Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 143
Filter
1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e28265, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the limitations in the use of cycle threshold (CT) values for individual patient care, population distributions of CT values may be useful indicators of local outbreaks. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to conduct an exploratory analysis of potential correlations between the population distribution of cycle threshold (CT) values and COVID-19 dynamics, which were operationalized as percent positivity, transmission rate (Rt), and COVID-19 hospitalization count. METHODS: In total, 148,410 specimens collected between September 15, 2020, and January 11, 2021, from the greater El Paso area were processed in the Dascena COVID-19 Laboratory. The daily median CT value, daily Rt, daily count of COVID-19 hospitalizations, daily change in percent positivity, and rolling averages of these features were plotted over time. Two-way scatterplots and linear regression were used to evaluate possible associations between daily median CT values and outbreak measures. Cross-correlation plots were used to determine whether a time delay existed between changes in daily median CT values and measures of community disease dynamics. RESULTS: Daily median CT values negatively correlated with the daily Rt values (P<.001), the daily COVID-19 hospitalization counts (with a 33-day time delay; P<.001), and the daily changes in percent positivity among testing samples (P<.001). Despite visual trends suggesting time delays in the plots for median CT values and outbreak measures, a statistically significant delay was only detected between changes in median CT values and COVID-19 hospitalization counts (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the literature by analyzing samples collected from an entire geographical area and contextualizing the results with other research investigating population CT values.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Texas , Time Factors
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(6): e27189, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, swab tests proved to be effective in containing the infection and served as a means for early diagnosis and contact tracing. However, little evidence exists regarding the correct timing for the execution of the swab test, especially for asymptomatic individuals and health care workers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze changes in the positive findings over time in individual SARS-CoV-2 swab tests during a health surveillance program. METHODS: The study was conducted with 2071 health care workers at the University Hospital of Verona, with a known date of close contact with a patient with COVID-19, between February 29 and April 17, 2020. The health care workers underwent a health surveillance program with repeated swab tests to track their virological status. A generalized additive mixed model was used to investigate how the probability of a positive test result changes over time since the last known date of close contact, in an overall sample of individuals who tested positive for COVID-19 and in a subset of individuals with an initial negative swab test finding before being proven positive, to assess different surveillance time intervals. RESULTS: Among the 2071 health care workers in this study, 191 (9.2%) tested positive for COVID-19, and 103 (54%) were asymptomatic with no differences based on sex or age. Among 49 (25.7%) cases, the initial swab test yielded negative findings after close contact with a patient with COVID-19. Sex, age, symptoms, and the time of sampling were not different between individuals with an initial negative swab test finding and those who initially tested positive after close contact. In the overall sample, the estimated probability of testing positive was 0.74 on day 1 after close contact, which increased to 0.77 between days 5 and 8. In the 3 different scenarios for scheduled repeated testing intervals (3, 5, and 7 days) in the subgroup of individuals with an initially negative swab test finding, the probability peaked on the sixth, ninth and tenth, and 13th and 14th days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Swab tests can initially yield false-negative outcomes. The probability of testing positive increases from day 1, peaking between days 5 and 8 after close contact with a patient with COVID-19. Early testing, especially in this final time window, is recommended together with a health surveillance program scheduled in close intervals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , False Negative Reactions , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
4.
Lancet ; 399(10321): 237-248, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Ad5-nCoV vaccine is a single-dose adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectored vaccine expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that was well-tolerated and immunogenic in phase 1 and 2 studies. In this study, we report results on the final efficacy and interim safety analyses of the phase 3 trial. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, international, placebo-controlled, endpoint-case driven, phase 3, clinical trial enrolled adults aged 18 years older at study centres in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Pakistan, and Russia. Participants were eligible for the study if they had no unstable or severe underlying medical or psychiatric conditions; had no history of a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection; were not pregnant or breastfeeding; and had no previous receipt of an adenovirus-vectored, coronavirus, or SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. After informed consent was obtained, 25 mL of whole blood was withdrawn from all eligible participants who were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single intramuscular dose of 0·5 mL placebo or a 0·5 mL dose of 5 × 1010 viral particle (vp)/mL Ad5-nCoV vaccine; study staff and participants were blinded to treatment allocation. All participants were contacted weekly by email, telephone, or text message to self-report any symptoms of COVID-19 illness, and laboratory testing for SARS-CoV-2 was done for all participants with any symptoms. The primary efficacy objective evaluated Ad5-nCoV in preventing symptomatic, PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection occurring at least 28 days after vaccination in all participants who were at least 28 days postvaccination on Jan 15, 2021. The primary safety objective evaluated the incidence of any serious adverse events or medically attended adverse events postvaccination in all participants who received a study injection. This trial is closed for enrolment and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04526990). FINDINGS: Study enrolment began on Sept 22, 2020, in Pakistan, Nov 6, 2020, in Mexico, Dec 2, 2020, in Russia and Chile, and Dec 17, 2020, in Argentina; 150 endpoint cases were reached on Jan 15, 2021, triggering the final primary efficacy analysis. One dose of Ad5-nCoV showed a 57·5% (95% CI 39·7-70·0, p=0·0026) efficacy against symptomatic, PCR-confirmed, COVID-19 infection at 28 days or more postvaccination (21 250 participants; 45 days median duration of follow-up [IQR 36-58]). In the primary safety analysis undertaken at the time of the efficacy analysis (36 717 participants), there was no significant difference in the incidence of serious adverse events (14 [0·1%] of 18 363 Ad5-nCoV recipients and 10 [0·1%] of 18 354 placebo recipients, p=0·54) or medically attended adverse events (442 [2·4%] of 18 363 Ad5-nCoV recipients and 411 [2·2%] of 18 354 placebo recipients, p=0·30) between the Ad5-nCoV or placebo groups, or any serious adverse events considered related to the study product (none in both Ad5-nCoV and placebo recipients). In the extended safety cohort, 1004 (63·5%) of 1582 of Ad5-nCoV recipients and 729 (46·4%) of 1572 placebo recipients reported a solicited systemic adverse event (p<0·0001), of which headache was the most common (699 [44%] of Ad5-nCoV recipients and 481 [30·6%] of placebo recipients; p<0·0001). 971 (61·3%) of 1584 Ad5-nCoV recipients and 314 (20·0%) of 1573 placebo recipients reported an injection-site adverse event (p<0·0001), of which pain at the injection site was the most frequent; reported by 939 (59%) Ad5-nCoV recipients and 303 (19%) placebo recipients. INTERPRETATION: One dose of Ad5-nCoV is efficacious and safe in healthy adults aged 18 years and older. FUNDING: CanSino Biologics and the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Young Adult
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2843, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701343

