cells that promote viral clearance. Here, we observed circulating leukocyte T cell response in healthy subjects, COVID-19 infected, and in healthy vaccinated subjects. We found a significant CD8+ T cells (p < 0,05) decrease and an augmented CD4+/CD8+ ratio (p < 0,05) in COVID-19 infected group compared with vaccinated subjects. In addition, healthy vaccinated subjects have a significant increased expression of CD8+ T cells, and a reduction of CD4+/CD8+ ratio with respect to subjects previously COVID-19 infected. Central Memory and Terminal Effector Memory cells (TEMRA) increased after vaccine but not among groups.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , /immunology , Adult , Aged , CD4-CD8 Ratio , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunophenotyping , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
19.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0084521, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709405

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection affects the stimulatory levels of cellular-mediated immunity, which plays an essential role in controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection. In fact, several studies have shown the association of lymphopenia with severe COVID-19 in patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the response of the immune system, including cell-mediated immunity and antibody production, during different stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Peripheral blood and serum samples were collected from patients with moderate infection, patients under medication (hospitalized), patients who had recovered, and healthy individuals (n = 80). Flow cytometry analysis was performed on peripheral blood samples to determine the cellular immunity profile of each patient. The data showed a significant reduction in the levels of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells and CD45+ cells in the moderate and under-medication groups, suggesting lymphopenia in those patients. Also, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted on the serum samples to measure the levels of antibodies, including IgM and IgG, in each patient. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of IgM in the moderate infection and under-medication patients, thus indicating the production of IgM during the first week of infection. Furthermore, changes in the levels of IgG were significantly detected among recovered patients, indicating therefore a remarkable increase during the recovery stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection and thus a strong humoral-mediated immunity. In summary, the results of this study may help us to understand the main role of the cellular immune responses, including CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, against SARS-CoV-2 infection. This understanding might support the development of SARS-CoV-2 treatments and vaccines in the near future. IMPORTANCE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 in China. This virus is a serious threat to people not only in China but also worldwide, where it has been detected in over 222 countries. It has been reported that ∼3.4% of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients have died. The significance of our study relies on the fact that an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry were used to measure the levels of antibodies and cellular immune response, respectively, from clinical samples of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
CD3 Complex/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Young Adult
20.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 322(4): H568-H574, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706188

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is highest in young adulthood, an effect that has been magnified by the COVID-19 pandemic. Importantly, individuals with MDD are at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Accumulating evidence supports immune system dysregulation as a major contributor to the elevated CVD risk in older adults with MDD; however, whether this is present in young adults with MDD without comorbid disease remains unclear. Interestingly, recent data suggest augmented T-cell mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (T-cell mitoROS) as a potent driver of immune dysregulation in animal models of psychiatric disease. With this background in mind, we tested the hypothesis that young adults with MDD would have augmented T-cell mitoROS and circulating proinflammatory cytokines compared with healthy young adults without MDD (HA). Whole blood was drawn from 14 young adults with MDD (age: 23 ± 2 yr) and 11 HA (age: 22 ± 1 yr). T-cell mitoROS (MitoSOX red; total: CD3+, T-helper: CD4+, T cytotoxic: CD8+) and serum cytokines were assessed by flow cytometry. Total T-cell mitoROS was significantly greater in adults with MDD compared with HA [median: 14,089 arbitrary units (AU); median: 1,362 AU, P = 0.01]. Likewise, both T-helper and T-cytotoxic cell mitoROS were significantly greater in adults with MDD compared with HA (both: P < 0.05). There were no differences in circulating cytokines between groups (all cytokines: P > 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that elevated T-cell mitoROS may represent an early marker of immune system dysregulation in young, otherwise healthy, adults with MDD.NEW & NOTEWORTHY To our knowledge, we provide the first evidence of augmented T-cell mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (T-cell mitoROS) in young, otherwise healthy adults with MDD. Although the elevated T-cell mitoROS did not correspond to a proinflammatory profile, these findings suggest that elevated T-cell mitoROS may be an early marker of immune system dysregulation in young adults with MDD.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major/immunology , Mitochondria/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/analysis , T-Lymphocytes/ultrastructure , Adult , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , Cytokines , Female , Humans , Ki-1 Antigen/analysis , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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