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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20121, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532138

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian strategy to overcome the spread of COVID-19 has been particularly criticized due to the lack of a national coordinating effort and an appropriate testing program. Here, a successful approach to control the spread of COVID-19 transmission is described by the engagement of public (university and governance) and private sectors (hospitals and oil companies) in Macaé, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a city known as the National Oil Capital. In 2020 between the 17th and 38th epidemiological week, over two percent of the 206,728 citizens were subjected to symptom analysis and RT-qPCR testing by the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with positive individuals being notified up to 48 h after swab collection. Geocodification and spatial cluster analysis were used to limit COVID-19 spreading in Macaé. Within the first semester after the outbreak of COVID-19 in Brazil, Macaé recorded 1.8% of fatalities associated with COVID-19 up to the 38th epidemiological week, which was at least five times lower than the state capital (10.6%). Overall, considering the successful experience of this joint effort of private and public engagement in Macaé, our data suggest that the development of a similar strategy countrywise could have contributed to a better control of the COVID-19 spread in Brazil. Quarantine decree by the local administration, comprehensive molecular testing coupled to scientific analysis of COVID-19 spreading, prevented the catastrophic consequences of the pandemic as seen in other populous cities within the state of Rio de Janeiro and elsewhere in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cities/epidemiology , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
2.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1287-1293, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA can be detected for weeks after infection. The significance of this finding is unclear and, in most patients, does not represent active infection. Detection of subgenomic RNA has been proposed to represent productive infection and may be a useful marker for monitoring infectivity. METHODS: We used quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to quantify total and subgenomic nucleocapsid (sgN) and envelope (sgE) transcripts in 185 SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swab samples collected on hospital admission and to relate to symptom duration. RESULTS: We find that all transcripts decline at the same rate; however, sgE becomes undetectable before other transcripts. The median duration of symptoms to a negative test is 14 days for sgE and 25 days for sgN. There is a linear decline in subgenomic compared to total RNA, suggesting that subgenomic transcript copy number is dependent on copy number of total transcripts. The mean difference between total and sgN is 16-fold and the mean difference between total and sgE is 137-fold. This relationship is constant over duration of symptoms, allowing prediction of subgenomic copy number from total copy number. CONCLUSIONS: Subgenomic RNA may be no more useful in determining infectivity than a copy number threshold determined for total RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1325-1332, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provides a highly variable cycle threshold (Ct) value that cannot distinguish viral infectivity. Subgenomic ribonucleic acid (sgRNA) has been used to monitor active replication. Given the importance of long RT-PCR positivity and the need for work reincorporation and discontinuing isolation, we studied the functionality of normalized viral loads (NVLs) for patient monitoring and sgRNA for viral infectivity detection. METHODS: The NVLs measured through the Nucleocapsid and RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase genes and sgRNA RT-PCRs were performed in 2 consecutive swabs from 84 healthcare workers. RESULTS: The NVLs provided similar and accurate quantities of both genes of SARS-CoV-2 at 2 different timepoints of infection, overcoming Ct-value and swab collection variability. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive samples, 51.19% were sgRNA-positive in the 1st RT-PCR and 5.95% in the 2nd RT-PCR. All sgRNA-positive samples had >4 log10 RNA copies/1000 cells, whereas samples with ≤1 log10 NVLs were sgRNA-negative. Although NVLs were positive until 29 days after symptom onset, 84.1% of sgRNA-positive samples were from the first 7 days, which correlated with viral culture viability. Multivariate analyses showed that sgRNA, NVLs, and days of symptoms were significantly associated (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The NVLs and sgRNA are 2 rapid accessible techniques that could be easily implemented in routine hospital practice providing a useful proxy for viral infectivity and coronavirus disease 2019 patient follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load/standards , Adult , Aftercare/standards , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21233, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493229