ABSTRACT

In the context of social events reopening and economic relaunch, sanitary surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still required. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic performances of a rapid, extraction-free and connected reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay on saliva. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and saliva from 443 outpatients were collected simultaneously and tested by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) as reference standard test. Seventy-one individuals (16.0%) were positive by NP and/or salivary RT-qPCR. Sensitivity and specificity of salivary RT-LAMP were 85.9% (95%CI 77.8-94.0%) and 99.5% (98.7-100%), respectively. Performances were similar for symptomatic and asymptomatic participants. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants were analyzed and no dominant mutation in RT-LAMP primer region was observed during the period of the study. We demonstrated that this RT-LAMP test on self-collected saliva is reliable for SARS-CoV-2 detection. This simple connected test with optional automatic results transfer to health authorities is unique and opens the way to secure professional and social events in actual context of economics restart.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Viral Load , Young Adult
6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(11): 1529-1538, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in older adults living in long-term care facilities is uncertain. We investigated the protective effect of the first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca non-replicating viral-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19; AZD1222) and the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA-based vaccine (BNT162b2) in residents of long-term care facilities in terms of PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection over time since vaccination. METHODS: The VIVALDI study is a prospective cohort study that commenced recruitment on June 11, 2020, to investigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission, infection outcomes, and immunity in residents and staff in long-term care facilities in England that provide residential or nursing care for adults aged 65 years and older. In this cohort study, we included long-term care facility residents undergoing routine asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 testing between Dec 8, 2020 (the date the vaccine was first deployed in a long-term care facility), and March 15, 2021, using national testing data linked within the COVID-19 Datastore. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated the relative hazard of PCR-positive infection at 0-6 days, 7-13 days, 14-20 days, 21-27 days, 28-34 days, 35-48 days, and 49 days and beyond after vaccination, comparing unvaccinated and vaccinated person-time from the same cohort of residents, adjusting for age, sex, previous infection, local SARS-CoV-2 incidence, long-term care facility bed capacity, and clustering by long-term care facility. We also compared mean PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values for positive swabs obtained before and after vaccination. The study is registered with ISRCTN, number 14447421. FINDINGS: 10 412 care home residents aged 65 years and older from 310 LTCFs were included in this analysis. The median participant age was 86 years (IQR 80-91), 7247 (69·6%) of 10 412 residents were female, and 1155 residents (11·1%) had evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. 9160 (88·0%) residents received at least one vaccine dose, of whom 6138 (67·0%) received ChAdOx1 and 3022 (33·0%) received BNT162b2. Between Dec 8, 2020, and March 15, 2021, there were 36 352 PCR results in 670 628 person-days, and 1335 PCR-positive infections (713 in unvaccinated residents and 612 in vaccinated residents) were included. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for PCR-positive infection relative to unvaccinated residents declined from 28 days after the first vaccine dose to 0·44 (95% CI 0·24-0·81) at 28-34 days and 0·38 (0·19-0·77) at 35-48 days. Similar effect sizes were seen for ChAdOx1 (adjusted HR 0·32, 95% CI 0·15-0·66) and BNT162b2 (0·35, 0·17-0·71) vaccines at 35-48 days. Mean PCR Ct values were higher for infections that occurred at least 28 days after vaccination than for those occurring before vaccination (31·3 [SD 8·7] in 107 PCR-positive tests vs 26·6 [6·6] in 552 PCR-positive tests; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Single-dose vaccination with BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 vaccines provides substantial protection against infection in older adults from 4-7 weeks after vaccination and might reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. However, the risk of infection is not eliminated, highlighting the ongoing need for non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent transmission in long-term care facilities. FUNDING: UK Government Department of Health and Social Care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Incidence , Male , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(11): 1518-1528, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A more transmissible variant of SARS-CoV-2, the variant of concern 202012/01 or lineage B.1.1.7, has emerged in the UK. We aimed to estimate the risk of critical care admission, mortality in patients who are critically ill, and overall mortality associated with lineage B.1.1.7 compared with non-B.1.1.7. We also compared clinical outcomes between these two groups. METHODS: For this observational cohort study, we linked large primary care (QResearch), national critical care (Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre Case Mix Programme), and national COVID-19 testing (Public Health England) databases. We used SARS-CoV-2 positive samples with S-gene molecular diagnostic assay failure (SGTF) as a proxy for the presence of lineage B.1.1.7. We extracted two cohorts from the data: the primary care cohort, comprising patients in primary care with a positive community COVID-19 test reported between Nov 1, 2020, and Jan 26, 2021, and known SGTF status; and the critical care cohort, comprising patients admitted for critical care with a positive community COVID-19 test reported between Nov 1, 2020, and Jan 27, 2021, and known SGTF status. We explored the associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection with and without lineage B.1.1.7 and admission to a critical care unit (CCU), 28-day mortality, and 28-day mortality following CCU admission. We used Royston-Parmar models adjusted for age, sex, geographical region, other sociodemographic factors (deprivation index, ethnicity, household housing category, and smoking status for the primary care cohort; and ethnicity, body-mass index, deprivation index, and dependency before admission to acute hospital for the CCU cohort), and comorbidities (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 1 and 2 diabetes, and hypertension for the primary care cohort; and cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, metastatic disease, and immunocompromised conditions for the CCU cohort). We reported information on types and duration of organ support for the B.1.1.7 and non-B.1.1.7 groups. FINDINGS: The primary care cohort included 198 420 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of these, 117 926 (59·4%) had lineage B.1.1.7, 836 (0·4%) were admitted to CCU, and 899 (0·4%) died within 28 days. The critical care cohort included 4272 patients admitted to CCU. Of these, 2685 (62·8%) had lineage B.1.1.7 and 662 (15·5%) died at the end of critical care. In the primary care cohort, we estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 2·15 (95% CI 1·75-2·65) for CCU admission and 1·65 (1·36-2·01) for 28-day mortality for patients with lineage B.1.1.7 compared with the non-B.1.1.7 group. The adjusted HR for mortality in critical care, estimated with the critical care cohort, was 0·91 (0·76-1·09) for patients with lineage B.1.1.7 compared with those with non-B.1.1.7 infection. INTERPRETATION: Patients with lineage B.1.1.7 were at increased risk of CCU admission and 28-day mortality compared with patients with non-B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2. For patients receiving critical care, mortality appeared to be independent of virus strain. Our findings emphasise the importance of measures to control exposure to and infection with COVID-19. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, and the Medical Sciences Division of the University of Oxford.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(11): 1539-1548, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On Dec 8, 2020, deployment of the first SARS-CoV-2 vaccination authorised for UK use (BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine) began, followed by an adenoviral vector vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 on Jan 4, 2021. Care home residents and staff, frontline health-care workers, and adults aged 80 years and older were vaccinated first. However, few data exist regarding the effectiveness of these vaccines in older people with many comorbidities. In this post-implementation evaluation of two COVID-19 vaccines, we aimed to determine the effectiveness of one dose in reducing COVID-19-related admissions to hospital in people of advanced age. METHODS: This prospective test-negative case-control study included adults aged at least 80 years who were admitted to hospital in two NHS trusts in Bristol, UK with signs and symptoms of respiratory disease. Patients who developed symptoms before receiving their vaccine or those who received their vaccine after admission to hospital were excluded, as were those with symptoms that started more than 10 days before hospital admission. We did logistic regression analysis, controlling for time (week), sex, index of multiple deprivations, and care residency status, and sensitivity analyses matched for time and sex using a conditional logistic model adjusting for index of multiple deprivations and care residency status. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number 39557. FINDINGS: Between Dec 18, 2020, and Feb 26, 2021, 466 adults were eligible (144 test-positive and 322 test-negative). 18 (13%) of 135 people with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 90 (34%) of 269 controls received one dose of BNT162b2. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 71·4% (95% CI 46·5-90·6). Nine (25%) of 36 people with COVID-19 infection and 53 (59%) of 90 controls received one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. The adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 80·4% (95% CI 36·4-94·5). When BNT162b2 effectiveness analysis was restricted to the period covered by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, the estimate was 79·3% (95% CI 47·0-92·5). INTERPRETATION: One dose of either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 resulted in substantial risk reductions of COVID-19-related hospitalisation in people aged at least 80 years. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Incidence , Male , Mass Vaccination/methods , Mass Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
9.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 45(3): 503-514, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627214

