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1.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243425

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) is clinically relevant to Dengue virus (DENV) infection and poses a major risk to the application of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapeutics against related flaviviruses such as the Zika virus (ZIKV). Here, we tested a two-tier approach for selecting non-cross-reactive mAbs combined with modulating Fc glycosylation as a strategy to doubly secure the elimination of ADE while preserving Fc effector functions. To this end, we selected a ZIKV-specific mAb (ZV54) and generated three ZV54 variants using Chinese hamster ovary cells and wild-type (WT) and glycoengineered ΔXF Nicotiana benthamiana plants as production hosts (ZV54CHO, ZV54WT, and ZV54ΔXF). The three ZV54 variants shared an identical polypeptide backbone, but each exhibited a distinct Fc N-glycosylation profile. All three ZV54 variants showed similar neutralization potency against ZIKV but no ADE activity for DENV infection, validating the importance of selecting the virus/serotype-specific mAbs for avoiding ADE by related flaviviruses. For ZIKV infection, however, ZV54CHO and ZV54ΔXF showed significant ADE activity while ZV54WT completely forwent ADE, suggesting that Fc glycan modulation may yield mAb glycoforms that abrogate ADE even for homologous viruses. In contrast to the current strategies for Fc mutations that abrogate all effector functions along with ADE, our approach allowed the preservation of effector functions as all ZV54 glycovariants retained antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against the ZIKV-infected cells. Furthermore, the ADE-free ZV54WT demonstrated in vivo efficacy in a ZIKV-infection mouse model. Collectively, our study provides further support for the hypothesis that antibody-viral surface antigen and Fc-mediated host cell interactions are both prerequisites for ADE, and that a dual-approach strategy, as shown herein, contributes to the development of highly safe and efficacious anti-ZIKV mAb therapeutics. Our findings may be impactful to other ADE-prone viruses, including SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Flavivirus , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Mice , Cricetinae , Zika Virus/genetics , CHO Cells , Dengue Virus/genetics , Cricetulus , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Cross Reactions , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use
2.
Cells ; 12(11)2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240787

ABSTRACT

Controversial reports have suggested that SARS-CoV E and 3a proteins are plasma membrane viroporins. Here, we aimed at better characterizing the cellular responses induced by these proteins. First, we show that expression of SARS-CoV-2 E or 3a protein in CHO cells gives rise to cells with newly acquired round shapes that detach from the Petri dish. This suggests that cell death is induced upon expression of E or 3a protein. We confirmed this by using flow cytometry. In adhering cells expressing E or 3a protein, the whole-cell currents were not different from those of the control, suggesting that E and 3a proteins are not plasma membrane viroporins. In contrast, recording the currents on detached cells uncovered outwardly rectifying currents much larger than those observed in the control. We illustrate for the first time that carbenoxolone and probenecid block these outwardly rectifying currents; thus, these currents are most probably conducted by pannexin channels that are activated by cell morphology changes and also potentially by cell death. The truncation of C-terminal PDZ binding motifs reduces the proportion of dying cells but does not prevent these outwardly rectifying currents. This suggests distinct pathways for the induction of these cellular events by the two proteins. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 E and 3a proteins are not viroporins expressed at the plasma membrane.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , Cricetulus , Cell Membrane , CHO Cells
3.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 120(7): 1746-1761, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265006

ABSTRACT

Protein expression from stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) clones is an established but time-consuming method for manufacturing therapeutic recombinant proteins. The use of faster, alternative approaches, such as non-clonal stable pools, has been restricted due to lower productivity and longstanding regulatory guidelines. Recently, the performance of stable pools has improved dramatically, making them a viable option for quickly producing drug substance for GLP-toxicology and early-phase clinical trials in scenarios such as pandemics that demand rapid production timelines. Compared to stable CHO clones which can take several months to generate and characterize, stable pool development can be completed in only a few weeks. Here, we compared the productivity and product quality of trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike protein ectodomains produced from stable CHO pools or clones. Using a set of biophysical and biochemical assays we show that product quality is very similar and that CHO pools demonstrate sufficient productivity to generate vaccine candidates for early clinical trials. Based on these data, we propose that regulatory guidelines should be updated to permit production of early clinical trial material from CHO pools to enable more rapid and cost-effective clinical evaluation of potentially life-saving vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , Cricetulus , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , CHO Cells , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics
4.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 415(8): 1455-1464, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209312

