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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110067

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on factors that shape vaccine attitudes and behaviours in the context of a low-trust society. Our analysis focuses on the Polish vaccination programme against COVID-19, primarily on (1) the evaluation of the information campaign, (2) trust in the institutions, (3) trust in other people, (4) attitudes toward vaccine safety and efficacy, (5) attitudes toward restrictions related to vaccination (e.g., restricted access to certain services for unvaccinated persons) and the introduction of mandatory vaccination, (6) the evaluation of the government's actions during the pandemic, and (7) political preferences. The study was conducted with a sample of 1143 adult residents in Poland (CATI). The explanation of the factors determining the COVID-19 vaccine was based on structural equation modelling (SEM). The model showed that the declared fact of vaccination was largely determined by a positive attitude toward restrictions related to vaccination and trust in vaccines. The formation of the provaccine attitude was to an extent determined by the assessment of the government's campaign and actions during pandemic. While institutional trust had a positive effect on support for the ruling coalition (0.56), the latter on its own had the opposite effect (-0.61) on the formation of provaccine attitude. In the group who both trust institutions and support the parties currently in power, there are more of those who simultaneously reject the restrictions and mandatory vaccination and remain sceptical about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines than those who both trust in the vaccine safety and efficacy and accept the restrictions and mandatory vaccination. This indicates that in the context of strong political polarisation, ideological affiliations may play a greater role in shaping vaccine attitudes and behaviours than institutional trust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Trust , COVID-19 Vaccines , Poland , COVID-19/prevention & control , Latent Class Analysis , Vaccination , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110061

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study explored exposure to misinformation, COVID-19 risk perception, and confidence towards the government as predictors of negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from 30 June to 30 August 2021 involving 775 respondents. The survey instrument for the questionnaire was an adaptation from various different studies consisting of five main variables: (1) misinformation about vaccination; (2) risk perception toward COVID-19; (3) attitudes toward the vaccination programme; (4) intention to get vaccinated; and (5) public confidence in the government in executing the vaccination programme. RESULTS: The results of this study indicate that higher exposure to misinformation led to higher levels of negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. When the perceived risk of COVID-19 infection was high, mistrust of vaccine benefits was low but there were also higher worries about the future effects of the vaccine. Confidence in the government was associated with lower negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSION: The results of this study may help develop an understanding of negative attitudes toward vaccinations in Malaysia and its contributing factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Malaysia , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , Government , Communication , Perception
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1015090, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109885

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first country in Europe to make vaccination against COVID-19 mandatory for healthcare professionals by imposing restrictions in cases of non-compliance. This study investigates the opinions of the Italian healthcare professionals' categories affected by the regulation. We performed a qualitative online survey: the questionnaire comprised both close- and open-ended questions. The final dataset included n = 4,677 valid responses. Responses to closed-ended questions were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The framework method was applied for analyzing the open-ended questions. The sample spanned all health professions subject to compulsory vaccination, with a prevalence of physicians (43.8%) and nurses (26.3%). The vaccine adhesion before the introduction of the obligation was substantial. 10.4% declared not to have adhered to the vaccination proposal. Thirty-five percent of HPs who opted not to get vaccinated said they experienced consequences related to their choice. The trust in the vaccine seems slightly cracked, demonstrating overall vaccine confidence among professionals. Nonetheless, our results show that whether (or not) professionals adhere to vaccination is not a reliable indicator of consent to how it was achieved. There are criticisms about the lawfulness of the obligation. The data show a great variety of participants interpreting their roles concerning public and individual ethics. The scientific evidence motivates ethics-related decisions-the epidemic of confusing and incorrect information affected professionals. The Law triggered an increased disaffection with the health system and conflicts between professionals. Dealing with the working climate should be a commitment to assume soon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Italy/epidemiology
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1007637, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109884

