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1.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 91-97, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235799

ABSTRACT

Regulatory T cell can protect against severe forms of coronaviral infections attributable to host inflammatory responses. But its role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still unclear. In this study, frequencies of total and multiple subsets of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals were analyzed using a multicolor flow cytometry assay. Plasma concentration of IL-10 was measured using a microsphere-based immunoassay kit. Comparing to healthy controls, the frequencies of total lymphocytes and T cells decreased significantly in both acutely infected COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals. The frequencies of total lymphocytes correlated negatively with the frequencies of CD3- CD56+ NK cells. The frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells correlated with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios positively, while the frequencies of regulatory CD4+ CD25+ CD127- T cells correlated negatively with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios. Ratios of CD4+ /CD8+ T cells increased significantly in patients beyond age of 45 years. And accordingly, the frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells were also found significantly increased in these patients. Collectively, the results suggest that regulatory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may play distinct roles in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Moreover, the data indicate that NK cells might contribute to the COVID-19 associated lymphopenia.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, CD/immunology , CD4-CD8 Ratio , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/pathology
2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(649): eabo0686, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264929

ABSTRACT

T cell-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines are a major driver of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. Although these cytokines have traditionally been attributed to CD4 T cells, we have found that CD8 T cells are notably abundant in synovium and make more interferon (IFN)-γ and nearly as much tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as their CD4 T cell counterparts. Furthermore, using unbiased high-dimensional single-cell RNA-seq and flow cytometric data, we found that the vast majority of synovial tissue and synovial fluid CD8 T cells belong to an effector CD8 T cell population characterized by high expression of granzyme K (GzmK) and low expression of granzyme B (GzmB) and perforin. Functional experiments demonstrate that these GzmK+ GzmB+ CD8 T cells are major cytokine producers with low cytotoxic potential. Using T cell receptor repertoire data, we found that CD8 GzmK+ GzmB+ T cells are clonally expanded in synovial tissues and maintain their granzyme expression and overall cell state in blood, suggesting that they are enriched in tissue but also circulate. Using GzmK and GzmB signatures, we found that GzmK-expressing CD8 T cells were also the major CD8 T cell population in the gut, kidney, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, suggesting that they form a core population of tissue-associated T cells across diseases and human tissues. We term this population tissue-enriched expressing GzmK or TteK CD8 cells. Armed to produce cytokines in response to both antigen-dependent and antigen-independent stimuli, CD8 TteK cells have the potential to drive inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Granzymes/metabolism , Humans
3.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 101(3): 191-203, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249670

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a condition characterized by an absolute deficiency of insulin. Loss of insulin-producing pancreatic islet ß cells is one of the many causes of T1D. Viral infections have long been associated with new-onset T1D and the balance between virulence and host immunity determines whether the viral infection would lead to T1D. Herein, we detail the dynamic interaction of pancreatic ß cells with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the host immune system with respect to new-onset T1D. Importantly, ß cells express the crucial entry receptors and multiple studies confirmed that ß cells are infected by SARS-CoV-2. Innate immune system effectors, such as natural killer cells, can eliminate such infected ß cells. Although CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T (TREG ) cells provide immune tolerance to prevent the destruction of the islet ß-cell population by autoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells, it can be speculated that SARS-CoV-2 infection may compromise self-tolerance by depleting TREG -cell numbers or diminishing TREG -cell functions by repressing Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression. However, the expansion of ß cells by self-duplication, and regeneration from progenitor cells, could effectively replace lost ß cells. Appearance of islet autoantibodies following SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in a few cases, which could imply a breakdown of immune tolerance in the pancreatic islets. However, many of the cases with newly diagnosed autoimmune response following SARS-CoV-2 infection also presented with significantly high HbA1c (glycated hemoglobin) levels that indicated progression of an already set diabetes, rather than new-onset T1D. Here we review the potential underlying mechanisms behind loss of functional ß-cell mass as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection that can trigger new-onset T1D.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Virus Diseases , Humans , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism
4.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 212(3): 262-275, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257030