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and remains one of the biggest pandemics around the world since 2019. Vaccination has proved to be an effective way of preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and alleviating the hospitalization burden. Among different forms of COVID-19 vaccine design, the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 virus is widely used as a candidate vaccine antigen. As a surface protein on the virus envelop, the spike was reported to be heavily N-glycosylated and glycosylation had a great impact on its immunogenicity and efficacy. Besides, N-glycosylation might vary greatly on different expression systems and sequence variant designs. Therefore, comprehensive analysis of spike N-glycosylation is of great significance for better vaccine understanding and quality control. In this study, full characterization of N-glycosylation was performed for a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell expressed variant-designed spike protein. The spike protein featured the latest six-proline substitution design together with the incorporation of a combination of mutation sites. Trypsin and Glu-C digestion coupled with PNGase F strategies were adopted, and effective LC-MS/MS methods were applied to analyze samples. As a result, a total of 19 N-glycosites were identified in the recombinant pike protein at intact N-glycopeptide level. Quantitative analysis of released glycan by LC-MS/MS was also performed, and 31 high-abundance N-glycans were identified. Sequencing analysis of glycan was further provided to assist glycan structure confirmation. Moreover, all of the analyses were performed on three consecutive manufactured batches and the glycosylation results on both glycosite and glycans showed good batch-to-batch consistency. Thus, the reported analytical strategy and N-glycosylation information may well facilitate studies on SARS-CoV-2 spike protein analysis and quality studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Glycosylation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chromatography, Liquid , CHO Cells , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Cricetulus , Polysaccharides/chemistry
5.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(9): 1883-1893, 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991498

ABSTRACT

The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is a conserved domain and a target for neutralizing antibodies. We defined the carbohydrate content of the recombinant RBD produced in different mammalian cells. We found a higher degree of complex-type N-linked glycans, with less sialylation and more fucosylation, when the RBD was produced in human embryonic kidney cells compared to the same protein produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The carbohydrates on the RBD proteins were enzymatically modulated, and the effect on antibody reactivity was evaluated with serum samples from SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Removal of all carbohydrates diminished antibody reactivity, while removal of only sialic acids or terminal fucoses improved the reactivity. The RBD produced in Lec3.2.8.1-cells, which generate carbohydrate structures devoid of sialic acids and with reduced fucose content, exhibited enhanced antibody reactivity, verifying the importance of these specific monosaccharides. The results can be of importance for the design of future vaccine candidates, indicating that it is possible to enhance the immunogenicity of recombinant viral proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Fucose , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
AAPS J ; 24(4): 75, 2022 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962928