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had severe consequences for health and the global economy. To control the transmission, there is an urgent demand for early diagnosis and treatment in the general population. In the present study, an automatic system for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis is designed and built to deliver high specification, high sensitivity, and high throughput with minimal workforce involvement. The system, set up with cross-priming amplification (CPA) rather than conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was evaluated using more than 1000 real-world samples for direct comparison. This fully automated robotic system performed SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid-based diagnosis with 192 samples in under 180 min at 100 copies per reaction in a "specimen in data out" manner. This throughput translates to a daily screening capacity of 800-1000 in an assembly-line manner with limited workforce involvement. The sensitivity of this device could be further improved using a CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)-based assay, which opens the door to mixed samples, potentially include SARS-CoV-2 variants screening in extensively scaled testing for fighting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , Biomedical Engineering/instrumentation , Biomedical Engineering/methods , Biomedical Engineering/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Equipment Design , High-Throughput Screening Assays/instrumentation , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Robotics/instrumentation , Robotics/methods , Robotics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Systems Analysis
10.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625696

ABSTRACT

Identification of the SARS-CoV-2 virus by RT-PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab sample is a common test for diagnosing COVID-19. However, some patients present clinical, laboratorial, and radiological evidence of COVID-19 infection with negative RT-PCR result(s). Thus, we assessed whether positive results were associated with intubation and mortality. This study was conducted in a Brazilian tertiary hospital from March to August of 2020. All patients had clinical, laboratory, and radiological diagnosis of COVID-19. They were divided into two groups: positive (+) RT-PCR group, with 2292 participants, and negative (-) RT-PCR group, with 706 participants. Patients with negative RT-PCR testing and an alternative most probable diagnosis were excluded from the study. The RT-PCR(+) group presented increased risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and 28-day mortality, when compared to the RT-PCR(-) group. A positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR result was independently associated with intubation and 28 day in-hospital mortality. Accordingly, we concluded that patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis based on clinical data, despite a negative RT-PCR test from nasopharyngeal samples, presented more favorable outcomes than patients with positive RT-PCR test(s).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Cornea ; 41(2): 238-242, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546065