ABSTRACT

T cells play key protective but also pathogenic roles in COVID-19. We studied the expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in COVID-19 T-cell transcriptomes by integrating previously published single-cell RNA sequencing datasets. The long intergenic non-coding RNA MALAT1 was the most highly transcribed lncRNA in T cells, with Th1 cells demonstrating the lowest and CD8+ resident memory cells the highest MALAT1 expression, amongst CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells populations, respectively. We then identified gene signatures that covaried with MALAT1 in single T cells. A significantly higher number of transcripts correlated negatively with MALAT1 than those that correlated. Enriched functional annotations of the MALAT1- anti-correlating gene signature included processes associated with T-cell activation such as cell division, oxidative phosphorylation, and response to cytokine. The MALAT1 anti-correlating gene signature shared by both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells marked dividing T cells in both the lung and blood of COVID-19 patients. Focussing on the tissue, we used an independent patient cohort of post-mortem COVID-19 lung samples and demonstrated that MALAT1 suppression was indeed a marker of MKI67+ proliferating CD8+ T cells. Our results reveal MALAT1 suppression and its associated gene signature are a hallmark of human proliferating T cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Cell Proliferation/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21779, 2022 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186033

ABSTRACT

Elevated serum cytokine production in COVID-19 patients is associated with disease progression and severity. However, the stimuli that initiate cytokine production in patients remain to be fully revealed. Virus-infected cells release virus-associated exosomes, extracellular vesicles of endocytic origin, into the blood to deliver viral cargoes able to regulate immune responses. Here, we report that plasma exosomes of COVID-19 patients contain SARS-CoV-2 double stranded RNA (dsRNA) and stimulate robust production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and other inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by human peripheral mononuclear cells. Exosome depletion abolished these stimulated responses. COVID-19 plasma exosomes induced proinflammatory responses in CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD14+ monocytes but not significantly in regulatory T cells, Th17 T cells, or central memory T cells. COVID-19 plasma exosomes protect the SARS-CoV-2 dsRNA cargo from RNase and deliver the dsRNA into recipient cells. These exosomes significantly increase expression of endosomal toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 in peripheral T cells and monocytes. A pharmacological inhibitor of TLR3 considerably reduced cytokine and chemokine production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells but not by CD14+ monocytes, highlighting divergent signaling pathways of immune cells in response to COVID-19 plasma exosomes. Our results identify a novel model of intercellular crosstalk following SARS-CoV-2 infection that evoke immune responses positioned to contribute to elevated cytokine production associated with COVID-19 progression, severity, and long-haul symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Humans , Exosomes/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , Immunity
6.
Viral Immunol ; 35(9): 579-585, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107328

ABSTRACT

Tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14 (TNFSF14) (LIGHT) is an interesting costimulatory molecule associated with T lymphocyte activation, and it mainly exerts its biological effects by binding to its receptors herpesvirus invasion mediator (HVEM) and lymphotoxin-ß receptor. Research shows that TNFSF14 plays a critical regulatory role in immune responses to viral infection, but its role is different in different diseases. TNFSF14 can be a cytokine neutralization target during novel coronavirus infection, and anti-TNFSF14 monoclonal antibody treatment can reduce the risk of respiratory failure and mortality. When the host is infected with adenovirus, TNFSF14 can be used as an inflammatory biomarker to indicate whether there was an adenovirus infection in the host and the degree of disease caused by viral infection. When hosts suffer influenza virus infection, the TNFSF14-HVEM signaling pathway can stimulate the maturation and proliferation of memory CD8+ T cells, which helps the host immune system stimulate a second immune response against respiratory virus infection. TNFSF14 can act as an immune adjuvant and enhance the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA vaccine when the host is infected with HPV. During hepatitis virus infection, TNFSF14 acts as a proinflammatory factor, participates in inflammation and causes tissue damage. In conclusion, TNFSF14 plays different and significant roles in diverse viral infections. This article reviews the current research on TNFSF14 in antiviral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Antiviral Agents , Signal Transduction , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 954391, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039677