ABSTRACT

RNA is a fundamental tool for molecular and cellular biology research. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has proved it is also invaluable in vaccine development. However, the need for cold storage to maintain RNA integrity and the practical and economic burden associated with cold chain logistics highlight the need for new and improved preservation methods. We recently showed the use of capillary-mediated vitrification (CMV), as a tool for stabilizing temperature-sensitive enzymes. Here, we demonstrate the use of CMV as a method to preserve mRNA. The CMV process was performed by formulating a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding mRNA with common excipients, applying the solution to a porous support, referred to as the scaffold, and drying the samples under vacuum for 30 min. The CMV preserved samples were stored at 55 °C for up to 100 days or 25 °C for 60 days and analyzed by electrophoresis and for transfection efficiency in a cell-based assay. The 55 °C-stressed mRNA exhibited comparable electrophoresis banding patterns and band intensity when compared to a frozen, liquid control. Additionally, the CMV stabilized mRNA maintained 97.5 ± 8.7% transfection efficiency after 77 days and 78.4 ± 3.9% after 100 days when stored 55 °C and analyzed using a cell-based assay in the CHO-K1 cell line. In contrast, a liquid control exhibited no bands on the electrophoresis gel and lost all transfection activity after being stored overnight at 55 °C. Likewise, after 60 days at 25 °C, the CMV-processed samples had full transfection activity while the activity of the liquid control was reduced to 40.1 ± 4.6%. In conclusion, CMV is a simple formulation method that significantly enhances the thermal stability of mRNA, requires minimal processing time, and could enable formulation of mRNA that can tolerate exposure to temperatures well above 25 °C during shipment and deployment in extreme environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Animals , CHO Cells , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cricetinae , Freeze Drying , Humans , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger , Temperature , Vitrification
7.
Oral Dis ; 28 Suppl 2: 2481-2491, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This work aims to determine the efficacy of preprocedural oral rinsing with chlorine dioxide solutions to minimize the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission during high-risk dental procedures. METHODS: The antiviral activity of chlorine-dioxide-based oral rinse (OR) solutions was tested by pre-incubating with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pseudovirus in a dosage-dependent manner before transducing to human embryonic kidney epithelial (HEK293T-ACE2) cells, which stably expresses ACE-2 receptor. Viral entry was determined by measuring luciferase activity using a luminescence microplate reader. In the cell-to-cell fusion assay, effector Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells co-expressing spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and T7 RNA polymerase were pre-incubated with the ORs before co-culturing with the target CHO-K1 cells co-expressing human ACE2 receptor and luciferase gene. The luciferase signal was quantified 24 h after mixing the cells. Surface expression of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and ACE-2 receptor was confirmed using direct fluorescent imaging and quantitative cell-ELISA. Finally, dosage-dependent cytotoxic effects of ORs were evaluated at two different time points. RESULTS: A dosage-dependent antiviral effect of the ORs was observed against SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and spike glycoprotein mediated cell-to-cell fusion. This demonstrates that ORs can be useful as a preprocedural step to reduce viral infectivity. CONCLUSIONS: Chlorine-dioxide-based ORs have a potential benefit for reducing SARS-CoV-2 entry and spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Chlorine/pharmacology , Virus Internalization , COVID-19/prevention & control , CHO Cells , HEK293 Cells , Cricetulus , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology
8.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263328, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883630

ABSTRACT

Patients on dialysis are at risk of severe course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Understanding the neutralizing activity and coverage of SARS-CoV-2 variants of vaccine-elicited antibodies is required to guide prophylactic and therapeutic COVID-19 interventions in this frail population. By analyzing plasma samples from 130 hemodialysis and 13 peritoneal dialysis patients after two doses of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines, we found that 35% of the patients had low-level or undetectable IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S). Neutralizing antibodies against the vaccine-matched SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant were low or undetectable in 49% and 77% of patients, respectively, and were further reduced against other emerging variants. The fraction of non-responding patients was higher in SARS-CoV-2-naïve hemodialysis patients immunized with BNT162b2 (66%) than those immunized with mRNA-1273 (23%). The reduced neutralizing activity correlated with low antibody avidity. Patients followed up to 7 months after vaccination showed a rapid decay of the antibody response with an average 21- and 10-fold reduction of neutralizing antibodies to vaccine-matched SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variant, which increased the fraction of non-responders to 84% and 90%, respectively. These data indicate that dialysis patients should be prioritized for additional vaccination boosts. Nevertheless, their antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 must be continuously monitored to adopt the best prophylactic and therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibody Affinity , CHO Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cricetulus , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Follow-Up Studies , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Risk Factors , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
9.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother ; 41(3): 163-169, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878746

