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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0084521, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709405

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection affects the stimulatory levels of cellular-mediated immunity, which plays an essential role in controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection. In fact, several studies have shown the association of lymphopenia with severe COVID-19 in patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the response of the immune system, including cell-mediated immunity and antibody production, during different stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Peripheral blood and serum samples were collected from patients with moderate infection, patients under medication (hospitalized), patients who had recovered, and healthy individuals (n = 80). Flow cytometry analysis was performed on peripheral blood samples to determine the cellular immunity profile of each patient. The data showed a significant reduction in the levels of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells and CD45+ cells in the moderate and under-medication groups, suggesting lymphopenia in those patients. Also, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted on the serum samples to measure the levels of antibodies, including IgM and IgG, in each patient. The results revealed a significant increase in the levels of IgM in the moderate infection and under-medication patients, thus indicating the production of IgM during the first week of infection. Furthermore, changes in the levels of IgG were significantly detected among recovered patients, indicating therefore a remarkable increase during the recovery stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection and thus a strong humoral-mediated immunity. In summary, the results of this study may help us to understand the main role of the cellular immune responses, including CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, against SARS-CoV-2 infection. This understanding might support the development of SARS-CoV-2 treatments and vaccines in the near future. IMPORTANCE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 in China. This virus is a serious threat to people not only in China but also worldwide, where it has been detected in over 222 countries. It has been reported that ∼3.4% of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients have died. The significance of our study relies on the fact that an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry were used to measure the levels of antibodies and cellular immune response, respectively, from clinical samples of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
CD3 Complex/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Young Adult
2.
J Clin Invest ; 131(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463085

ABSTRACT

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have shown efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, it is unknown if coronavirus vaccines can also protect against other coronaviruses that may infect humans in the future. Here, we show that coronavirus vaccines elicited cross-protective immune responses against heterologous coronaviruses. In particular, we show that a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) vaccine developed in 2004 and known to protect against SARS-CoV-1 conferred robust heterologous protection against SARS-CoV-2 in mice. Similarly, prior coronavirus infections conferred heterologous protection against distinct coronaviruses. Cross-reactive immunity was also reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and in individuals who received SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, and transfer of plasma from these individuals into mice improved protection against coronavirus challenges. These findings provide the first demonstration to our knowledge that coronavirus vaccines (and prior coronavirus infections) can confer broad protection against heterologous coronaviruses and establish a rationale for universal coronavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cross Reactions , Epitope Mapping , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444119

ABSTRACT

The data currently available on how the immune system recognises the SARS-CoV-2 virus is growing rapidly. While there are structures of some SARS-CoV-2 proteins in complex with antibodies, which helps us understand how the immune system is able to recognise this new virus; however, we lack data on how T cells are able to recognise this virus. T cells, especially the cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, are critical for viral recognition and clearance. Here we report the X-ray crystallography structure of a T cell receptor, shared among unrelated individuals (public TCR) in complex with a dominant spike-derived CD8+ T cell epitope (YLQ peptide). We show that YLQ activates a polyfunctional CD8+ T cell response in COVID-19 recovered patients. We detail the molecular basis for the shared TCR gene usage observed in HLA-A*02:01+ individuals, providing an understanding of TCR recognition towards a SARS-CoV-2 epitope. Interestingly, the YLQ peptide conformation did not change upon TCR binding, facilitating the high-affinity interaction observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Cytokines/metabolism , Epitopes/chemistry , HLA-A2 Antigen/chemistry , Humans , Mutation , Peptides/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Denaturation , Protein Folding , Surface Plasmon Resonance , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology
5.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(15): 3389-3394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409697

ABSTRACT

Current standard vaccine testing protocols take approximately 10-24 months of testing before a vaccine can be declared successful. Sometimes by the time a successful vaccine is out for public use, the outbreak may already be over. With no vaccine or antiviral drug available to treat the infected, we are left with the age-old methods of isolation, quarantine, and rest, to arrest such a viral outbreak. Convalescent blood therapy and covalent plasma therapy have often proved effective in reducing mortality, however, the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in these therapies have been overlooked. Antigen presenting cells (APCs), CD4+ T memory cells, CD8+ T memory cells, and memory B-Cells all play a vital role in sustainable defense and subsequent recovery. This report incorporates all these aspects by suggesting a novel treatment therapy called selective convalescent leukapheresis and transfusion (SCLT) and also highlights its potential in vaccination. The anticipated advantages of the proposed technique outweigh the cost, time, and efficiency of other available transfusion and vaccination processes. It is envisioned that in the future this new approach could serve as a rapid emergency response to subdue a pathogen outbreak and to stop it from becoming an epidemic, or pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , Antigen-Presenting Cells/cytology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Transfusion , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunologic Factors , Leukapheresis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Virus Res ; 304: 198508, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331289