ABSTRACT

Erroneous immune responses in COVID-19 could have detrimental effects, which makes investigation of immune network underlying COVID-19 pathogenesis a requisite. This study aimed to investigate COVID-19 related alterations within the frame of innate and adaptive immunity. Thirty-four patients clinically diagnosed with mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 disease were enrolled in this study. Decreased ILC1 and increased ILC2 subsets were detected in mild and moderate patients compared to healthy controls. NK cell subsets and cytotoxic capacity of NK cells were decreased in severe patients. Moreover, CD3+ T cells were reduced in severe patients and a negative correlation was found between CD3+ T cells and D-dimer levels. Likewise, moderate and severe patients showed diminished CD3+CD8+ T cells. Unlike T and NK cells, plasmablast and plasma cells were elevated in patients and IgG and IgA levels were particularly increased in severe patients. Severe patients also showed elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8, reduced intracellular IFN-γ and increased intracellular IL-10 levels. Our findings emphasize that SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly alters immune responses and innate and acquired immunity are differentially modulated in line with the clinical severity of the disease. Elevation of IL-10 levels in NK cells and reduction of CD3+ and CD8+ T cells in severe patients might be considered as a protective response against the harmful effect of cytokine storm seen in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Killer Cells, Natural , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
8.
Cell Rep ; 36(8): 109591, 2021 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370154

ABSTRACT

The relationship between B cells and CD4 T cells has been carefully studied, revealing a collaborative effort in which B cells promote the activation, differentiation, and expansion of CD4 T cells while the so-called "helper" cells provide signals to B cells, influencing their class switching and fate. Interactions between B cells and CD8 T cells are not as well studied, although CD8 T cells exhibit an accelerated contraction after certain infections in B-cell-deficient mice. Here, we find that B cells significantly enhance primary CD8 T cell responses after vaccination. Moreover, memory CD8 numbers and function are impaired in B-cell-deficient animals, leading to increased susceptibility to bacterial challenge. We also show that interleukin-27 production by B cells contributes to their impact on primary, but not memory, CD8 responses. Better understanding of the interactions between CD8 T cells and B cells may aid in the design of more effective future vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Interleukin-27/immunology , Interleukin-27/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
9.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(7)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oncolytic viruses are considered part of immunotherapy and have shown promise in preclinical experiments and clinical trials. Results from these studies have suggested that tumor microenvironment remodeling is required to achieve an effective response in solid tumors. Here, we assess the extent to which targeting specific mechanisms underlying the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment optimizes viroimmunotherapy. METHODS: We used RNA-seq analyses to analyze the transcriptome, and validated the results using Q-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. Viral activity was analyzed by replication assays and viral titration. Kyn and Trp metabolite levels were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation was analyzed by examination of promoter activity. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed by tumor histopathology and survival in syngeneic murine models of gliomas, including Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-/- mice. Flow cytometry was used for immunophenotyping and quantification of cell populations. Immune activation was examined in co-cultures of immune and cancer cells. T-cell depletion was used to identify the role played by specific cell populations. Rechallenge experiments were performed to identify the development of anti-tumor memory. RESULTS: Bulk RNA-seq analyses showed the activation of the immunosuppressive IDO-kynurenine-AhR circuitry in response to Delta-24-RGDOX infection of tumors. To overcome the effect of this pivotal pathway, we combined Delta-24-RGDOX with clinically relevant IDO inhibitors. The combination therapy increased the frequency of CD8+ T cells and decreased the rate of myeloid-derived suppressor cell and immunosupressive Treg tumor populations in animal models of solid tumors. Functional studies demonstrated that IDO-blockade-dependent activation of immune cells against tumor antigens could be reversed by the oncometabolite kynurenine. The concurrent targeting of the effectors and suppressors of the tumor immune landscape significantly prolonged the survival in animal models of orthotopic gliomas. CONCLUSIONS: Our data identified for the first time the in vivo role of IDO-dependent immunosuppressive pathways in the resistance of solid tumors to oncolytic adenoviruses. Specifically, the IDO-Kyn-AhR activity was responsible for the resurface of local immunosuppression and resistance to therapy, which was ablated through IDO inhibition. Our data indicate that combined molecular and immune therapy may improve outcomes in human gliomas and other cancers treated with virotherapy.