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a key tool to diagnose Covid-19. Yet it may not be the most efficient test in all patients. In this paper, we develop a clinical strategy for prescribing RT-PCR to patients based on data from COVIDOM, a French cohort of 54,000 patients with clinically suspected Covid-19, including 12,810 patients tested by RT-PCR. We use a machine-learning algorithm (decision tree) in order to predict RT-PCR results based on the clinical presentation. We show that symptoms alone are sufficient to predict RT-PCR outcome with a mean average precision of 86%. We identify combinations of symptoms that are predictive of RT-PCR positivity (90% for anosmia/ageusia) or negativity (only 30% of RT-PCR+ for a subgroup with cardiopulmonary symptoms): in both cases, RT-PCR provides little added diagnostic value. We propose a prescribing strategy based on clinical presentation that can improve the global efficiency of RT-PCR testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(11): 1507-1517, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492844

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The more infectious SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 rapidly spread in Europe after December, 2020, and a concern that B.1.1.7 could cause more severe disease has been raised. Taking advantage of Denmark's high RT-PCR testing and whole genome sequencing capacities, we used national health register data to assess the risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation in individuals infected with B.1.1.7 compared with those with other SARS-CoV-2 lineages. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of all SARS-CoV-2-positive cases confirmed by RT-PCR in Denmark, sampled between Jan 1 and March 24, 2021, with 14 days of follow-up for COVID-19 hospitalisation. Cases were identified in the national COVID-19 surveillance system database, which includes data from the Danish Microbiology Database (RT-PCR test results), the Danish COVID-19 Genome Consortium, the National Patient Registry, the Civil Registration System, as well as other nationwide registers. Among all cases, COVID-19 hospitalisation was defined as first admission lasting longer than 12 h within 14 days of a sample with a positive RT-PCR result. The study population and main analysis were restricted to the proportion of cases with viral genome data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) of admission according to infection with B.1.1.7 versus other co-existing lineages with a Poisson regression model with robust SEs, adjusted a priori for sex, age, calendar time, region, and comorbidities. The contribution of each covariate to confounding of the crude RR was evaluated afterwards by a stepwise forward inclusion. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1 and March 24, 2021, 50 958 individuals with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test and at least 14 days of follow-up for hospitalisation were identified; 30 572 (60·0%) had genome data, of whom 10 544 (34·5%) were infected with B.1.1.7. 1944 (6·4%) individuals had a COVID-19 hospitalisation and of these, 571 (29·4%) had a B.1.1.7 infection and 1373 (70·6%) had an infection with other SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Although the overall number of hospitalisations decreased during the study period, the proportion of individuals infected with B.1.1.7 increased from 3·5% to 92·1% per week. B.1.1.7 was associated with a crude RR of hospital admission of 0·79 (95% CI 0·72-0·87; p<0·0001) and an adjusted RR of 1·42 (95% CI 1·25-1·60; p<0·0001). The adjusted RR was increased in all strata of age and calendar period-the two covariates with the largest contribution to confounding of the crude RR. INTERPRETATION: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation compared with that of other lineages in an analysis adjusted for covariates. The overall effect on hospitalisations in Denmark was lessened due to a strict lockdown, but our findings could support hospital preparedness and modelling of the projected impact of the epidemic in countries with uncontrolled spread of B.1.1.7. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Whole Genome Sequencing/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259070, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484863

ABSTRACT

Public health surveillance systems likely underestimate the true prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to limited access to testing and the high proportion of subclinical infections in community-based settings. This ongoing prospective, observational study aimed to generate accurate estimates of the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, SARS-CoV-2 infection among residents of a central North Carolina county. From this cohort, we collected survey data and nasal swabs every two weeks and venous blood specimens every month. Nasal swabs were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus (evidence of active infection), and serum specimens for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies (evidence of prior infection). As of June 23, 2021, we have enrolled a total of 153 participants from a county with an estimated 76,285 total residents. The anticipated study duration is at least 24 months, pending the evolution of the pandemic. Study data are being shared on a monthly basis with North Carolina state health authorities and future analyses aim to compare study data to state-wide metrics over time. Overall, the use of a probability-based sampling design and a well-characterized cohort will enable collection of critical data that can be used in planning and policy decisions for North Carolina and may be informative for other states with similar demographic characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Cohort Studies , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , North Carolina , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6032, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469967