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a serious threat to public health. An explicit investigation of COVID-19 immune responses, particularly the host immunity in recovered subjects, will lay a foundation for the rational design of therapeutics and/or vaccines against future coronaviral outbreaks. Here, we examined virus-specific T cell responses and identified T cell epitopes using peptides spanning SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. These peptides were used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from COVID-19-recovered subjects, followed by an analysis of IFN-γ-secreting T cells by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot). We also evaluated virus-specific CD4 or CD8 T cell activation by flow cytometry assay. By screening 52 matrix pools (comprised of 315 peptides) of the spike (S) glycoprotein and 21 matrix pools (comprised of 102 peptides) spanning the nucleocapsid (N) protein, we identified 28 peptides from S protein and 5 peptides from N protein as immunodominant epitopes. The immunogenicity of these epitopes was confirmed by a second ELISpot using single peptide stimulation in memory T cells, and they were mapped by HLA restrictions. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses positively correlated with B cell IgG and neutralizing antibody responses to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S protein. Our results demonstrate that defined levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses are generated in some, but not all, COVID-19-recovered subjects, fostering hope for the protection of a proportion of COVID-19-exposed individuals against reinfection. These results also suggest that these virus-specific T cell responses may induce protective immunity in unexposed individuals upon vaccination, using vaccines generated based on the immune epitopes identified in this study. However, SARS-CoV-2 S and N peptides are not potently immunogenic, and none of the single peptides could universally induce robust T cell responses, suggesting the necessity of using a multi-epitope strategy for COVID-19 vaccine design.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
8.
Nature ; 597(7875): 268-273, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328849

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNA vaccines1-3 mediate protection from severe disease as early as ten days after prime vaccination3, when neutralizing antibodies are hardly detectable4-6. Vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells may therefore be the main mediators of protection at this early stage7,8. The details of their induction, comparison to natural infection, and association with other arms of vaccine-induced immunity remain, however, incompletely understood. Here we show on a single-epitope level that a stable and fully functional CD8+ T cell response is vigorously mobilized one week after prime vaccination with bnt162b2, when circulating CD4+ T cells and neutralizing antibodies are still weakly detectable. Boost vaccination induced a robust expansion that generated highly differentiated effector CD8+ T cells; however, neither the functional capacity nor the memory precursor T cell pool was affected. Compared with natural infection, vaccine-induced early memory T cells exhibited similar functional capacities but a different subset distribution. Our results indicate that CD8+ T cells are important effector cells, are expanded in the early protection window after prime vaccination, precede maturation of other effector arms of vaccine-induced immunity and are stably maintained after boost vaccination.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunologic Memory/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
9.
mBio ; 12(4): e0150321, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327616

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with T cell lymphopenia, but no causal effect of T cell deficiency on disease severity has been established. To investigate the specific role of T cells in recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, we studied rhesus macaques that were depleted of either CD4+, CD8+, or both T cell subsets prior to infection. Peak virus loads were similar in all groups, but the resolution of virus in the T cell-depleted animals was slightly delayed compared to that in controls. The T cell-depleted groups developed virus-neutralizing antibody responses and class switched to IgG. When reinfected 6 weeks later, the T cell-depleted animals showed anamnestic immune responses characterized by rapid induction of high-titer virus-neutralizing antibodies, faster control of virus loads, and reduced clinical signs. These results indicate that while T cells play a role in the recovery of rhesus macaques from acute SARS-CoV-2 infections, their depletion does not induce severe disease, and T cells do not account for the natural resistance of rhesus macaques to severe COVID-19. Neither primed CD4+ nor CD8+ T cells appeared critical for immunoglobulin class switching, the development of immunological memory, or protection from a second infection. IMPORTANCE Patients with severe COVID-19 often have decreased numbers of T cells, a cell type important in fighting most viral infections. However, it is not known whether the loss of T cells contributes to severe COVID-19 or is a consequence of it. We studied rhesus macaques, which develop only mild COVID-19, similar to most humans. Experimental depletion of T cells slightly prolonged their clearance of virus, but there was no increase in disease severity. Furthermore, they were able to develop protection from a second infection and produced antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus. They also developed immunological memory, which allows a much stronger and more rapid response upon a second infection. These results suggest that T cells are not critical for recovery from acute SARS-CoV-2 infections in this model and point toward B cell responses and antibodies as the essential mediators of protection from re-exposure.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Lymphocyte Depletion/methods , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Male
10.
Immunohorizons ; 5(5): 338-348, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244183