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in human postmortem ocular tissues of asymptomatic donors and its implications on our eye banking protocols. METHODS: The expression of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in corneal rims and conjunctival tissues from 100 donors who were found suitable for transplantation as per the donor screening guidelines of the Global Alliance of Eye Bank Associations. The donor's clinical history and cause of death were assessed for secondary analysis. RESULTS: Of 200 ocular tissues (100 corneal and 100 conjunctival) from the same 1 eye of 100 surgical-intended donors, between September 2020 and April 2021, the overall positivity rate for SARS-CoV-2 was ∼1% (2/200). Both the ocular samples that tested positive were conjunctival biopsies (2/100, 2%), whereas corneal samples were negative (0/100, 0%) in both donors. The causes of donor death were trauma in 51 donors, suicide in 33, cardiac arrest in 7, electric shock in 5, metabolic cause in 2, malignancy in 1, and snake bite in 1. None of the donors had a medical history suggestive of COVID infection or possible contact. None of the recipients from the donors were reported to have any systemic adverse event after keratoplasty until the follow-up of 6 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 1% (2% for conjunctival and 0% for corneal samples, P value = 0.5) in the donors who were found suitable for cornea recovery and transplantation. The findings of exceptionally low positive rates in our samples validate the criticality of history-based donor screening and do not support the necessity of postmortem PCR testing as a criterion for procurement and subsequent use for corneal transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Conjunctiva/virology , Cornea/virology , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cause of Death , Donor Selection , Eye Banks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Keratoplasty, Penetrating/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20121, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532138

ABSTRACT

The Brazilian strategy to overcome the spread of COVID-19 has been particularly criticized due to the lack of a national coordinating effort and an appropriate testing program. Here, a successful approach to control the spread of COVID-19 transmission is described by the engagement of public (university and governance) and private sectors (hospitals and oil companies) in Macaé, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a city known as the National Oil Capital. In 2020 between the 17th and 38th epidemiological week, over two percent of the 206,728 citizens were subjected to symptom analysis and RT-qPCR testing by the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with positive individuals being notified up to 48 h after swab collection. Geocodification and spatial cluster analysis were used to limit COVID-19 spreading in Macaé. Within the first semester after the outbreak of COVID-19 in Brazil, Macaé recorded 1.8% of fatalities associated with COVID-19 up to the 38th epidemiological week, which was at least five times lower than the state capital (10.6%). Overall, considering the successful experience of this joint effort of private and public engagement in Macaé, our data suggest that the development of a similar strategy countrywise could have contributed to a better control of the COVID-19 spread in Brazil. Quarantine decree by the local administration, comprehensive molecular testing coupled to scientific analysis of COVID-19 spreading, prevented the catastrophic consequences of the pandemic as seen in other populous cities within the state of Rio de Janeiro and elsewhere in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cities/epidemiology , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257979, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526683

ABSTRACT

Public health interventions such as social distancing and mask wearing decrease the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but it is unclear whether they decrease the viral load of infected patients and whether changes in viral load impact mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated 6923 patients with COVID-19 at six New York City hospitals from March 15-May 14, 2020, corresponding with the implementation of public health interventions in March. We assessed changes in cycle threshold (CT) values from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests and in-hospital mortality and modeled the impact of viral load on mortality. Mean CT values increased between March and May, with the proportion of patients with high viral load decreasing from 47.7% to 7.8%. In-hospital mortality increased from 14.9% in March to 28.4% in early April, and then decreased to 8.7% by May. Patients with high viral loads had increased mortality compared to those with low viral loads (adjusted odds ratio 2.34). If viral load had not declined, an estimated 69 additional deaths would have occurred (5.8% higher mortality). SARS-CoV-2 viral load steadily declined among hospitalized patients in the setting of public health interventions, and this correlated with decreases in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Viral Load/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , New York , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(1): 121-126, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524349