ABSTRACT

Vaccine breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection has been monitored in 3720 healthcare workers receiving 2 doses of BNT162b2. SARS-CoV-2 infection is detected in 33 subjects, with a 100-day cumulative incidence of 0.93%. Vaccine protection against acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 infection is 83% (95%CI: 58-93%) in the overall population and 93% (95%CI: 69-99%) in SARS-CoV-2-experienced subjects, when compared with a non-vaccinated control group from the same Institution, in which SARS-CoV-2 infection occurs in 20/346 subjects (100-day cumulative incidence: 5.78%). The infection is symptomatic in 16 (48%) vaccinated subjects vs 17 (85%) controls (p = 0.01). All analyzed patients, in whom the amount of viral RNA was sufficient for genome sequencing, results infected by the alpha variant. Antibody and T-cell responses are not reduced in subjects with breakthrough infection. Evidence of virus transmission, determined by contact tracing, is observed in two (6.1%) cases. This real-world data support the protective effect of BNT162b2 vaccine. A triple antigenic exposure, such as two-dose vaccine schedule in experienced subjects, may confer a higher protection.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Incidence , Male , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5969-5976, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453609

ABSTRACT

In-house assays for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), are feasible alternatives, particularly in developing countries. Cycle threshold (Ct ) values obtained by qRT-PCR were compared with clinical and laboratory data from saliva of inpatients with COVID-19 and asymptomatic health workers (AHW) were studied. Saliva specimens from 58 inpatients confirmed by qRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 using nasopharyngeal specimens, and 105 AHW were studied by qRT-PCR using three sets of primers for the N (N1, N2, and N3) gene of SARS-CoV-2, according to the CDC Diagnostic Panel protocol, showing a positivity of 88% for inpatients and 8% for AHW. Bivariate analysis revealed an association between Ct < 38.0 values for N2 and mechanical ventilation assistance among patients (p = .013). In addition, values of aspartate-transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and ferritin showed significant correlations with Ct values of N1 and N3 genes in inpatients. Therefore, our results show that Ct values correlate with some relevant clinical data for inpatients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Infections , Biomarkers/blood , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19521, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447323

ABSTRACT

School closures have a negative impact on physical and mental well-being, and education, of children and adolescents. A surveillance programme to detect asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection could allow schools to remain open, while protecting the vulnerable. We assessed the feasibility of a programme employing gargle samples and pool testing of individually extracted RNA using rRT-qPCR in a primary and a secondary school in Germany, based on programme logistics and acceptance. Twice a week, five participants per class were selected to provide samples, using an algorithm weighted by a risk-based priority score to increase likelihood of case detection. The positive response rate was 54.8% (550 of 1003 pupils). Logistics evaluation revealed the rate-limiting steps: completing the regular pre-test questionnaire and handing in the samples. Acceptance questionnaire responses indicated strong support for research into developing a surveillance programme and a positive evaluation of gargle tests. Participation was voluntary. As not all pupils participated, individual reminders could lead to participant identification. School-wide implementation of the programme for infection monitoring purposes would enable reminders to be given to all school pupils to address these steps, without compromising participant anonymity. Such a programme would provide a feasible means to monitor asymptomatic respiratory tract infection in schools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Feasibility Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Saliva/virology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0108221, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434911