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Reports of unexpected side effects have accompanied the vaccination of larger proportions of the population against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including a few cases of inflammatory myopathy (IM). In a bid to improve understanding of the clinical course of vaccine complications, a systematic review of reported cases of IM following COVID-19 vaccination has been conducted. Methods: The PRISMA guideline 2020 was followed. Two independent investigators systematically searched PubMed and Embase to identify relevant studies published up to July 2022, using the following keywords: COVID-19 Vaccine, inflammatory myositis. The Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools were used for the risk of bias. Results: A total of 24 articles presenting clinical features of 37 patients with IM following COVID-19 vaccine were identified. Female patients composed 59.5% of cases and 82.4% had been vaccinated with BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1. Onset of symptoms occurred within 2 weeks of the first or second vaccine dose in 29 (85.3%) patients and included muscular weakness in 54.1% and skin rash in 71.4% of patients. Myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) and myositis associated autoantibodies (MAAs) were reported in 28 patients. Specific clinical subtypes of myositis, reported in 27 patients, included 22 (81.5%) cases of dermatomyositis (DM) and 3 (11.1%) cases of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). Following treatment, 32 (86.5%) patients showed improvement on follow-up. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine may induce various clinical myositis subtypes and related antibodies. Muscular weakness was the most common presenting symptom. Clinicians should be aware of this unexpected adverse event following COVID-19 vaccination and arrange for appropriate management. Systematic review registration: INPLASY https://inplasy.com/inplasy-2022-9-0084/ [INPLASY202290084].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myositis , Female , Humans , Autoantibodies , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Muscle Weakness , Myositis/etiology , Vaccination
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 994330, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109881

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: As Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to spread around the world, COVID-19 vaccines are the most effective weapons against the global pandemic. Yet vaccine hesitancy remains a serious problem and can pose certain hazards to individuals' mental health, such as rising anxiety. Therefore, based on Self-Discrepancy Theory, this paper aims to explore the role of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy on individual generalized anxiety disorder and its influence mechanisms through two studies. Methods: Study one involved 654 Chinese participants using the Vaccine Hesitancy Questionnaire and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale. In Study two, the Vaccine Hesitation Questionnaire, GAD-7 scale, Perceived Risk of COVID-19 pandemic scale, and Vaccination Status Questionnaire were used and data from 3,282 Chinese residents was collected. Results: Vaccine hesitancy directly increases generalized anxiety disorder; risk perception plays a partial mediating role between vaccine hesitancy and generalized anxiety disorder; vaccination status moderated vaccine hesitancy's effect on risk perception and generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Vaccine hesitancy predicts generalized anxiety disorder through risk perception, but the mediating role of risk perception is moderated by vaccination status, which means that for the vaccinated group when their vaccine hesitancy is reduced, it will be easier to reduce the risk perception and thus the generalized anxiety disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination Hesitancy , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Anxiety Disorders , Perception
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1032411, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109771

ABSTRACT

Coronavac is a widely used SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, but its long-term immune response assessment is still lacking. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses, including T cell activation markers, antigen-specific cytokine production and antibody response following vaccination in 53 adult and elderly individuals participating in a phase 3 clinical trial. Activated follicular helper T (Tfh), non-Tfh and memory CD4+ T cells were detected in almost all subjects early after the first vaccine dose. Activated memory CD4+ T cells were predominantly of central and effector memory T cell phenotypes and were sustained for at least 6 months. We also detected a balanced Th1-, Th2- and Th17/Th22-type cytokine production that was associated with response over time, together with particular cytokine profile linked to poor responses in older vaccinees. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels peaked 14 days after the second dose and were mostly stable over one year. CoronaVac was able to induce a potent and durable antiviral antigen-specific cellular response and the cytokine profiles related to the response over time and impacted by the senescence were defined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Immunity, Cellular , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1018961, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109768

ABSTRACT

Synthetic mRNA technologies represent a versatile platform that can be used to develop advanced drug products. The remarkable speed with which vaccine development programs designed and manufactured safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines has rekindled interest in mRNA technology, particularly for future pandemic preparedness. Although recent R&D has focused largely on advancing mRNA vaccines and large-scale manufacturing capabilities, the technology has been used to develop various immunotherapies, gene editing strategies, and protein replacement therapies. Within the mRNA technologies toolbox lie several platforms, design principles, and components that can be adapted to modulate immunogenicity, stability, in situ expression, and delivery. For example, incorporating modified nucleotides into conventional mRNA transcripts can reduce innate immune responses and improve in situ translation. Alternatively, self-amplifying RNA may enhance vaccine-mediated immunity by increasing antigen expression. This review will highlight recent advances in the field of synthetic mRNA therapies and vaccines, and discuss the ongoing global efforts aimed at reducing vaccine inequity by establishing mRNA manufacturing capacity within Africa and other low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Technology
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 988304, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109765