ABSTRACT

Memory CD8+ T cells promote protective immunity against viruses or cancer. Our field has done a terrific job identifying how CD8+ T cell memory forms in response to Ag. However, many studies focused on systems in which inflammation recedes over time. These situations, while relevant, do not cover all situations in which CD8+ T cell memory is relevant. It is increasingly clear that CD8+ T cells with a memory phenotype form in response to infections with extensive or prolonged tissue inflammation, for example, influenza, herpes, and more recently, COVID-19. In these circumstances, inflammatory mediators expectedly affect forming memory CD8+ T cells, especially in tissues in which pathogens establish. Notwithstanding recent important discoveries, many outstanding questions on how inflammation shapes CD8+ T cell memory remain unanswered. We will discuss, in this review, what is already known and the next steps to understand how inflammation influences CD8+ T cell memory.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Inflammation/immunology , Viruses/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immune System/cytology , Immune System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1589-1598, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196482

ABSTRACT

A novel member of human coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been recently recognized in China and rapidly spread worldwide. Studies showed the decreasing of peripheral blood lymphocytes in a majority of patients. In this study, we have reported the clinical features, laboratory characteristics, the frequency of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations, and their apoptosis pattern in Iranian coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) patients. Demographic and clinical data of 61 hospitalized confirmed cases with COVID-19 at Imam Khomeini Hospital were collected and analyzed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from all samples and the apoptosis pattern was evaluated using Annexin V/propidium iodide method. The frequency of lymphocyte subsets, including T-CD4+ , T-CD8+ , NK, B cells, and monocytes, was measured in all patients and 31 controls by flow cytometry. Our findings demonstrated that the percentage of lymphocytes, CD4+ , and CD8+ T cells were decreased in COVID-19 patients compared with the control group. Regarding the clinical severity, the number of lymphocytes, CD4+ , CD8+ T cells, and NK cells were also decreased in severe cases when compared with mild cases. Finally, our data have also indicated the increase in apoptosis of mononuclear cells from COVID-19 patients which was more remarkable in severe clinical cases. The frequency of immune cells is a useful indicator for prediction of severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. These results could help to explain the immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and introducing novel biomarkers, therapeutic strategies, and vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Immunophenotyping/methods , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Apoptosis/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Iran , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged
12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 580237, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116681

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induced Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a global threat to public health. The immune system is crucial in defending and eliminating the virus and infected cells. However, immune dysregulation may result in the rapid progression of COVID-19. Here, we evaluated the subsets, phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural killer (NK) and T cells in patients with COVID-19 and their associations with disease severity. Methods: Demographic and clinical data of COVID-19 patients enrolled in Wuhan Union Hospital from February 25 to February 27, 2020, were collected and analyzed. The phenotypic and functional characteristics of NK cells and T cells subsets in circulating blood and serum levels of cytokines were analyzed via flow cytometry. Then the LASSO logistic regression model was employed to predict risk factors for the severity of COVID-19. Results: The counts and percentages of NK cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NKT cells were significantly reduced in patients with severe symptoms. The cytotoxic CD3-CD56dimCD16+ cell population significantly decreased, while the CD3-CD56dimCD16- part significantly increased in severe COVID-19 patients. More importantly, elevated expression of regulatory molecules, such as CD244 and programmed death-1 (PD-1), on NK cells and T cells, as well as decreased serum cytotoxic effector molecules including perforin and granzyme A, were detected in patients with COVID-19. The serum IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α were significantly increased in severe patients. Moreover, the CD3-CD56dimCD16- cells were screened out as an influential factor in severe cases by LASSO logistic regression. Conclusions: The functional exhaustion and other subset alteration of NK and T cells may contribute to the progression and improve the prognosis of COVID-19. Surveillance of lymphocyte subsets may in the future enable early screening for signs of critical illness and understanding the pathogenesis of this disease.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/blood , Killer Cells, Natural/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
13.
Nature ; 586(7830): 594-599, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091471