ABSTRACT

We describe the results of testing health care workers, from a tertiary care hospital in Japan that had experienced a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak during the first peak of the pandemic, for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody seroconversion. Using two chemiluminescent immunoassays and a confirmatory surrogate virus neutralization test, serological testing revealed that a surprising 42% of overlooked COVID-19 diagnoses (27/64 cases) occurred when case detection relied solely on SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Our results suggest that the NAAT-positive population is only the tip of the iceberg and the portion left undetected might potentially have led to silent transmissions and triggered the spread. A questionnaire-based risk assessment was further indicative of exposures to specific aerosol-generating procedures (i.e., noninvasive ventilation and airway suctioning) having mediated transmission and served as the origins of the outbreak. Our observations are supportive of a multitiered testing approach, including the use of serological diagnostics, in order to accomplish exhaustive case detection along the whole COVID-19 spectrum. IMPORTANCE We describe the results of testing frontline health care workers, from a hospital in Japan that had experienced a COVID-19 outbreak, for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Antibody testing revealed that a surprising 42% of overlooked COVID-19 diagnoses occurred when case detection relied solely on PCR-based viral detection. COVID-19 clusters have been continuously striking the health care system around the globe. Our findings illustrate that such clusters are lined with hidden infections eluding detection with diagnostic PCR and that the cluster burden in total is more immense than actually recognized. The mainstays of diagnosing infectious diseases, including COVID-19, generally consist of two approaches, one aiming to detect molecular fragments of the invading pathogen and the other to measure immune responses of the host. Considering antibody testing as one trustworthy option to test our way through the pandemic can aid in the exhaustive case detection of COVID-19 patients with variable presentations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cost of Illness , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Neutralization Tests , Occupational Exposure , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5783-5788, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432409

ABSTRACT

More and more rapid antigen tests for the diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) appear in the market with varying performance. The sensitivity of these tests heavily depends on the viral load, extrapolated by the threshold cycle (Ct). It is therefore essential to verify their performance before their inclusion in routine. The Coronavirus Ag Rapid Test Cassette Bio-Rad, the GSD NovaGen SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Antigen Rapid Test, and the Aegle Coronavirus Ag Rapid Test Cassette were evaluated on 199 samples: 150 fresh samples from the routine and positive in quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), nine fresh samples negative in RT-qPCR, and 40 frozen samples, taken before the discovery of SARS-CoV-2 but positive for other respiratory viruses. Positive RT-qPCR samples were categorized according to their Ct: Ct < 20 (18.7%), ≥ 20-< 25 (27.3%), ≥ 25-< 30 (18.7%), ≥ 30-35 (17.3%), and > 35 (18.0%). Sensitivities (95% confidence interval) for Ct below 25 were 95.7% (92.4-98.9), 97.1% (94.4-99.8), and 97.1% (94.4-99.8) for GSD NovaGen, Bio-Rad, and Aegle, respectively but drastically dropped when Ct exceeded 27. Among samples with previously diagnosed viruses, seven false-positive results were found with GSD NovaGen only (specificity 85.7%). Equivalent, high sensitivities were observed with the highest viral load samples. The GSD NovaGen assay showed less specificity. Although the three kits tested in this study are inadequate for routine testing in a high throughput laboratory, they can help to quickly identify the most infectious patients and screen their close contacts in an environment where molecular tests are not readily available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 97-99, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436200

ABSTRACT

Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the chest plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 pneumonia shows typical CT Scan features which can aid diagnoses and therefore help in the early detection and isolation of infected patients. CT scanners are readily available in many parts of Ghana. It is able to show findings typical for COVID-19 infection of the chest, even in instances where Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTPCR) misses the diagnosis. Little is known about the diagnostic potential of chest CT scan and COVID-19 among physicians even though CT scan offers a high diagnostic accuracy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Symptom Assessment/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Early Diagnosis , Female , Ghana , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17798, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397898

ABSTRACT

There is increasing evidence of cardiac involvement post-SARS-CoV-2 infections in symptomatic as well as in oligo- and asymptomatic athletes. This study aimed to characterize the possible early effects of SARS-CoV-2 infections on myocardial morphology and cardiopulmonary function in athletes. Eight male elite handball players (27 ± 3.5 y) with past SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with four uninfected teammates (22 ± 2.6 y). Infected athletes were examined 19 ± 7 days after the first positive PCR test. Echocardiographic assessment of the global longitudinal strain under resting conditions was not significantly changed (- 17.7% vs. - 18.1%). However, magnetic resonance imaging showed minor signs of acute inflammation/oedema in all infected athletes (T2-mapping: + 4.1 ms, p = 0.034) without reaching the Lake-Louis criteria. Spiroergometric analysis showed a significant reduction in VO2max (- 292 ml/min, - 7.0%), oxygen pulse (- 2.4 ml/beat, - 10.4%), and respiratory minute volume (VE) (- 18.9 l/min, - 13.8%) in athletes with a history of SARS-CoV2 infection (p < 0.05, respectively). The parameters were unchanged in the uninfected teammates. SARS-CoV2 infection caused impairment of cardiopulmonary performance during physical effort in elite athletes. It seems reasonable to screen athletes after SARS-CoV2 infection with spiroergometry to identify performance limitations and to guide the return to competition.


Subject(s)
Athletes/statistics & numerical data , Athletic Performance/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Athletic Performance/physiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Germany , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spirometry/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e26972, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393505

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: There are no standardized methods for collecting and reporting coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) data. We aimed to compare the proportion of patients admitted for COVID-19-related symptoms and those admitted for other reasons who incidentally tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).Retrospective cohort studyData were sampled twice weekly between March 26 and June 6, 2020 from a "COVID-19 dashboard," a system-wide administrative database that includes the number of hospitalized patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test. Patient charts were subsequently reviewed and the principal reason for hospitalization abstracted.Data collected during a statewide lockdown revealed that 92 hospitalized patients had positive SARS-CoV-2 test results. Among these individuals, 4.3% were hospitalized for reasons other than COVID-19-related symptoms but were incidentally found to be SARS-CoV-2-positive. After the lockdown was suspended, the total inpatient census of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients increased to 128, 20.3% of whom were hospitalized for non-COVID-19-related complaints.In the absence of a statewide lockdown, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients admitted for non-COVID-19-related complaints who were incidentally found to be SARS-CoV-2-positive. In order to ensure data integrity, coding should distinguish between patients with COVID-19-related symptoms and asymptomatic patients carrying the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Data Management/standards , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Incidental Findings , Male , Pandemics , Quality Improvement , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
17.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 44(9): 614-619, 2021 Nov.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385595

ABSTRACT

Healthcare professionals in endoscopy units have a possible risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by different routes: inhalation of airborne droplets, aerosols, conjunctival contact and faecal-oral transmission. OBJECTIVE: To describe the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in a series of patients scheduled for digestive endoscopy at the Hospital Santa Caterina. Salt. (Girona). METHODS: Descriptive study of a series of cases of patients scheduled for endoscopy during the month of May 2020, when endoscopic activity was resumed after the peak of the pandemic, following SCD, SEED, AEG and ESGE recommendations. We examined nasopharyngeal samples 48-72 hours before the appointment, by RT-PCR, in all patients. RNA extraction was performed using the kits: Qiagen®-adapted, BiosSprint®96-DNA-Blood-Kit (384). For amplification-detection of SARS-CoV-2, methods recommended by the WHO and the CDC were followed. RESULTS: 110 asymptomatic patients without close contact with a positive case in the previous 14 days were scheduled; 105 (96.4%) were negative and five (4.5%) were positive. Two patients developed respiratory symptoms after diagnosis (presymptomatic) and three remained asymptomatic. Allfive5 patients were autochthonous cases with no history of travel or residence in another city or country associated with high prevalence of infection. Four cases were women aged 60-81 years. The N gene was detected in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected in patients scheduled for digestive endoscopy. Given the risk of transmission to professionals, we consider it advisable to perform SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR 48-72 hours before the examination in situations of high incidence in the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endoscopy, Digestive System/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
18.
BMJ ; 374: n2015, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367428

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of the inactivated whole virus vaccine, CoronaVac (Sinovac Biotech), against symptomatic covid-19 in the elderly population of São Paulo state, Brazil during widespread circulation of the gamma variant. DESIGN: Test negative case-control study. SETTING: Community testing for covid-19 in São Paulo state, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 43 774 adults aged ≥70 years who were residents of São Paulo state and underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 from 17 January to 29 April 2021. 26 433 cases with symptomatic covid-19 and 17 622 test negative controls with covid-19 symptoms were formed into 13 283 matched sets, one case with to up to five controls, according to age, sex, self-reported race, municipality of residence, previous covid-19 status, and date of RT-PCR test (±3 days). INTERVENTION: Vaccination with a two dose regimen of CoronaVac. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: RT-PCR confirmed symptomatic covid-19 and associated hospital admissions and deaths. RESULTS: Adjusted vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic covid-19 was 24.7% (95% confidence interval 14.7% to 33.4%) at 0-13 days and 46.8% (38.7% to 53.8%) at ≥14 days after the second dose. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness against hospital admissions was 55.5% (46.5% to 62.9%) and against deaths was 61.2% (48.9% to 70.5%) at ≥14 days after the second dose. Vaccine effectiveness ≥14 days after the second dose was highest for the youngest age group (70-74 years)-59.0% (43.7% to 70.2%) against symptomatic disease, 77.6% (62.5% to 86.7%) against hospital admissions, and 83.9% (59.2% to 93.7%) against deaths-and declined with increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with CoronaVac was associated with a reduction in symptomatic covid-19, hospital admissions, and deaths in adults aged ≥70 years in a setting with extensive transmission of the gamma variant. Vaccine protection was, however, low until completion of the two dose regimen, and vaccine effectiveness was observe to decline with increasing age among this elderly population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Treatment Outcome
19.
BMJ ; 374: n1943, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of mRNA covid-19 vaccines against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes (hospital admission or death). DESIGN: Test negative design study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada between 14 December 2020 and 19 April 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 324 033 community dwelling people aged ≥16 years who had symptoms of covid-19 and were tested for SARS-CoV-2. INTERVENTIONS: BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and hospital admissions and deaths associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for personal and clinical characteristics associated with SARS-CoV-2 and vaccine receipt to estimate vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes. RESULTS: Of 324 033 people with symptoms, 53 270 (16.4%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 21 272 (6.6%) received at least one dose of vaccine. Among participants who tested positive, 2479 (4.7%) were admitted to hospital or died. Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection observed ≥14 days after one dose was 60% (95% confidence interval 57% to 64%), increasing from 48% (41% to 54%) at 14-20 days after one dose to 71% (63% to 78%) at 35-41 days. Vaccine effectiveness observed ≥7 days after two doses was 91% (89% to 93%). Vaccine effectiveness against hospital admission or death observed ≥14 days after one dose was 70% (60% to 77%), increasing from 62% (44% to 75%) at 14-20 days to 91% (73% to 97%) at ≥35 days, whereas vaccine effectiveness observed ≥7 days after two doses was 98% (88% to 100%). For adults aged ≥70 years, vaccine effectiveness estimates were observed to be lower for intervals shortly after one dose but were comparable to those for younger people for all intervals after 28 days. After two doses, high vaccine effectiveness was observed against variants with the E484K mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of mRNA covid-19 vaccines were observed to be highly effective against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes. Vaccine effectiveness of one dose was observed to be lower, particularly for older adults shortly after the first dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(8): 929-936, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359389

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) testing is used for serosurveillance and will be important to evaluate vaccination status. Given the urgency to release coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) serology tests, most manufacturers have developed qualitative tests. OBJECTIVE.­: To evaluate clinical performance of 6 different SARS-CoV-2 IgG assays and their quantitative results to better elucidate the clinical role of serology testing in COVID-19. DESIGN.­: Six SARS-CoV-2 IgG assays were tested using remnant specimens from 190 patients. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for each assay with the current manufacturer's cutoff and a lower cutoff. A numeric result analysis and discrepancy analysis were performed. RESULTS.­: Specificity was higher than 93% for all assays, and sensitivity was higher than 80% for all assays (≥7 days post-polymerase chain reaction testing). Inpatients with more severe disease had higher numeric values compared with health care workers with mild or moderate disease. Several discrepant serology results were those just below the manufacturers' cutoff. CONCLUSIONS.­: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 IgG antibody testing can aid in the diagnosis of COVID-19, especially with negative polymerase chain reaction. Quantitative COVID-19 IgG results are important to better understand the immunologic response and disease course of this novel virus and to assess immunity as part of future vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
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