ABSTRACT

Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) and golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) are important animal models of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, which affect several organs, including respiratory tract, lung, and kidney. Podoplanin (PDPN) is a marker of lung type I alveolar cells, kidney podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells. The development of anti-PDPN monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for these animals is essential to evaluate the pathogenesis by SARS-CoV-2 infections. Using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening method, we previously developed an anti-Chinese hamster PDPN (ChamPDPN) mAb, PMab-281 (mouse IgG3, kappa), and further changed its subclass into IgG2a (281-mG2a-f), both of which can recognize not only ChamPDPN but also golden hamster PDPN (GhamPDPN) by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In this study, we examined the critical epitope of 281-mG2a-f, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with synthesized peptides. First, we performed ELISA with peptides derived from ChamPDPN and GhamPDPN extracellular domain, and found that 281-mG2a-f reacted with the peptides, which commonly possess the KIPFEELxT sequence. Next, we analyzed the reaction with the alanine-substituted mutants, and revealed that 281-mG2a-f did not recognize the alanine-substituted peptides of I75A, F77A, and E79A of ChamPDPN. Furthermore, these peptides could not inhibit the recognition of 281-mG2a-f to ChamPDPN-expressing cells by flow cytometry. The results indicate that the binding epitope of 281-mG2a-f includes Ile75, Phe77, and Glu79 of ChamPDPN, which are shared with GhamPDPN.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endothelial Cells , Alanine , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibody Specificity , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Epitope Mapping/methods , Epitopes , Immunoglobulin G , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mesocricetus , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factors
10.
Biotechnol J ; 17(9): e2100678, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877562

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Spike is a key protein that mediates viral entry into cells and elicits antibody responses. Its importance in infection, diagnostics, and vaccinations has created a large demand for purified Spike for clinical and research applications. Spike is difficult to express, prompting modifications to the protein and expression platforms to improve yields. Alternatively, the Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) is commonly expressed with higher titers, though it has lower sensitivity in serological assays. Here, we improve transient Spike expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We demonstrate that Spike titers increase significantly over the expression period, maximizing at 14 mg L-1 on day 7. In comparison, RBD titers peak at 54 mg L-1 on day 3. Next, we develop eight Spike truncations (T1-T8) in pursuit of truncation with high expression and antibody binding. The truncations T1 and T4 express at 130 and 73 mg L-1 , respectively, which are higher than our RBD titers. Purified proteins were evaluated for binding to antibodies raised against full-length Spike. T1 has similar sensitivity as Spike against a monoclonal antibody and even outperforms Spike for a polyclonal antibody. These results suggest that T1 is a promising Spike alternative for use in various applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
11.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother ; 41(2): 101-109, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806236

ABSTRACT

Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) have been used as small animal models to investigate severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) infections. Pathological analyses of these tissue samples, including those of the lung, are, therefore, essential to understand the pathogenesis of SARS-CoVs and evaluate the action of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against this disease. However, mAbs that recognize ferret-derived proteins and distinguish between specific cell types, such as lung epithelial cells, are limited. Podoplanin (PDPN) has been identified as an essential marker in lung type I alveolar epithelial cells, kidney podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells. In this study, an anti-ferret PDPN (ferPDPN) mAb PMab-292 (mouse IgG1, kappa) was established using the Cell-Based Immunization and Screening (CBIS) method. PMab-292 recognized ferPDPN-overexpressed Chinese hamster ovary-K1 (CHO/ferPDPN) cells by flow cytometry and Western blotting. The kinetic analysis using flow cytometry showed that the KD of PMab-292 for CHO/ferPDPN was 3.4 × 10-8 M. Furthermore, PMab-292 detected lung type I alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, and glomerular/Bowman's capsule in the kidney using immunohistochemistry. Hence, these results propose the usefulness of PMab-292 in analyzing ferret-derived tissues for SARS-CoV-2 research.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibody Specificity , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Endothelial Cells , Epitope Mapping/methods , Ferrets , Kinetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription Factors
12.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2060724, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774258

ABSTRACT

As of early 2022, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains a substantial global health concern. Different treatments for COVID-19, such as anti-COVID-19 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have been developed under tight timelines. Not only mAb product and clinical development but also chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) process development at pandemic speed are required to address this highly unmet patient need. CMC development consists of early- and late-stage process development to ensure sufficient mAb manufacturing yield and consistent product quality for patient safety and efficacy. Here, we report a case study of late-stage cell culture process development at pandemic speed for mAb1 and mAb2 production as a combination therapy for a highly unmet patient treatment. We completed late-stage cell culture process characterization (PC) within approximately 4 months from the cell culture process definition to the initiation of the manufacturing process performance qualification (PPQ) campaign for mAb1 and mAb2, in comparison to a standard one-year PC timeline. Different strategies were presented in detail at different PC steps, i.e., pre-PC risk assessment, scale-down model development and qualification, formal PC experiments, and in-process control strategy development for a successful PPQ campaign that did not sacrifice quality. The strategies we present may be applied to accelerate late-stage process development for other biologics to reduce timelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , CHO Cells , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Culture Techniques , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans
13.
J Biotechnol ; 349: 53-64, 2022 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757476

ABSTRACT

In recent years, acceleration of development timelines has become a major focus within the biopharmaceutical industry to bring innovative therapies faster to patients. However, in order to address a high unmet medical need even faster further acceleration potential has to be identified to transform "speed-to-clinic" concepts into "warp-speed" development programs. Recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines are the predominant expression system for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and are routinely generated by random transgene integration (RTI) of the genetic information into the host cell genome. This process, however, exhibits considerable challenges such as the requirement for a time-consuming clone screening process to identify a suitable clonally derived manufacturing cell line. Hence, RTI represents an error prone and tedious method leading to long development timelines until availability of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-grade drug substance (DS). Transposase-mediated semi-targeted transgene integration (STI) has been recently identified as a promising alternative to RTI as it allows for a more rapid generation of high-performing and stable production cell lines. In this report, we demonstrate how a STI technology was leveraged to develop a very robust DS manufacturing process based on a stable pool cell line at unprecedented pace. Application of the novel strategy resulted in the manufacturing of GMP-grade DS at 2,000 L scale in less than three months paving the way for a start of Phase I clinical trials only six months after transfection. Finally, using a clonally derived production cell line, which was established from the parental stable pool, we were able to successfully implement a process with an increased mAb titer of up to 5 g per liter at the envisioned commercial scale (12,000 L) within eight months.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Acceleration , Animals , CHO Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/drug therapy , Transposases
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715396

ABSTRACT

Interferon-ß (IFN-ß) is a pleiotropic cytokine secreted in response to various pathological conditions and is clinically used for therapy of multiple sclerosis. Its application for treatment of cancer, infections and pulmonary diseases is limited by incomplete understanding of regulatory mechanisms of its functioning. Recently, we reported that IFN-ß activity is affected by interactions with S100A1, S100A4, S100A6, and S100P proteins, which are members of the S100 protein family of multifunctional Ca2+-binding proteins possessing cytokine-like activities (Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(24):9473). Here we show that IFN-ß interacts with one more representative of the S100 protein family, the S100B protein, involved in numerous oncological and neurological diseases. The use of chemical crosslinking, intrinsic fluorescence, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy revealed IFN-ß binding to Ca2+-loaded dimeric and monomeric forms of the S100B protein. Calcium depletion blocks the S100B-IFN-ß interaction. S100B monomerization increases its affinity to IFN-ß by 2.7 orders of magnitude (equilibrium dissociation constant of the complex reaches 47 pM). Crystal violet assay demonstrated that combined application of IFN-ß and S100B (5-25 nM) eliminates their inhibitory effects on MCF-7 cell viability. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the direct modulation of IFN-ß activity by the S100B protein described here could be relevant to progression of multiple oncological and neurological diseases.


Subject(s)
Interferon-beta/metabolism , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/metabolism , Animals , CHO Cells , Calcium/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cricetulus , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Nervous System Diseases/metabolism , Protein Binding/physiology
15.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0082621, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691430

ABSTRACT

Human adenovirus serotype 26 (Ad26) is used as a gene-based vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and HIV-1. However, its primary receptor portfolio remains controversial, potentially including sialic acid, coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR), integrins, and CD46. We and others have shown that Ad26 can use CD46, but these observations were questioned on the basis of the inability to cocrystallize Ad26 fiber with CD46. Recent work demonstrated that Ad26 binds CD46 with its hexon protein rather than its fiber. We examined the functional consequences of Ad26 for infection in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of human CD46 on Chinese hamster ovary cells increased Ad26 infection significantly. Deletion of the complement control protein domain CCP1 or CCP2 or the serine-threonine-proline (STP) region of CD46 reduced infection. Comparing wild-type and sialic acid-deficient CHO cells, we show that the usage of CD46 is independent of its sialylation status. Ad26 transduction was increased in CD46 transgenic mice after intramuscular (i.m.) injection but not after intranasal (i.n.) administration. Ad26 transduction was 10-fold lower than Ad5 transduction after intratumoral (i.t.) injection of CD46-expressing tumors. Ad26 transduction of liver was 1,000-fold lower than that ofAd5 after intravenous (i.v.) injection. These data demonstrate the use of CD46 by Ad26 in certain situations but also show that the receptor has little consequence by other routes of administration. Finally, i.v. injection of high doses of Ad26 into CD46 mice induced release of liver enzymes into the bloodstream and reduced white blood cell counts but did not induce thrombocytopenia. This suggests that Ad26 virions do not induce direct clotting side effects seen during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination with this serotype of adenovirus. IMPORTANCE The human species D Ad26 is being investigated as a low-seroprevalence vector for oncolytic virotherapy and gene-based vaccination against HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. However, there is debate in the literature about its tropism and receptor utilization, which directly influence its efficiency for certain applications. This work was aimed at determining which receptor(s) this virus uses for infection and its role in virus biology, vaccine efficacy, and, importantly, vaccine safety.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/metabolism , Adenovirus Infections, Human/virology , Adenoviruses, Human/classification , Adenoviruses, Human/physiology , Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Membrane Cofactor Protein/metabolism , Adenoviruses, Human/ultrastructure , Animals , Biomarkers , Blood Cell Count , CHO Cells , Cell Line , Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor-Like Membrane Protein/chemistry , Cricetulus , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Humans , Membrane Cofactor Protein/chemistry , Membrane Cofactor Protein/genetics , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Biological , Models, Molecular , Mutagenesis , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Serogroup , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Sialic Acids/pharmacology , Structure-Activity Relationship
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613826

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid aptamers specific to S-protein and its receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2) virions are of high interest as potential inhibitors of viral infection and recognizing elements in biosensors. Development of specific therapy and biosensors is complicated by an emergence of new viral strains bearing amino acid substitutions and probable differences in glycosylation sites. Here, we studied affinity of a set of aptamers to two Wuhan-type RBD of S-protein expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cell line and Pichia pastoris that differ in glycosylation patterns. The expression system for the RBD protein has significant effects, both on values of dissociation constants and relative efficacy of the aptamer binding. We propose glycosylation of the RBD as the main force for observed differences. Moreover, affinity of a several aptamers was affected by a site of biotinylation. Thus, the robustness of modified aptamers toward new virus variants should be carefully tested.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Aptamers, Nucleotide/metabolism , Immobilized Nucleic Acids/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , CHO Cells , Cricetulus , Glycosylation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Saccharomycetales/genetics
17.
Biosci Rep ; 41(12)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592575

ABSTRACT

Parasporin-2Aa1 (PS2Aa1) is a toxic protein of 37 KDa (30 kDa, activated form produced by proteolysis) that was shown to be cytotoxic against specific human cancer cells, although its mechanism of action has not been elucidated yet. In order to study the role of some native peptide fragments of proteins on anticancer activity, here we investigated the cytotoxic effect of peptide fragments from domain-1 of PS2Aa1 and one of the loops present in the binding region of the virus spike protein from Alphacoronavirus (HCoV-229E), the latter according to scientific reports, who showed interaction with the human APN (h-APN) receptor, evidence corroborated through computational simulations, and thus being possible active against colon cancer cells. Peptides namely P264-G274, Loop1-PS2Aa, and Loop2-PS2Aa were synthesized using the Fmoc solid-phase synthesis and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS). Additionally, one region from loop 1 of HCoV-229E, Loop1-HCoV-229E, was also synthesized and characterized. The A4W-GGN5 anticancer peptide and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were taken as a control in all experiments. Circular dichroism revealed an α-helix structure for the peptides derived from PS2Aa1 (P264-G274, Loop1-PS2Aa, and Loop2-PS2Aa) and ß-laminar structure for the peptide derived from Alphacoronavirus spike protein Loop1-HCoV-229E. Peptides showed a hemolysis percentage of less than 20% at 100 µM concentration. Besides, peptides exhibited stronger anticancer activity against SW480 and SW620 cells after exposure for 48 h. Likewise, these compounds showed significantly lower toxicity against normal cells CHO-K1. The results suggest that native peptide fragments from Ps2Aa1 may be optimized as a novel potential cancer-therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Endotoxins/pharmacology , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology , Alphacoronavirus , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/toxicity , CD13 Antigens/metabolism , CHO Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Cricetulus , Endotoxins/toxicity , Hemolysis/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Fragments/chemical synthesis , Peptide Fragments/toxicity , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Sheep, Domestic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/toxicity , Structure-Activity Relationship
18.
Cell Rep ; 38(3): 110256, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588136

ABSTRACT

Inoculation against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing worldwide. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants could cause immune evasion. We developed a bivalent nanoparticle vaccine that displays the receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the D614G and B.1.351 strains. With a prime-boost or a single-dose strategy, this vaccine elicits a robust neutralizing antibody and full protection against infection with the authentic D614G or B.1.351 strain in human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 transgene mice. Interestingly, 8 months after inoculation with the D614G-specific vaccine, a new boost with this bivalent vaccine potently elicits cross-neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 variants in rhesus macaques. We suggest that the D614G/B.1.351 bivalent vaccine could be used as an initial single dose or a sequential enforcement dose to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Combined/therapeutic use , Animals , CHO Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemical synthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Cross Protection/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Nanoparticles , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Combined/chemical synthesis , Vaccines, Combined/immunology , Vero Cells
19.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2005507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585297

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a serious public health crisis worldwide, and considering the novelty of the disease, preventative and therapeutic measures alike are urgently needed. To accelerate such efforts, the development of JS016, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, was expedited from a typical 12- to 18-month period to a 4-month period. During this process, transient Chinese hamster ovary cell lines are used to support preclinical, investigational new drug-enabling toxicology research, and early Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls development; mini-pool materials to supply Phase 1 clinical trials; and a single-clone working cell bank for late-stage and pivotal clinical trials were successively adopted. Moreover, key process performance and product quality investigations using a series of orthogonal and state-of-the-art techniques were conducted to demonstrate the comparability of products manufactured using these three processes, and the results indicated that, despite observed variations in process performance, the primary and high-order structures, purity and impurity profiles, biological and immunological functions, and degradation behaviors under stress conditions were largely comparable. The study suggests that, in particular situations, this strategy can be adopted to accelerate the development of therapeutic biopharmaceuticals and their access to patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Circular Dichroism , Clone Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Isoelectric Point , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 212-226, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585243

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of COVID-19 variants has necessitated the development of new vaccines that stimulate the formation of high levels of neutralizing antibodies against S antigen variants. A new strategy involves the intradermal administration of heterologous vaccines composed of one or two doses of inactivated vaccine and a booster dose with the mutated S1 protein (K-S). Such vaccines improve the immune efficacy by increasing the neutralizing antibody titers and promoting specific T cell responses against five variants of the RBD protein. A viral challenge test with the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant confirmed that both administration schedules (i.e. "1 + 1" and "2 + 1") ensured protection against this strain. These results suggest that the aforementioned strategy is effective for protecting against new variants and enhances the anamnestic immune response in the immunized population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells
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