ABSTRACT

Neglected rural communities in Latin America are highly vulnerable to COVID-19 due to a poor health infrastructure and limited access to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnosis. Manabí is a province of the Coastal Region of Ecuador characterized by a high prevalence of rural population living under poverty conditions. In the current study, we present the retrospective analysis of the results of a massive SARS-CoV-2 testing operation in nonhospitalized populations from Manabí carried out from August to September 2020. A total of 4,003 people from 15 cantons were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction, resulting in an overall infection rate of 16.13% for SARS-CoV-2, with several communities > 30%. Moreover, 29 SARS-CoV-2 super-spreader community-dwelling individuals with viral loads above 108 copies/mL were found. These results support that uncontrolled COVID-19 community transmission was happening in Manabí during the first semester of COVID-19 pandemic. This report endorses the utility of massive SARS-CoV-2 testing among asymptomatic population for control and surveillance of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
15.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1287-1293, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA can be detected for weeks after infection. The significance of this finding is unclear and, in most patients, does not represent active infection. Detection of subgenomic RNA has been proposed to represent productive infection and may be a useful marker for monitoring infectivity. METHODS: We used quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to quantify total and subgenomic nucleocapsid (sgN) and envelope (sgE) transcripts in 185 SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swab samples collected on hospital admission and to relate to symptom duration. RESULTS: We find that all transcripts decline at the same rate; however, sgE becomes undetectable before other transcripts. The median duration of symptoms to a negative test is 14 days for sgE and 25 days for sgN. There is a linear decline in subgenomic compared to total RNA, suggesting that subgenomic transcript copy number is dependent on copy number of total transcripts. The mean difference between total and sgN is 16-fold and the mean difference between total and sgE is 137-fold. This relationship is constant over duration of symptoms, allowing prediction of subgenomic copy number from total copy number. CONCLUSIONS: Subgenomic RNA may be no more useful in determining infectivity than a copy number threshold determined for total RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(6): 102327, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499804

ABSTRACT

Comparison of first and second waves of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) showed varied differences including the peak and time distribution. Contrary to published reports of comparing two waves in India wherein the younger age group was affected more in the second wave in India; a secondary data analysis of around 0.5 million real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests conducted in COVID-19 diagnostic laboratory in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India showed an increase in positivity rate in older age groups in the second wave. The positivity rate among symptomatic cases was found to be three times higher in second wave compare to the first wave. Higher positivity rates were seen across older age groups, with a shift of 11 years in the mean age of positivity in the second wave compared to the first.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
17.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1325-1332, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) provides a highly variable cycle threshold (Ct) value that cannot distinguish viral infectivity. Subgenomic ribonucleic acid (sgRNA) has been used to monitor active replication. Given the importance of long RT-PCR positivity and the need for work reincorporation and discontinuing isolation, we studied the functionality of normalized viral loads (NVLs) for patient monitoring and sgRNA for viral infectivity detection. METHODS: The NVLs measured through the Nucleocapsid and RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase genes and sgRNA RT-PCRs were performed in 2 consecutive swabs from 84 healthcare workers. RESULTS: The NVLs provided similar and accurate quantities of both genes of SARS-CoV-2 at 2 different timepoints of infection, overcoming Ct-value and swab collection variability. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive samples, 51.19% were sgRNA-positive in the 1st RT-PCR and 5.95% in the 2nd RT-PCR. All sgRNA-positive samples had >4 log10 RNA copies/1000 cells, whereas samples with ≤1 log10 NVLs were sgRNA-negative. Although NVLs were positive until 29 days after symptom onset, 84.1% of sgRNA-positive samples were from the first 7 days, which correlated with viral culture viability. Multivariate analyses showed that sgRNA, NVLs, and days of symptoms were significantly associated (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The NVLs and sgRNA are 2 rapid accessible techniques that could be easily implemented in routine hospital practice providing a useful proxy for viral infectivity and coronavirus disease 2019 patient follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load/standards , Adult , Aftercare/standards , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Decision-Making/methods , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/pathology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21233, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493229

