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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200147, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1841192

ABSTRACT

Abstract With the COVID-19 pandemic, many diagnostic tests (molecular or immunological) were rapidly standardised, given the urgency of the situation, many are still in the process of being validated. The main objective of this study was to review the aspects of the diagnostic kits approved in Brazil and their application in the different federative units to gather epidemiological information. In order to achieve these objectives, a survey was carried out on the data available at the regulatory agency (ANVISA) and in the literature. The main countries that have registered products in Brazil are China (51.4%), Brazil (16.6%), South Korea (9.2%), USA (8.8%) and Germany (3.6%). The methodologies of these products are based on the detection of nucleic-acid (15.8%), antigen (13%) and antibody (71.2%). In the immunological tests, it was verified that the sensitivity ranged from 55 to 100% and the specificity from 80 to 100%. The percentage of cases in the samples tested in Brazil is elevated in almost all federative units since eight states showed 40% of positive cases in tested samples, while 18 states displayed between 20 and 40%. In conclusion, this review showed that Brazil is dependent on external technology to respond to pandemics, epidemics and endemics disease and needs to improve its biotechnological scheme to solve further diseases outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunologic Tests/instrumentation , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Chromatography, Affinity/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods
3.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 414(5): 1949-1962, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607761

ABSTRACT

Recently, numerous diagnostic approaches from different disciplines have been developed for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis to monitor and control the COVID-19 pandemic. These include MS-based assays, which provide analytical information on viral proteins. However, their sensitivity is limited, estimated to be 5 × 104 PFU/ml in clinical samples. Here, we present a reliable, specific, and rapid method for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 from nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens, which combines virus capture followed by LC-MS/MS(MRM) analysis of unique peptide markers. The capture of SARS-CoV-2 from the challenging matrix, prior to its tryptic digestion, was accomplished by magnetic beads coated with polyclonal IgG-α-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, enabling sample concentration while significantly reducing background noise interrupting with LC-MS analysis. A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS(MRM) analysis method was developed for the identification of selected tryptic peptide markers. The combined assay, which resulted in S/N ratio enhancement, achieved an improved sensitivity of more than 10-fold compared with previously described MS methods. The assay was validated in 29 naive NP specimens, 19 samples were spiked with SARS-CoV-2 and 10 were used as negative controls. Finally, the assay was successfully applied to clinical NP samples (n = 26) pre-determined as either positive or negative by RT-qPCR. This work describes for the first time a combined approach for immuno-magnetic viral isolation coupled with MS analysis. This method is highly reliable, specific, and sensitive; thus, it may potentially serve as a complementary assay to RT-qPCR, the gold standard test. This methodology can be applied to other viruses as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Immunomagnetic Separation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Biomarkers/chemistry , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Chromatography, Liquid/instrumentation , Chromatography, Liquid/standards , Humans , Immunomagnetic Separation/instrumentation , Immunomagnetic Separation/standards , Nasopharynx/virology , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/instrumentation , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/standards
6.
Adv Mater ; 34(3): e2104608, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499211

ABSTRACT

Solid-state transistor sensors that can detect biomolecules in real time are highly attractive for emerging bioanalytical applications. However, combining upscalable manufacturing with the required performance remains challenging. Here, an alternative biosensor transistor concept is developed, which relies on a solution-processed In2 O3 /ZnO semiconducting heterojunction featuring a geometrically engineered tri-channel architecture for the rapid, real-time detection of important biomolecules. The sensor combines a high electron mobility channel, attributed to the electronic properties of the In2 O3 /ZnO heterointerface, in close proximity to a sensing surface featuring tethered analyte receptors. The unusual tri-channel design enables strong coupling between the buried electron channel and electrostatic perturbations occurring during receptor-analyte interactions allowing for robust, real-time detection of biomolecules down to attomolar (am) concentrations. The experimental findings are corroborated by extensive device simulations, highlighting the unique advantages of the heterojunction tri-channel design. By functionalizing the surface of the geometrically engineered channel with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody receptors, real-time detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein down to am concentrations is demonstrated in under 2 min in physiological relevant conditions.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Transistors, Electronic , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Immobilized , Antibodies, Viral , Bioengineering , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Computer Simulation , Computer Systems , DNA/analysis , Equipment Design , Humans , Indium , Microtechnology , Proof of Concept Study , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zinc Oxide
7.
Mol Biotechnol ; 64(4): 339-354, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469770

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences have inflicted a substantial damage on the world. In this study, it was attempted to review the recent coronaviruses appeared among the human being and their epidemic/pandemic spread throughout the world. Currently, there is an inevitable need for the establishment of a quick and easily available biosensor for tracing COVID-19 in all countries. It has been known that the incubation time of COVID-19 lasts about 14 days and 25% of the infected individuals are asymptomatic. To improve the ability to determine SARS-CoV-2 precisely and reduce the risk of eliciting false-negative results produced by mutating nature of coronaviruses, many researchers have established a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using mismatch-tolerant molecular beacons as multiplex real-time RT-PCR to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of coronaviruses. The possible mechanisms and pathways for the detection of coronaviruses by biosensors have been reviewed in this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Electrochemical Techniques , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique/methods , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Neutralization Tests , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surface Plasmon Resonance
8.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444102

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed people's lives and has brought society to a sudden standstill, with lockdowns and social distancing as the preferred preventative measures. To lift these measurements and reduce society's burden, developing an easy-to-use, rapid, and portable system to detect SARS-CoV-2 is mandatory. To this end, we developed a portable and semi-automated device for SARS-CoV-2 detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification followed by a CRISPR/Cas12a reaction. The device contains a heater element mounted on a printed circuit board, a cooler fan, a proportional integral derivative controller to control the temperature, and designated areas for 0.2 mL Eppendorf® PCR tubes. Our system has a limit of detection of 35 copies of the virus per microliter, which is significant and has the capability of being used in crisis centers, mobile laboratories, remote locations, or airports to diagnose individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. We believe the current methodology that we have implemented in this article is beneficial for the early screening of infectious diseases, in which fast screening with high accuracy is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Point-of-Care Systems , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(10): 335, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411927

ABSTRACT

A practical colorimetric assay was developed for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For this purpose, magnetic γ Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized and used as a peroxidase-like mimic activity molecule. In the presence of γ Fe2O3 nanoparticles, the color change of H2O2 included 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine was monitored at the wavelength of 654 nm when spike protein interacted with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. This oxidation-reduction reaction was examined both spectroscopically and by using electrochemical techniques. The experimental parameters were optimized and the analytical characteristics investigated. The developed assay was applied to real SARS-CoV-2 samples, and very good results that were in accordance with the real time polymerase chain reaction were obtained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Benzidines/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Catalysis , Chromogenic Compounds/chemistry , Cysteine/chemistry , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Oxidation-Reduction , Peroxidase/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Acc Chem Res ; 54(19): 3643-3655, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404866

ABSTRACT

Reliable, inexpensive, and rapid diagnostic tools are essential to control and prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Many commercial kits for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnostics have played a crucial role in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. Most current standard in vitro diagnostic (IVD) protocols for infectious diseases are sensitive but time-consuming and require sophisticated laboratory equipment and specially trained personnel. Recent advances in biosensor technology suggest the potential to deliver point-of-care (POC) diagnostics that are affordable and provide accurate results in a short time. The ideal "sample-in-answer-out" type fully integrated POC infection diagnostic platforms are expected to be autonomous or easy-to-operate, equipment-free or infrastructure-independent, and high-throughput or easy to upscale. In this Account, we detail the recent progress made by our group and others in the development of centrifugal microfluidic devices or lab-on-a-disc (LOAD) systems. Unlike conventional pump-based fluid actuation, the centrifugal force generated by spinning the disc induces liquid pumping and no external fluidic interconnects are required. This allows a total fluidic network required for multiple steps of biological assays to be integrated on a disc, enabling fully automated POC diagnostics. Various applications have been demonstrated, including liquid biopsy for personalized cancer management, food applications, and environmental monitoring; here, we focus on IVD for infectious disease. First, we introduce various on-disc unit operation technologies, including reagent storage, sedimentation, filtration, valving, decanting, aliquoting, mixing, separation, serial dilution, washing, and calibration. Such centrifugal microfluidic technologies have already proved promising for micro-total-analysis systems for automated IVD ranging from molecular detection of pathogens to multiplexed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that use raw samples such as whole blood or saliva. Some recent examples of LOAD systems for molecular diagnostics in which some or all steps of the assays are integrated on a disc, including pathogen enrichment, nucleic acid extraction, amplification, and detection, are discussed in detail. We then introduce fully automated ELISA systems with enhanced sensitivity. Furthermore, we demonstrate a toy-inspired fidget spinner that enables electricity-free and rapid analysis of pathogens from undiluted urine samples of patients with urinary tract infection symptoms and a phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility test for an extreme POC diagnostics application. Considering the urgent need for cost-effective and reliable POC infection diagnostic tools, especially in the current pandemic crisis, the current limitations and future directions of fast and broad adaptation in real-world settings are also discussed. With proper attention to key challenges and leverage with recent advances in bio-sensing technologies, molecular biology, nanomaterials, analytical chemistry, miniaturization, system integration, and data management, LOAD systems hold the potential to deliver POC infection diagnostic tools with unprecedented performance regarding time, accuracy, and cost. We hope the new insight and promise of LOAD systems for POC infection diagnostics presented in this Account can spark new ideas and inspire further research and development to create better healthcare systems for current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Centrifugation , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(10): 915-917, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400719
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256877, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394546

ABSTRACT

In French Polynesia, the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection was detected on March 10th, 2020, in a resident returning from France. Between March 28th and July 14th, international air traffic was interrupted and local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was brought under control, with only 62 cases recorded. The main challenge for reopening the air border without requiring travelers to quarantine on arrival was to limit the risk of re-introducing SARS-CoV-2. Specific measures were implemented, including the obligation for all travelers to have a negative RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 carried out within 3 days before departure, and to perform another RT-PCR testing 4 days after arrival. Because of limitation in available medical staff, travelers were provided a kit allowing self-collection of oral and nasal swabs. In addition to increase our testing capacity, self-collected samples from up to 10 travelers were pooled before RNA extraction and RT-PCR testing. When a pool tested positive, RNA extraction and RT-PCR were performed on each individual sample. We report here the results of COVID-19 surveillance (COV-CHECK PORINETIA) conducted between July 15th, 2020, and February 15th, 2021, in travelers using self-collection and pooling approaches. We tested 5,982 pools comprising 59,490 individual samples, and detected 273 (0.46%) travelers positive for SARS-CoV-2. A mean difference of 1.17 Ct (CI 95% 0.93-1.41) was found between positive individual samples and pools (N = 50), probably related to the volume of samples used for RNA extraction (200 µL versus 50 µL, respectively). Retrospective testing of positive samples self-collected from October 20th, 2020, using variants-specific amplification kit and spike gene sequencing, found at least 6 residents infected by the Alpha variant. Self-collection and pooling approaches allowed large-scale screening for SARS-CoV-2 using less human, material and financial resources. Moreover, this strategy allowed detecting the introduction of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in French Polynesia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Population Surveillance/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Travel , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Epidemics/prevention & control , France/epidemiology , Humans , Polynesia/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Specimen Handling/instrumentation
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255841, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efforts to minimize COVID-19 exposure during the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic have led to limitations in access to medical care and testing. The Tasso-SST kit includes all of the components necessary for remote, capillary blood self-collection. In this study, we sought to investigate the accuracy and reliability of the Tasso-SST device as a self-collection device for measurement of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. METHODS: Capillary blood was obtained via unsupervised and supervised application of the Tasso-SST device, and venous blood was collected by standard venipuncture. Unsupervised self-collected blood samples underwent either extreme summer or winter-simulated shipping conditions prior to testing. Sera obtained by all three methods were tested concurrently using the EuroImmun anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG assay in a CLIA-certified clinical laboratory. RESULTS: Successful Tasso-SST capillary blood collection by unsupervised and supervised administration was completed by 93.4% and 94.5% of participants, respectively. Sera from 56 participants, 55 with documented (PCR+) COVID-19, and 33 healthy controls were then tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Compared to venous blood results, Tasso-SST-collected (unstressed) and the summer- and winter-stressed blood samples demonstrated Deming regression slopes of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.02), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.98-1.01), and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.01), respectively, with an overall accuracy of 98.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Capillary blood self-collection using the Tasso-SST device had a high success rate. Moreover, excellent concordance was found for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG results between Tasso-SST capillary and standard venous blood-derived sera. The Tasso-SST device should enable widespread collection of capillary blood for testing without medical supervision, facilitating epidemiologic studies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Specimen Collection/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Blood Specimen Collection/instrumentation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
14.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390788

ABSTRACT

3D-printed alternatives to standard flocked swabs were rapidly developed to provide a response to the unprecedented and sudden need for an exponentially growing amount of diagnostic tools to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. In light of the anticipated shortage, a hospital-based 3D-printing platform was implemented in our institution for the production of swabs for nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal sampling based on the freely available, open-source design provided to the community by University of South Florida's Health Radiology and Northwell Health System teams as a replacement for locally used commercial swabs. Validation of our 3D-printed swabs was performed with a head-to-head diagnostic accuracy study of the 3D-printed "Northwell model" with the cobas PCR Media® swab sample kit. We observed an excellent concordance (total agreement 96.8%, Kappa 0.936) in results obtained with the 3D-printed and flocked swabs, indicating that the in-house 3D-printed swab could be used reliably in the context of a shortage of flocked swabs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on autonomous hospital-based production and clinical validation of 3D-printed swabs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Disease Management , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Printing, Three-Dimensional , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64(spe): e21200147, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1378146

ABSTRACT

Abstract With the COVID-19 pandemic, many diagnostic tests (molecular or immunological) were rapidly standardised, given the urgency of the situation, many are still in the process of being validated. The main objective of this study was to review the aspects of the diagnostic kits approved in Brazil and their application in the different federative units to gather epidemiological information. In order to achieve these objectives, a survey was carried out on the data available at the regulatory agency (ANVISA) and in the literature. The main countries that have registered products in Brazil are China (51.4%), Brazil (16.6%), South Korea (9.2%), USA (8.8%) and Germany (3.6%). The methodologies of these products are based on the detection of nucleic-acid (15.8%), antigen (13%) and antibody (71.2%). In the immunological tests, it was verified that the sensitivity ranged from 55 to 100% and the specificity from 80 to 100%. The percentage of cases in the samples tested in Brazil is elevated in almost all federative units since eight states showed 40% of positive cases in tested samples, while 18 states displayed between 20 and 40%. In conclusion, this review showed that Brazil is dependent on external technology to respond to pandemics, epidemics and endemics disease and needs to improve its biotechnological scheme to solve further diseases outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunologic Tests/instrumentation , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Chromatography, Affinity/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods
18.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374294

ABSTRACT

The development of reliable and robust diagnostic tests is one of the most efficient methods to limit the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, most laboratory diagnostics for COVID-19, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), are expensive, time-consuming, and require highly trained professional operators. On the other hand, the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) is a simpler, cheaper device that can be operated by unskilled personnel easily. Unfortunately, the current technique has some limitations, mainly inaccuracy in detection. This review article aims to highlight recent advances in novel lateral flow technologies for detecting SARS-CoV-2 as well as innovative approaches to achieve highly sensitive and specific point-of-care testing. Lastly, we discuss future perspectives on how smartphones and Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be integrated to revolutionize disease detection as well as disease control and surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing/economics , Humans , Immunoassay , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smartphone
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(35): 41445-41453, 2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371587

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission of exhaled virus can rapidly spread, thereby increasing disease progression from local incidents to pandemics. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, states and local governments have enforced the use of protective masks in public and work areas to minimize the disease spread. Here, we have leveraged the function of protective face coverings toward COVID-19 diagnosis. We developed a user-friendly, affordable, and wearable collector. This noninvasive platform is integrated into protective masks toward collecting airborne virus in the exhaled breath over the wearing period. A viral sample was sprayed into the collector to model airborne dispersion, and then the enriched pathogen was extracted from the collector for further analytical evaluation. To validate this design, qualitative colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and antibody-based dot blot assays were performed to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2. We envision that this platform will facilitate sampling of current SARS-CoV-2 and is potentially broadly applicable to other airborne diseases for future emerging pandemics.


Subject(s)
Breath Tests/instrumentation , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Masks , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Air Microbiology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Collodion/chemistry , Colorimetry/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Polycarboxylate Cement/chemistry , Porosity , Proof of Concept Study , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Proteins/analysis , Viral Proteins/immunology
20.
Acad Med ; 96(7): 954-957, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364834

ABSTRACT

Machine learning (ML) algorithms are powerful prediction tools with immense potential in the clinical setting. There are a number of existing clinical tools that use ML, and many more are in development. Physicians are important stakeholders in the health care system, but most are not equipped to make informed decisions regarding deployment and application of ML technologies in patient care. It is of paramount importance that ML concepts are integrated into medical curricula to position physicians to become informed consumers of the emerging tools employing ML. This paradigm shift is similar to the evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement of the 1990s. At that time, EBM was a novel concept; now, EBM is considered an essential component of medical curricula and critical to the provision of high-quality patient care. ML has the potential to have a similar, if not greater, impact on the practice of medicine. As this technology continues its inexorable march forward, educators must continue to evaluate medical curricula to ensure that physicians are trained to be informed stakeholders in the health care of tomorrow.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Education, Medical/methods , Evidence-Based Medicine/history , Machine Learning/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Clinical Decision-Making/ethics , Clinical Trials as Topic , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation , Female , History, 20th Century , Humans , Liability, Legal , Male , Physician-Patient Relations/ethics , Physicians/organization & administration , Stakeholder Participation , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislation & jurisprudence
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