Subject(s)
Glioma , Oncolytic Viruses , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Glioma/therapy , Humans , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase , Kynurenine/metabolism , Mice , Oncolytic Viruses/genetics , Oncolytic Viruses/metabolism , Synapses/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment
10.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(3)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806276

ABSTRACT

T cell recognition of a cognate peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) presented on the surface of infected or malignant cells is of the utmost importance for mediating robust and long-term immune responses. Accurate predictions of cognate pMHC targets for T cell receptors would greatly facilitate identification of vaccine targets for both pathogenic diseases and personalized cancer immunotherapies. Predicting immunogenic peptides therefore has been at the center of intensive research for the past decades but has proven challenging. Although numerous models have been proposed, performance of these models has not been systematically evaluated and their success rate in predicting epitopes in the context of human pathology has not been measured and compared. In this study, we evaluated the performance of several publicly available models, in identifying immunogenic CD8+ T cell targets in the context of pathogens and cancers. We found that for predicting immunogenic peptides from an emerging virus such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, none of the models perform substantially better than random or offer considerable improvement beyond HLA ligand prediction. We also observed suboptimal performance for predicting cancer neoantigens. Through investigation of potential factors associated with ill performance of models, we highlight several data- and model-associated issues. In particular, we observed that cross-HLA variation in the distribution of immunogenic and non-immunogenic peptides in the training data of the models seems to substantially confound the predictions. We additionally compared key parameters associated with immunogenicity between pathogenic peptides and cancer neoantigens and observed evidence for differences in the thresholds of binding affinity and stability, which suggested the need to modulate different features in identifying immunogenic pathogen versus cancer peptides. Overall, we demonstrate that accurate and reliable predictions of immunogenic CD8+ T cell targets remain unsolved; thus, we hope our work will guide users and model developers regarding potential pitfalls and unsettled questions in existing immunogenicity predictors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Peptides
11.
Cell ; 185(5): 847-859.e11, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650711

ABSTRACT

We address whether T cell responses induced by different vaccine platforms (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, Ad26.COV2.S, and NVX-CoV2373) cross-recognize early SARS-CoV-2 variants. T cell responses to early variants were preserved across vaccine platforms. By contrast, significant overall decreases were observed for memory B cells and neutralizing antibodies. In subjects ∼6 months post-vaccination, 90% (CD4+) and 87% (CD8+) of memory T cell responses were preserved against variants on average by AIM assay, and 84% (CD4+) and 85% (CD8+) preserved against Omicron. Omicron RBD memory B cell recognition was substantially reduced to 42% compared with other variants. T cell epitope repertoire analysis revealed a median of 11 and 10 spike epitopes recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, with average preservation > 80% for Omicron. Functional preservation of the majority of T cell responses may play an important role as a second-level defense against diverse variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Memory B Cells/immunology , Memory T Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Ad26COVS1/administration & dosage , Ad26COVS1/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Epitopes/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Memory B Cells/metabolism , Memory T Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
12.
Cell ; 185(5): 881-895.e20, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649960

ABSTRACT

Post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) represent an emerging global crisis. However, quantifiable risk factors for PASC and their biological associations are poorly resolved. We executed a deep multi-omic, longitudinal investigation of 309 COVID-19 patients from initial diagnosis to convalescence (2-3 months later), integrated with clinical data and patient-reported symptoms. We resolved four PASC-anticipating risk factors at the time of initial COVID-19 diagnosis: type 2 diabetes, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia, Epstein-Barr virus viremia, and specific auto-antibodies. In patients with gastrointestinal PASC, SARS-CoV-2-specific and CMV-specific CD8+ T cells exhibited unique dynamics during recovery from COVID-19. Analysis of symptom-associated immunological signatures revealed coordinated immunity polarization into four endotypes, exhibiting divergent acute severity and PASC. We find that immunological associations between PASC factors diminish over time, leading to distinct convalescent immune states. Detectability of most PASC factors at COVID-19 diagnosis emphasizes the importance of early disease measurements for understanding emergent chronic conditions and suggests PASC treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Convalescence , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoantibodies/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Proteins/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transcriptome , Young Adult , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 440, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641960

ABSTRACT

Dysregulated immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 virus are instrumental in severe COVID-19. However, the immune signatures associated with immunopathology are poorly understood. Here we use multi-omics single-cell analysis to probe the dynamic immune responses in hospitalized patients with stable or progressive course of COVID-19, explore V(D)J repertoires, and assess the cellular effects of tocilizumab. Coordinated profiling of gene expression and cell lineage protein markers shows that S100Ahi/HLA-DRlo classical monocytes and activated LAG-3hi T cells are hallmarks of progressive disease and highlights the abnormal MHC-II/LAG-3 interaction on myeloid and T cells, respectively. We also find skewed T cell receptor repertories in expanded effector CD8+ clones, unmutated IGHG+ B cell clones, and mutated B cell clones with stable somatic hypermutation frequency over time. In conclusion, our in-depth immune profiling reveals dyssynchrony of the innate and adaptive immune interaction in progressive COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Male , RNA-Seq/methods , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
14.
J Immunol ; 208(3): 562-570, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625582

ABSTRACT

Aging is associated with functional deficits in the naive T cell compartment, which compromise the generation of de novo immune responses against previously unencountered Ags. The mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon have nonetheless remained unclear. We found that naive CD8+ T cells in elderly humans were prone to apoptosis and proliferated suboptimally in response to stimulation via the TCR. These abnormalities were associated with dysregulated lipid metabolism under homeostatic conditions and enhanced levels of basal activation. Importantly, reversal of the bioenergetic anomalies with lipid-altering drugs, such as rosiglitazone, almost completely restored the Ag responsiveness of naive CD8+ T cells. Interventions that favor lipid catabolism may therefore find utility as adjunctive therapies in the elderly to promote vaccine-induced immunity against targetable cancers and emerging pathogens, such as seasonal influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunocompetence/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Apoptosis , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Cell Division , Female , Fenofibrate/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , Humans , Hypolipidemic Agents/pharmacology , Hypolipidemic Agents/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/immunology , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation , MART-1 Antigen/chemistry , MART-1 Antigen/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Rosiglitazone/pharmacology , Single-Blind Method , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Young Adult
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 19, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616981

ABSTRACT

T cells play a vital role in combatting SARS-CoV-2 and forming long-term memory responses. Whereas extensive structural information is available on neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, such information on SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) bound to their peptide-MHC targets is lacking. Here we determine the structures of a public and a private TCR from COVID-19 convalescent patients in complex with HLA-A2 and two SARS-CoV-2 spike protein epitopes (YLQ and RLQ). The structures reveal the basis for selection of particular TRAV and TRBV germline genes by the public but not the private TCR, and for the ability of the TCRs to recognize natural variants of RLQ but not YLQ. Neither TCR recognizes homologous epitopes from human seasonal coronaviruses. By elucidating the mechanism for TCR recognition of an immunodominant yet variable epitope (YLQ) and a conserved but less commonly targeted epitope (RLQ), this study can inform prospective efforts to design vaccines to elicit pan-coronavirus immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA-A2 Antigen/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , HLA-A2 Antigen/chemistry , HLA-A2 Antigen/metabolism , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/metabolism , Jurkat Cells , K562 Cells , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , Peptides/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 797919, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608316

ABSTRACT

Persistence of protective immunity for SARS-CoV-2 is important against reinfection. Knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 immunity in pediatric patients is currently lacking. We opted to assess the SARS-CoV-2 adaptive immunity in recovered children and adolescents, addressing the pediatrics specific immunity towards COVID-19. Two independent assays were performed to investigate humoral and cellular immunological memory in pediatric convalescent COVID-19 patients. Specifically, RBD IgG, CD4+, and CD8+ T cell responses were identified and quantified in recovered children and adolescents. SARS-CoV-2-specific RBD IgG detected in recovered patients had a half-life of 121.6 days and estimated duration of 7.9 months compared with baseline levels in controls. The specific T cell response was shown to be independent of days after diagnosis. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showed robust responses not only to spike (S) peptides (a main target of vaccine platforms) but were also similarly activated when stimulated by membrane (M) and nuclear (N) peptides. Importantly, we found the differences in the adaptive responses were correlated with the age of the recovered patients. The CD4+ T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 S peptide in children aged <12 years correlated with higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG levels, suggesting the importance of a T cell-dependent humoral response in younger children under 12 years. Both cellular and humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infections can be induced in pediatric patients. Our important findings provide fundamental knowledge on the immune memory responses to SARS-CoV-2 in recovered pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
17.
Cells ; 11(1)2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580992

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. T cells play an essential role in the body's fighting against the virus invasion, and the T cell receptor (TCR) is crucial in T cell-mediated virus recognition and clearance. However, little has been known about the features of T cell response in convalescent COVID-19 patients. In this study, using 5'RACE technology and PacBio sequencing, we analyzed the TCR repertoire of COVID-19 patients after recovery for 2 weeks and 6 months compared with the healthy donors. The TCR clustering and CDR3 annotation were exploited to discover groups of patient-specific TCR clonotypes with potential SARS-CoV-2 antigen specificities. We first identified CD4+ and CD8+ T cell clones with certain clonal expansion after infection, and then observed the preferential recombination usage of V(D) J gene segments in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of COVID-19 patients with different convalescent stages. More important, the TRBV6-5-TRBD2-TRBJ2-7 combination with high frequency was shared between CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells of different COVID-19 patients. Finally, we found the dominant characteristic motifs of the CDR3 sequence between recovered COVID-19 and healthy control. Our study provides novel insights on TCR in COVID-19 with different convalescent phases, contributing to our understanding of the immune response induced by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Immunity/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Complementarity Determining Regions/genetics , Complementarity Determining Regions/immunology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology
18.
Nature ; 602(7895): 148-155, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556858

ABSTRACT

Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity and facilitates an accelerated and enhanced immune response upon re-infection with the same pathogen1,2. Since the outbreak of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a key question has focused on which SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells stimulated during acute infection give rise to long-lived memory T cells3. Here, using spectral flow cytometry combined with cellular indexing of transcriptomes and T cell receptor sequencing, we longitudinally characterized individual SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells of patients with COVID-19 from acute infection to 1 year into recovery and found a distinct signature identifying long-lived memory CD8+ T cells. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD8+ T cells persisting 1 year after acute infection express CD45RA, IL-7 receptor-α and T cell factor 1, but they maintain low expression of CCR7, thus resembling CD45RA+ effector memory T cells. Tracking individual clones of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells, we reveal that an interferon signature marks clones that give rise to long-lived cells, whereas prolonged proliferation and mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling are associated with clonal disappearance from the blood. Collectively, we describe a transcriptional signature that marks long-lived, circulating human memory CD8+ T cells following an acute viral infection.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Memory T Cells/immunology , Memory T Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute Disease , COVID-19/virology , Cell Proliferation , Clone Cells/cytology , Clone Cells/immunology , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Interleukin-7 Receptor alpha Subunit/metabolism , Leukocyte Common Antigens/metabolism , Longitudinal Studies , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism , Receptors, CCR7/metabolism , T Cell Transcription Factor 1/metabolism , Time Factors , Transcriptome
20.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(2): 352-355, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530141

ABSTRACT

A late presenter AIDS patient with severe T cell depletion presented non-severe COVID-19 symptoms, with prolonged viral shedding. Our case report supports the hypothesis that an effective T cell response may be dispensable for the control of COVID-19 progression to severe forms, while it may be necessary for SARS-CoV-2 clearance.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/blood , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
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