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a key tool to diagnose Covid-19. Yet it may not be the most efficient test in all patients. In this paper, we develop a clinical strategy for prescribing RT-PCR to patients based on data from COVIDOM, a French cohort of 54,000 patients with clinically suspected Covid-19, including 12,810 patients tested by RT-PCR. We use a machine-learning algorithm (decision tree) in order to predict RT-PCR results based on the clinical presentation. We show that symptoms alone are sufficient to predict RT-PCR outcome with a mean average precision of 86%. We identify combinations of symptoms that are predictive of RT-PCR positivity (90% for anosmia/ageusia) or negativity (only 30% of RT-PCR+ for a subgroup with cardiopulmonary symptoms): in both cases, RT-PCR provides little added diagnostic value. We propose a prescribing strategy based on clinical presentation that can improve the global efficiency of RT-PCR testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(11): 1507-1517, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492844

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The more infectious SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 rapidly spread in Europe after December, 2020, and a concern that B.1.1.7 could cause more severe disease has been raised. Taking advantage of Denmark's high RT-PCR testing and whole genome sequencing capacities, we used national health register data to assess the risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation in individuals infected with B.1.1.7 compared with those with other SARS-CoV-2 lineages. METHODS: We did an observational cohort study of all SARS-CoV-2-positive cases confirmed by RT-PCR in Denmark, sampled between Jan 1 and March 24, 2021, with 14 days of follow-up for COVID-19 hospitalisation. Cases were identified in the national COVID-19 surveillance system database, which includes data from the Danish Microbiology Database (RT-PCR test results), the Danish COVID-19 Genome Consortium, the National Patient Registry, the Civil Registration System, as well as other nationwide registers. Among all cases, COVID-19 hospitalisation was defined as first admission lasting longer than 12 h within 14 days of a sample with a positive RT-PCR result. The study population and main analysis were restricted to the proportion of cases with viral genome data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) of admission according to infection with B.1.1.7 versus other co-existing lineages with a Poisson regression model with robust SEs, adjusted a priori for sex, age, calendar time, region, and comorbidities. The contribution of each covariate to confounding of the crude RR was evaluated afterwards by a stepwise forward inclusion. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1 and March 24, 2021, 50 958 individuals with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test and at least 14 days of follow-up for hospitalisation were identified; 30 572 (60·0%) had genome data, of whom 10 544 (34·5%) were infected with B.1.1.7. 1944 (6·4%) individuals had a COVID-19 hospitalisation and of these, 571 (29·4%) had a B.1.1.7 infection and 1373 (70·6%) had an infection with other SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Although the overall number of hospitalisations decreased during the study period, the proportion of individuals infected with B.1.1.7 increased from 3·5% to 92·1% per week. B.1.1.7 was associated with a crude RR of hospital admission of 0·79 (95% CI 0·72-0·87; p<0·0001) and an adjusted RR of 1·42 (95% CI 1·25-1·60; p<0·0001). The adjusted RR was increased in all strata of age and calendar period-the two covariates with the largest contribution to confounding of the crude RR. INTERPRETATION: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 was associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation compared with that of other lineages in an analysis adjusted for covariates. The overall effect on hospitalisations in Denmark was lessened due to a strict lockdown, but our findings could support hospital preparedness and modelling of the projected impact of the epidemic in countries with uncontrolled spread of B.1.1.7. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Whole Genome Sequencing/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259070, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484863

ABSTRACT

Public health surveillance systems likely underestimate the true prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to limited access to testing and the high proportion of subclinical infections in community-based settings. This ongoing prospective, observational study aimed to generate accurate estimates of the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, SARS-CoV-2 infection among residents of a central North Carolina county. From this cohort, we collected survey data and nasal swabs every two weeks and venous blood specimens every month. Nasal swabs were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus (evidence of active infection), and serum specimens for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies (evidence of prior infection). As of June 23, 2021, we have enrolled a total of 153 participants from a county with an estimated 76,285 total residents. The anticipated study duration is at least 24 months, pending the evolution of the pandemic. Study data are being shared on a monthly basis with North Carolina state health authorities and future analyses aim to compare study data to state-wide metrics over time. Overall, the use of a probability-based sampling design and a well-characterized cohort will enable collection of critical data that can be used in planning and policy decisions for North Carolina and may be informative for other states with similar demographic characteristics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Cohort Studies , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , North Carolina , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL