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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(1): 81-91, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe immunopathology may drive the deleterious manifestations that are observed in the advanced stages of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to phenotype leukocyte subpopulations and the cytokine milieu in the lungs and blood of critically ill patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: We consecutively included patients less than 72 hours after intubation following informed consent from their next of kin. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was evaluated by microscopy; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood were assessed by 10-color flow cytometry and a multiplex cytokine panel. RESULTS: Four mechanically ventilated patients (aged 40-75 years) with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 ARDS were included. Immature neutrophils dominated in both blood and lungs, whereas CD4 and CD8 T-cell lymphopenia was observed in the 2 compartments. However, regulatory T cells and TH17 cells were found in higher fractions in the lung. Lung CD4 and CD8 T cells and macrophages expressed an even higher upregulation of activation markers than in blood. A wide range of cytokines were expressed at high levels both in the blood and in the lungs, most notably, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and monocyte chemoattactant protein-1, consistent with hyperinflammation. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 ARDS exhibits a distinct immunologic profile in the lungs, with a depleted and exhausted CD4 and CD8 T-cell population that resides within a heavily hyperinflammatory milieu.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Lung/pathology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Th17 Cells/pathology
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2209042119, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037058

ABSTRACT

Viruses employ a variety of strategies to escape or counteract immune responses, including depletion of cell surface major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), that would ordinarily present viral peptides to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. As part of a screen to elucidate biological activities associated with individual severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral proteins, we found that ORF7a reduced cell surface MHC-I levels by approximately fivefold. Nevertheless, in cells infected with SARS-CoV-2, surface MHC-I levels were reduced even in the absence of ORF7a, suggesting additional mechanisms of MHC-I down-regulation. ORF7a proteins from a sample of sarbecoviruses varied in their ability to induce MHC-I down-regulation and, unlike SARS-CoV-2, the ORF7a protein from SARS-CoV lacked MHC-I downregulating activity. A single amino acid at position 59 (T/F) that is variable among sarbecovirus ORF7a proteins governed the difference in MHC-I downregulating activity. SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a physically associated with the MHC-I heavy chain and inhibited the presentation of expressed antigen to CD8+ T cells. Specifically, ORF7a prevented the assembly of the MHC-I peptide loading complex and caused retention of MHC-I in the endoplasmic reticulum. The differential ability of ORF7a proteins to function in this way might affect sarbecovirus dissemination and persistence in human populations, particularly those with infection- or vaccine-elicited immunity.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Viral Proteins , Amino Acids , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Humans , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Peptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/immunology
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4888, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000886

ABSTRACT

Efforts to cure HIV have focused on reactivating latent proviruses to enable elimination by CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. Clinical studies of latency reversing agents (LRA) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals have shown increases in HIV transcription, but without reductions in virologic measures, or evidence that HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells were productively engaged. Here, we show that the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 activates the RIG-I/TLR - TNF - NFκb axis, resulting in transcription of HIV proviruses with minimal perturbations of T-cell activation and host transcription. T-cells specific for the early gene-product HIV-Nef uniquely increased in frequency and acquired effector function (granzyme-B) in ART-treated individuals following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. These parameters of CD8+ T-cell induction correlated with significant decreases in cell-associated HIV mRNA, suggesting killing or suppression of cells transcribing HIV. Thus, we report the observation of an intervention-induced reduction in a measure of HIV persistence, accompanied by precise immune correlates, in ART-suppressed individuals. However, we did not observe significant depletions of intact proviruses, underscoring challenges to achieving (or measuring) HIV reservoir reductions. Overall, our results support prioritizing the measurement of granzyme-B-producing Nef-specific responses in latency reversal studies and add impetus to developing HIV-targeted mRNA therapeutic vaccines that leverage built-in LRA activity.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , BNT162 Vaccine , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Granzymes , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , Virus Latency , mRNA Vaccines , nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
4.
Cell Rep ; 36(8): 109591, 2021 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370154

ABSTRACT

The relationship between B cells and CD4 T cells has been carefully studied, revealing a collaborative effort in which B cells promote the activation, differentiation, and expansion of CD4 T cells while the so-called "helper" cells provide signals to B cells, influencing their class switching and fate. Interactions between B cells and CD8 T cells are not as well studied, although CD8 T cells exhibit an accelerated contraction after certain infections in B-cell-deficient mice. Here, we find that B cells significantly enhance primary CD8 T cell responses after vaccination. Moreover, memory CD8 numbers and function are impaired in B-cell-deficient animals, leading to increased susceptibility to bacterial challenge. We also show that interleukin-27 production by B cells contributes to their impact on primary, but not memory, CD8 responses. Better understanding of the interactions between CD8 T cells and B cells may aid in the design of more effective future vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Interleukin-27/immunology , Interleukin-27/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 835830, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902993

ABSTRACT

CD8+ T cells have key protective roles in many viral infections. While an overall Th1-biased cellular immune response against SARS-CoV-2 has been demonstrated, most reports of anti-SARS-CoV-2 cellular immunity have evaluated bulk T cells using pools of predicted epitopes, without clear delineation of the CD8+ subset and its magnitude and targeting. In recently infected persons (mean 29.8 days after COVID-19 symptom onset), we confirm a Th1 bias (and a novel IL-4-producing population of unclear significance) by flow cytometry, which does not correlate to antibody responses against the receptor binding domain. Evaluating isolated CD8+ T cells in more detail by IFN-γ ELISpot assays, responses against spike, nucleocapsid, matrix, and envelope proteins average 396, 901, 296, and 0 spot-forming cells (SFC) per million, targeting 1.4, 1.5, 0.59, and 0.0 epitope regions respectively. Nucleocapsid targeting is dominant in terms of magnitude, breadth, and density of targeting. The magnitude of responses drops rapidly post-infection; nucleocapsid targeting is most sustained, and vaccination selectively boosts spike targeting. In SARS-CoV-2-naïve persons, evaluation of the anti-spike CD8+ T cell response soon after vaccination (mean 11.3 days) yields anti-spike CD8+ T cell responses averaging 2,463 SFC/million against 4.2 epitope regions, and targeting mirrors that seen in infected persons. These findings provide greater clarity on CD8+ T cell anti-SARS-CoV-2 targeting, breadth, and persistence, suggesting that nucleocapsid inclusion in vaccines could broaden coverage and durability.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States , Vaccination
6.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 842-844, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900503

ABSTRACT

Respiratory immune characteristics associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are currently unclear. We characterized bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immune cells from patients with varying severity of COVID-19 and from healthy people by using single-cell RNA sequencing. Proinflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were abundant in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe COVID-9. Moderate cases were characterized by the presence of highly clonally expanded CD8+ T cells. This atlas of the bronchoalveolar immune microenvironment suggests potential mechanisms underlying pathogenesis and recovery in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Immunol ; 208(8): 1851-1856, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855934

ABSTRACT

Unconventional HLA class I-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes, longer than 10 aa, have been implicated to play a role in human immunity against viruses and cancer. T cell recognition of long peptides, centrally bulging from the HLA cleft, has been described previously. Alternatively, long peptides can contain a linear HLA-bound core peptide, with a N- or C-terminal peptide "tail" extending from the HLA peptide binding groove. The role of such a peptide "tail" in CD8+ T cell recognition remains unclear. In this study, we identified a 20mer peptide (FLPTPEELGLLGPPRPQVLA [FLP]) derived from the IL-27R subunit α gene restricted to HLA-A*02:01, for which we solved the crystal structure and demonstrated a long C-terminal "tail" extension. FLP-specific T cell clones demonstrated various recognition modes, some T cells recognized the FLP core peptide, while for other T cells the peptide tail was essential for recognition. These results demonstrate a crucial role for a C-terminal peptide tail in immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , HLA-A2 Antigen , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Genes, MHC Class I/genetics , Genes, MHC Class I/immunology , HLA-A Antigens/genetics , HLA-A Antigens/immunology , HLA-A2 Antigen/genetics , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , Humans , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 861666, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785350

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that spread around the world during the past 2 years, has infected more than 260 million people worldwide and has imposed an important burden on the healthcare system. Several risk factors associated with unfavorable outcome were identified, including elderly age, selected comorbidities, immune suppression as well as laboratory markers. The role of immune system in the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection is indisputable: while an appropriate function of the immune system is important for a rapid clearance of the virus, progression to the severe and critical phases of the disease is related to an exaggerated immune response associated with a cytokine storm. We analyzed differences and longitudinal changes in selected immune parameters in 823 adult COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the Martin University Hospital, Martin, Slovakia. Examined parameters included the differential blood cell counts, various parameters of cellular and humoral immunity (serum concentration of immunoglobulins, C4 and C3), lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, NK cells, CD4+CD45RO+), expression of activation (HLA-DR, CD38) and inhibition markers (CD159/NKG2A). Besides already known changes in the differential blood cell counts and basic lymphocyte subsets, we found significantly higher proportion of CD8+CD38+ cells and significantly lower proportion of CD8+NKG2A+ and NK NKG2A+ cells on admission in non-survivors, compared to survivors; recovery in survivors was associated with a significant increase in the expression of HLA-DR and with a significant decrease of the proportion of CD8+CD38+cells. Furthermore, patients with fatal outcome had significantly lower concentrations of C3 and IgM on admission. However, none of the examined parameters had sufficient sensitivity or specificity to be considered a biomarker of fatal outcome. Understanding the dynamic changes in immune profile of COVID-19 patients may help us to better understand the pathophysiology of the disease, potentially improve management of hospitalized patients and enable proper timing and selection of immunomodulator drugs.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Adult , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Lymphocyte Subsets , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(5): 914-922, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772965

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: CD8 cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) play a critical role in the clearance of virally infected cells. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8 T cells and functional CTLs in natural infections and following COVID-19 vaccine in primary antibody deficiency (PAD) have not been reported. In this study, we evaluated T cell response following COVID-19 or COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in patients with PADs by assessing SARS-CoV-2 tetramer-positive CD8 T cells and functional CTLs. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8 and functional CTLs were examined in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and a patient with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) following COVID-19 infection, and in 5 patients with CVID and 5 healthy controls 1 month following 2nd dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech). Cells were stained with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific tetramers, and for functional CTLs (CD8+ CD107a+ granzyme B+ perforin+), with monoclonal antibodies and isotype controls and analyzed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific tetramer + CD8 T cells and functional CTLs in the patient with XLA following COVID-19 infection were higher, as compared to healthy control subject following COVID-19 infection. On the other hand, SARS-CoV2-tetramer + CD8 T cells and functional CTLs were lower in CVID patient following COVID19 infection as compared to healthy control following COVID-19 infection. SARS-CoV2-tetramer + CD8 T cells and functional CTLs were significantly lower in SARS-CoV2-naive CVID patients (n = 10) following vaccination when compared to SARS-CoV-2-naive healthy vaccinated controls (n = 10). CONCLUSIONS: CVID is associated with reduced SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8 T cells and functional CTLs in both natural SARS-CoV-2 infection and in response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine, whereas natural infection in XLA is associated with a robust SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8 and functional CTL responses.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
J Interferon Cytokine Res ; 41(11): 407-414, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758604

ABSTRACT

Genetic polymorphisms at the IFNL4 loci are known to influence the clinical outcome of several different infectious diseases. Best described is the association between the IFNL4 genotype and hepatitis C virus clearance. However, an influence of the IFNL4 genotype on the adaptive immune system was suggested by several studies but never investigated in humans. In this cross-sectional study, we have genotyped 201 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-positive participants for 3 IFNL4 polymorphisms (rs368234815, rs12979860, and rs117648444) and stratified them according to the IFNλ4 activity. Based on this stratification, we investigated the association between the IFNL4 genotype and the antibody as well as the CD8+ T cell response in the acute phase of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We observed no differences in the genotype distribution compared with a Danish reference cohort or the 1,000 Genome Project, and we were not able to link the IFNL4 genotype to changes in either the antibody or CD8+ T cell responses of these patients.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genotype , Humans , Interleukins/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 807332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753361

ABSTRACT

In the early stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), most cases are identified as mild or moderate illnesses. Approximately 20% of hospitalised patients become severe or critical at the middle or late stage of the disease. The predictors and risk factors for prognosis in those with mild or moderate disease remain to be determined. Of 694 patients with COVID-19, 231 patients with mild or moderate disease, who were hospitalised at 10 hospitals in Wenzhou and nearby counties in China, were enrolled in this retrospective study from 17 January to 20 March 2020. The outcomes of these patients included progression from mild/moderate illness to severe or critical conditions. Among the 231 patients, 49 (21.2%) had a poor prognosis in the hospital. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher inflammation/coagulopathy/immunology responsive index (ICIRI=[c-reactive protein × fibrinogen × D-dimer]/CD8 T cell count) on admission (OR=345.151, 95% CI=23.014-5176.318) was associated with increased odds ratios for poor prognosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ICIRI predicting severe and critical condition progression was 0.65 (95% CI=0.519-0.782) and 0.80 (95% CI=0.647-0.954), with cut-off values of 870.83 and 535.44, respectively. Conversely, age, sex, comorbidity, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, CD8 T cell count, and c-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels alone at admission were not good predictors of poor prognosis in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. At admission, a novel index, ICIRI, tends to be the most promising predictor of COVID-19 progression from mild or moderate illness to severe or critical conditions.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Inflammation/virology , C-Reactive Protein , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinogen , Humans , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 804808, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731770

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a serious global threat until we identify the effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by various immunopathological consequences including lymphocyte activation and dysfunction, lymphopenia, cytokine storm, increased level of neutrophils, and depletion and exhaustion of lymphocytes. Considering the low level of antibody-mediated protection during coronavirus infection, understanding the role of T cell for long-term protection is decisive. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response is imperative for cell-mediated immune response during COVID-19. However, the level of CD8+ T cell response reduced to almost half as compared to CD4+ after 6 months of infection. The long-term protection is mediated via generation of immunological memory response during COVID-19. The presence of memory CD4+ T cells in all the severely infected and recovered individuals shows that the memory response is predominated by CD4+ T cells. Prominently, the antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are specifically observed during day 0 to day 28 in COVID-19-vaccinated individuals. However, level of antigen-specific T memory cells in COVID-19-vaccinated individuals defines the long-term protection against forthcoming outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans
13.
Br J Haematol ; 197(6): 697-708, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731105

ABSTRACT

B-cell depletion induced by anti-cluster of differentiation 20 (CD20) monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy of patients with lymphoma is expected to impair humoral responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, but effects on CD8 T-cell responses are unknown. Here, we investigated humoral and CD8 T-cell responses following two vaccinations in patients with lymphoma undergoing anti-CD20-mAb therapy as single agent or in combination with chemotherapy or other anti-neoplastic agents during the last 9 months prior to inclusion, and in healthy age-matched blood donors. Antibody measurements showed that seven of 110 patients had antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein 3-6 weeks after the second dose of vaccination. Peripheral blood CD8 T-cell responses against prevalent human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I SARS-CoV-2 epitopes were determined by peptide-HLA multimer analysis. Strong CD8 T-cell responses were observed in samples from 20/29 patients (69%) and 12/16 (75%) controls, with similar median response magnitudes in the groups and some of the strongest responses observed in patients. We conclude that despite the absence of humoral immune responses in fully SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated, anti-CD20-treated patients with lymphoma, their CD8 T-cell responses reach similar frequencies and magnitudes as for controls. Patients with lymphoma on B-cell depleting therapies are thus likely to benefit from current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, and development of vaccines aimed at eliciting T-cell responses to non-Spike epitopes might provide improved protection.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lymphoma , Rituximab , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes , Humans , Lymphoma/drug therapy , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
14.
J Immunol Methods ; 502: 113230, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720358

ABSTRACT

Innate immune mechanisms are central players in response to the binding of pathogens to pattern-recognition receptors providing a crucial initial block on viral replication. Moreover, innate immune response mobilizes cells of the cellular-mediated immune system, which develop into effector cells that promote viral clearance. Here, we observed circulating leukocyte T cell response in healthy subjects, COVID-19 infected, and in healthy vaccinated subjects. We found a significant CD8+ T cells (p < 0,05) decrease and an augmented CD4+/CD8+ ratio (p < 0,05) in COVID-19 infected group compared with vaccinated subjects. In addition, healthy vaccinated subjects have a significant increased expression of CD8+ T cells, and a reduction of CD4+/CD8+ ratio with respect to subjects previously COVID-19 infected. Central Memory and Terminal Effector Memory cells (TEMRA) increased after vaccine but not among groups.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , /immunology , Adult , Aged , CD4-CD8 Ratio , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunophenotyping , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0278021, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700612

ABSTRACT

Understanding the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to overcome the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Efforts are being made to understand the potential cross-protective immunity of memory T cells, induced by prior encounters with seasonal coronaviruses, in providing protection against severe COVID-19. In this study we assessed T-cell responses directed against highly conserved regions of SARS-CoV-2. Epitope mapping revealed 16 CD8+ T-cell epitopes across the nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), and open reading frame (ORF)3a proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and five CD8+ T-cell epitopes encoded within the highly conserved regions of the ORF1ab polyprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Comparative sequence analysis showed high conservation of SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab T-cell epitopes in seasonal coronaviruses. Paradoxically, the immune responses directed against the conserved ORF1ab epitopes were infrequent and subdominant in both convalescent and unexposed participants. This subdominant immune response was consistent with a low abundance of ORF1ab encoded proteins in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. Overall, these observations suggest that while cross-reactive CD8+ T cells likely exist in unexposed individuals, they are not common and therefore are unlikely to play a significant role in providing broad preexisting immunity in the community. IMPORTANCE T cells play a critical role in protection against SARS-CoV-2. Despite being highly topical, the protective role of preexisting memory CD8+ T cells, induced by prior exposure to circulating common coronavirus strains, remains less clear. In this study, we established a robust approach to specifically assess T cell responses to highly conserved regions within SARS-CoV-2. Consistent with recent observations we demonstrate that recognition of these highly conserved regions is associated with an increased likelihood of milder disease. However, extending these observations we observed that recognition of these conserved regions is rare in both exposed and unexposed volunteers, which we believe is associated with the low abundance of these proteins in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. These observations have important implications for the likely role preexisting immunity plays in controlling severe disease, further emphasizing the importance of vaccination to generate the immunodominant T cells required for immune protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 817905, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699973

ABSTRACT

The duration of humoral and cellular immune memory following SARS-CoV-2 infection in populations in least developed countries remains understudied but is key to overcome the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Sixty-four Cambodian individuals with laboratory-confirmed infection with asymptomatic or mild/moderate clinical presentation were evaluated for Spike (S)-binding and neutralizing antibodies and antibody effector functions during acute phase of infection and at 6-9 months follow-up. Antigen-specific B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were characterized, and T cells were interrogated for functionality at late convalescence. Anti-S antibody titers decreased over time, but effector functions mediated by S-specific antibodies remained stable. S- and nucleocapsid (N)-specific B cells could be detected in late convalescence in the activated memory B cell compartment and are mostly IgG+. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune memory was maintained to S and membrane (M) protein. Asymptomatic infection resulted in decreased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and frequency of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells at late convalescence. Whereas anti-S antibodies correlated with S-specific B cells, there was no correlation between T cell response and humoral immune memory. Hence, all aspects of a protective immune response are maintained up to nine months after SARS-CoV-2 infection and in the absence of re-infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cambodia , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(6)2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689580

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has proven effective in inducing an immune response in healthy individuals and is progressively us allowing to overcome the pandemic. Recent evidence has shown that response to vaccination in some vulnerable patients may be diminished, and it has been proposed a booster dose. We tested the kinetic of development of serum antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, their neutralizing capacity, the CD4 and CD8 IFN-γ T-cell response in 328 subjects, including 131 immunocompromised individuals (cancer, rheumatologic, and hemodialysis patients), 160 health-care workers (HCW) and 37 subjects older than 75 yr, after vaccination with two or three doses of mRNA vaccines. We stratified the patients according to the type of treatment. We found that immunocompromised patients, depending on the type of treatment, poorly respond to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. However, an additional booster dose of vaccine induced a good immune response in almost all of the patients except those receiving anti-CD20 antibody. Similarly to HCW, previously infected and vaccinated immunocompromised individuals demonstrate a stronger SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response than those who are vaccinated without prior infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , /immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Renal Dialysis
19.
Mol Cells ; 44(6): 401-407, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687545

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is an ongoing pandemic disease. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses have been detected and characterized not only in COVID-19 patients and convalescents, but also unexposed individuals. Here, we review the phenotypes and functions of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in COVID-19 patients and the relationships between SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses and COVID-19 severity. In addition, we describe the phenotypes and functions of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells after recovery from COVID-19 and discuss the presence of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in unexposed individuals and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses elicited by COVID-19 vaccines. A better understanding of T-cell responses is important for effective control of the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/classification , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/classification , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Convalescence , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686808

ABSTRACT

After solid-organ transplantation, reactivation of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) is often observed in seronegative patients and associated with a high risk of disease and mortality. CMV-specific T cells can prevent CMV reactivation. In a phase 1 trial, CMV-seronegative patients with end-stage renal disease listed for kidney transplantation were subjected to CMV phosphoprotein 65 (CMVpp65) peptide vaccination and further investigated for T-cell responses. To this end, CMV-specific CD8+ T cells were characterized by bulk T-cell-receptor (TCR) repertoire sequencing and combined single-cell RNA and TCR sequencing. In patients mounting an immune response to the vaccine, a common SYE(N)E TCR motif known to bind CMVpp65 was detected. CMV-peptide-vaccination-responder patients had TCR features distinct from those of non-responders. In a non-responder patient, a monoclonal inflammatory T-cell response was detected upon CMV reactivation. The identification of vaccine-induced CMV-reactive TCRs motifs might facilitate the development of cellular therapies for patients wait-listed for kidney transplantation.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus Infections/prevention & control , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/administration & dosage , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytomegalovirus Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single Molecule Imaging , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology
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