ABSTRACT

An effective vaccine is needed to halt the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Recently, we reported safety, tolerability and antibody response data from an ongoing placebo-controlled, observer-blinded phase I/II coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine trial with BNT162b1, a lipid nanoparticle-formulated nucleoside-modified mRNA that encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein1. Here we present antibody and T cell responses after vaccination with BNT162b1 from a second, non-randomized open-label phase I/II trial in healthy adults, 18-55 years of age. Two doses of 1-50 µg of BNT162b1 elicited robust CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and strong antibody responses, with RBD-binding IgG concentrations clearly above those seen in serum from a cohort of individuals who had recovered from COVID-19. Geometric mean titres of SARS-CoV-2 serum-neutralizing antibodies on day 43 were 0.7-fold (1-µg dose) to 3.5-fold (50-µg dose) those of the recovered individuals. Immune sera broadly neutralized pseudoviruses with diverse SARS-CoV-2 spike variants. Most participants had T helper type 1 (TH1)-skewed T cell immune responses with RBD-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell expansion. Interferon-γ was produced by a large fraction of RBD-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The robust RBD-specific antibody, T cell and favourable cytokine responses induced by the BNT162b1 mRNA vaccine suggest that it has the potential to protect against COVID-19 through multiple beneficial mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Germany , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Th1 Cells/cytology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Young Adult
14.
Cell ; 184(7): 1804-1820.e16, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084553

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused the global COVID-19 pandemic. Although passively delivered neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 show promise in clinical trials, their mechanism of action in vivo is incompletely understood. Here, we define correlates of protection of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in SARS-CoV-2-infected animals. Whereas Fc effector functions are dispensable when representative neutralizing mAbs are administered as prophylaxis, they are required for optimal protection as therapy. When given after infection, intact mAbs reduce SARS-CoV-2 burden and lung disease in mice and hamsters better than loss-of-function Fc variant mAbs. Fc engagement of neutralizing antibodies mitigates inflammation and improves respiratory mechanics, and transcriptional profiling suggests these phenotypes are associated with diminished innate immune signaling and preserved tissue repair. Immune cell depletions establish that neutralizing mAbs require monocytes and CD8+ T cells for optimal clinical and virological benefit. Thus, potently neutralizing mAbs utilize Fc effector functions during therapy to mitigate lung infection and disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load
15.
Cell Res ; 31(3): 272-290, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039635

ABSTRACT

How the innate and adaptive host immune system miscommunicate to worsen COVID-19 immunopathology has not been fully elucidated. Here, we perform single-cell deep-immune profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 5 patients with mild and 26 with critical COVID-19 in comparison to BALs from non-COVID-19 pneumonia and normal lung. We use pseudotime inference to build T-cell and monocyte-to-macrophage trajectories and model gene expression changes along them. In mild COVID-19, CD8+ resident-memory (TRM) and CD4+ T-helper-17 (TH17) cells undergo active (presumably antigen-driven) expansion towards the end of the trajectory, and are characterized by good effector functions, while in critical COVID-19 they remain more naïve. Vice versa, CD4+ T-cells with T-helper-1 characteristics (TH1-like) and CD8+ T-cells expressing exhaustion markers (TEX-like) are enriched halfway their trajectories in mild COVID-19, where they also exhibit good effector functions, while in critical COVID-19 they show evidence of inflammation-associated stress at the end of their trajectories. Monocyte-to-macrophage trajectories show that chronic hyperinflammatory monocytes are enriched in critical COVID-19, while alveolar macrophages, otherwise characterized by anti-inflammatory and antigen-presenting characteristics, are depleted. In critical COVID-19, monocytes contribute to an ATP-purinergic signaling-inflammasome footprint that could enable COVID-19 associated fibrosis and worsen disease-severity. Finally, viral RNA-tracking reveals infected lung epithelial cells, and a significant proportion of neutrophils and macrophages that are involved in viral clearance.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Single-Cell Analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cell Communication , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Lung/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/cytology , Monocytes/cytology , Neutrophils/cytology , Phenotype , Principal Component Analysis , RNA-Seq , Th17 Cells/cytology
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 57, 2021 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Moreover, it has become a global pandemic. This is of great value in describing the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients in detail and looking for markers which are significant to predict the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective study, 476 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled from a consecutive series. After screening, a total of 395 patients were included in this study. All-cause death was the primary endpoint. All patients were followed up from admission till discharge or death. RESULTS: The main symptoms observed in the study included fever on admission, cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. The most common comorbidities were hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Patients with lower CD4+T cell level were older and more often male compared to those with higher CD4+T cell level. Reduced CD8+T cell level was an indicator of the severity of COVID-19. Both decreased CD4+T [HR:13.659; 95%CI: 3.235-57.671] and CD8+T [HR: 10.883; 95%CI: 3.277-36.145] cell levels were associated with in-hospital death in COVID-19 patients, but only the decrease of CD4+T cell level was an independent predictor of in-hospital death in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets were common in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe cases of COVID-19. It was the CD8+T cell level, not the CD4+T cell level, that reflected the severity of the patient's disease. Only reduced CD4+T cell level was independently associated with increased in-hospital death in COVID-19 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prognostic Factors of Patients With COVID-19, NCT04292964 . Registered 03 March 2020. Retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Cells ; 9(12)2020 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967600

ABSTRACT

Cell response to novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is currently a widely researched topic. The assessment of leukocytes population and the maturation of both B and T lymphocytes may be important in characterizing the immunological profile of COVID-19 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate maturation of B and T cells in COVID-19 patients with interstitial lesions on chest X-ray (COVID-19 X-ray (+)), without changes on X-ray (COVID-19 X-ray (-)) and in healthy control. The study group consisted of 23 patients divided on two groups: COVID-19 X-ray (+) n = 14 and COVID-19 X-ray (-) n = 9 and control n = 20. The flow cytometry method was performed. We observed a significantly higher percentage of plasmablasts and lower CD4+ lymphocytes in COVID-19 X-ray (+) patients than in COVID-19 X-ray (-) and control. In the COVID-19 X-ray (+) patients, there was a lower proportion of effector CD4+ T cells, naïve CD8+ T cells and higher central memory CD4+ cells and effector CD8+ T cells than control. The above results showed that the assessment of selected cells of B and T lymphocytes by flow cytometry can distinguish patients with COVID-19 and differentiate patients with and without changes on chest X-ray.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Nature ; 590(7847): 630-634, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960322

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have reported the protective efficacy of both natural1 and vaccine-induced2-7 immunity against challenge with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in rhesus macaques. However, the importance of humoral and cellular immunity for protection against infection with SARS-CoV-2 remains to be determined. Here we show that the adoptive transfer of purified IgG from convalescent rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) protects naive recipient macaques against challenge with SARS-CoV-2 in a dose-dependent fashion. Depletion of CD8+ T cells in convalescent macaques partially abrogated the protective efficacy of natural immunity against rechallenge with SARS-CoV-2, which suggests a role for cellular immunity in the context of waning or subprotective antibody titres. These data demonstrate that relatively low antibody titres are sufficient for protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques, and that cellular immune responses may contribute to protection if antibody responses are suboptimal. We also show that higher antibody titres are required for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection in macaques. These findings have implications for the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and immune-based therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adoptive Transfer , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Male , Regression Analysis , Viral Load/immunology
19.
Aging Cell ; 19(12): e13272, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-916007

ABSTRACT

The development of senescence in tissues of different organs and in the immune system are usually investigated independently of each other although during ageing, senescence in both cellular systems develop concurrently. Senescent T cells are highly inflammatory and secrete cytotoxic mediators and express natural killer cells receptors (NKR) that bypass their antigen specificity. Instead they recognize stress ligands that are induced by inflammation or infection of different cell types in tissues. In this article we discuss data on T cell senescence, how it is regulated and evidence for novel functional attributes of senescent T cells. We discuss an interactive loop between senescent T cells and senescent non-lymphoid cells and conclude that in situations of intense inflammation, senescent cells may damage healthy tissue. While the example for immunopathology induced by senescent cells that we highlight is cutaneous leishmaniasis, this situation of organ damage may apply to other infections, including COVID-19 and also rheumatoid arthritis, where ageing, inflammation and senescent cells are all part of the same equation.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , Cellular Senescence/physiology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Receptors, Natural Killer Cell/immunology , Aging/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Leishmania braziliensis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
20.
Cell ; 183(4): 996-1012.e19, 2020 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-764348

ABSTRACT

Limited knowledge is available on the relationship between antigen-specific immune responses and COVID-19 disease severity. We completed a combined examination of all three branches of adaptive immunity at the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in acute and convalescent subjects. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were each associated with milder disease. Coordinated SARS-CoV-2-specific adaptive immune responses were associated with milder disease, suggesting roles for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in protective immunity in COVID-19. Notably, coordination of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific responses was disrupted in individuals ≥ 65 years old. Scarcity of naive T cells was also associated with aging and poor disease outcomes. A parsimonious explanation is that coordinated CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and antibody responses are protective, but uncoordinated responses frequently fail to control disease, with a connection between aging and impaired adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
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