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal humoral immune response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccines among people living with HIV (PLWH) have not yet been systematically investigated. We conducted a 6-month longitudinal study among vaccinated PLWH and HIV-Negative Controls (HNC) to determine whether the humoral immune response effects of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine are different between the two groups of people. Totally, 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who received the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine on days 0 and 28 were enrolled. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies were examined on Day 0-Day190. The level and positive seroconversion rate of nAbs peaked on Day 42 in HNC while peaked on Day 70 in PLWH, then decreased gradually with the extension of the vaccination period after the peaks. The peak level of nAbs in PLWH on Day 70, (GMC 8.07 BAU/mL, 95% CI 5.67-11.48) was significantly lower than in HNC on Day 42 (GMC 18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33, P =0.03). The decrease in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of nAbs was observed as 42.9% in PLWH after peak level, which decreased from 8.07 BAU/mL [95% CI: 5.67-11.48] on Day 70 to 4.61 BAU/mL [95% CI: 3.35-6.34] on Day 190 (p = 0.02). On Day 190, only seven (18%, [95% CI: 6-40]) HNC and five (11%, [95% CI: 4-25]) PLWH maintained positive nAbs response respectively. The geometric mean ELISA units (GMEUs) and positive seroconversion rate of IgG in PLWH dropped significantly from Day 70 (GMEUs, 0.20 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.13-0.34]; seroconversion, 52%, [95% CI: 34-69]) to Day 190 (GMEUs, 0.05 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.03-0.08], P<0.001; seroconversion, 18%, [95% CI: 8-33], P<0.001). There was no significant difference in levels and seroconversion rates of nAbs and IgG between the two groups on Day 190. The peak immunogenicity of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was delayed and inferior in PLWH compared to HNC, while no significant difference was found in six-month immunogenicity between the two groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunity, Humoral , Longitudinal Studies , Vaccines, Inactivated , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 954177, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109763

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has been recommended for liver transplant (LT) recipients. However, our understanding of inactivated vaccine stimulation of the immune system in regulating humoral and cellular immunity among LT recipients is inadequate. Forty-six LT recipients who received two-dose inactivated vaccines according to the national vaccination schedule were enrolled. The clinical characteristics, antibody responses, single-cell peripheral immune profiling, and plasma cytokine/chemokine/growth factor levels were recorded. Sixteen (34.78%) LT recipients with positive neutralizing antibody (nAb) were present in the Type 1 group. Fourteen and 16 LT recipients with undetected nAb were present in the Type 2 and Type 3 groups, respectively. Time from transplant and lymphocyte count were different among the three groups. The levels of anti-RBD and anti-S1S2 decreased with decreasing neutralizing inhibition rates. Compared to the Type 2 and Type 3 groups, the Type 1 group had an enhanced innate immune response. The proportions of B, DNT, and CD3+CD19+ cells were increased in the Type 1 group, whereas monocytes and CD4+ T cells were decreased. High CD19, high CD8+CD45RA+ cells, and low effector memory CD4+/naïve CD4+ cells of the T-cell populations were present in the Type 1 group. The Type 1 group had higher concentrations of plasma CXCL10, MIP-1 beta, and TNF-alpha. No severe adverse events were reported in all LT recipients. We identified the immune responses induced by inactivated vaccines among LT recipients and provided insights into the identification of immunotypes associated with the responders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccines, Inactivated
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 923106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109760

ABSTRACT

First-generation anit-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were highly successful. They rapidly met an unforeseen emergency need, saved millions of lives, and simultaneously eased the burden on healthcare systems worldwide. The first-generation vaccines, however, focused too narrowly on antibody-based immunity as the sole marker of vaccine trial success, resulting in large knowledge gaps about waning vaccine protection, lack of vaccine robustness to viral mutation, and lack of efficacy in immunocompromised populations. Detailed reviews of first-generation vaccines, including their mode of action and geographical distribution, have been published elsewhere. Second-generation clinical trials must address these gaps by evaluating a broader range of immune markers, including those representing cell-mediated immunity, to ensure the most protective and long-lasting vaccines are brought to market.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans
12.
Euro Surveill ; 27(44)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109635

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSince the roll-out of COVID-19 vaccines in late 2020 and throughout 2021, European governments have relied on mathematical modelling to inform policy decisions about COVID-19 vaccination.AimWe present a scenario-based modelling analysis in the Netherlands during summer 2021, to inform whether to extend vaccination to adolescents (12-17-year-olds) and children (5-11-year-olds).MethodsWe developed a deterministic, age-structured susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model and compared modelled incidences of infections, hospital and intensive care admissions, and deaths per 100,000 people across vaccination scenarios, before the emergence of the Omicron variant.ResultsOur model projections showed that, on average, upon the release of all non-pharmaceutical control measures on 1 November 2021, a large COVID-19 wave may occur in winter 2021/22, followed by a smaller, second wave in spring 2022, regardless of the vaccination scenario. The model projected reductions in infections/severe disease outcomes when vaccination was extended to adolescents and further reductions when vaccination was extended to all people over 5 years-old. When examining projected disease outcomes by age group, individuals benefitting most from extending vaccination were adolescents and children themselves. We also observed reductions in disease outcomes in older age groups, particularly of parent age (30-49 years), when children and adolescents were vaccinated, suggesting some prevention of onward transmission from younger to older age groups.ConclusionsWhile our scenarios could not anticipate the emergence/consequences of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, we illustrate how our approach can assist decision making. This could be useful when considering to provide booster doses or intervening against future infection waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Child, Preschool , Netherlands/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination
13.
Euro Surveill ; 27(39)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109633

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAfter an outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant in the district of Schwaz/Austria, vaccination with Comirnaty vaccine (BNT162b2 mRNA, BioNTech-Pfizer) had been offered to all adult inhabitants (≥ 16 years) in March 2021. This made Schwaz one of the most vaccinated regions in Europe at that time (70% of the adult population took up the offer). In contrast, all other Austrian districts remained with low vaccine coverage.AimWe studied whether this rapid mass vaccination campaign provided indirect protection to unvaccinated individuals such as children (< 16 years) living in the same district.MethodsTo study the effect of the campaign we used two complementary approaches. We compared infection rates among the population of children (< 16 years) in Schwaz with (i) the child population from similar districts (using the synthetic control method), and (ii) with the child population from municipalities along the border of Schwaz not included in the campaign (using an event study approach).ResultsBefore the campaign, we observed very similar infection spread across the cohort of children in Schwaz and the control regions. After the campaign, we found a significant reduction of new cases among children of -64.5% (95%-CI: -82.0 to -30.2%) relative to adjacent border municipalities (using the event study model). Employing the synthetic control method, we observed a significant reduction of -42.8% in the same cohort.ConclusionOur results constitute novel evidence of an indirect protection effect from a group of vaccinated individuals to an unvaccinated group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Adult , Austria/epidemiology , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Measles/epidemiology , Measles Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(6): 546-554, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109627

ABSTRACT

Background: There are some adverse effects with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, but the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on attacks in hereditary angioedema (HAE) is not well defined. Objective: We aimed to investigate the influence of COVID-19 vaccination on the course of HAE. Method: The COVID-19 vaccination status was determined in 140 adult patients with HAE. The number and severity of attacks recorded from patients' diaries were evaluated at four different periods, comprising 1 month before the first dose, the period between the first and the second doses of COVID-19 vaccine in all the patients, the period between the second dose and the third doses in those who received three doses, and 1 month after the last vaccination dose. The disease and attack severities were assessed with the disease severity score (DSS) and 10-point visual analog scale, respectively. The patients were divided into two main groups as group 1 (those who had at least two doses of COVID-19 vaccines [n = 114]) and group 2 (those who had no vaccination [n = 26]). Only Sinovac and Biontech, which were only approved in Turkey. Results: The mean ± standard deviation DSS was significantly higher in the patients who experienced an attack after vaccination within 48 hours (6.61 ± 1.88 versus 4.14 ± 1.69; p < 0.001). Long-term prophylaxis was less common in the patients with an increased number of attacks (n = 5 (27.8%) versus n = 54 (56.3%); p = 0.027). The number of patients with less than a high school education was higher in group 2 (n = 23 [88.5%]) than in group 1 (n = 26 [3.1%]) (p < 0.001). The number of patients who had concerns about the triggering of a vaccine-induced HAE attack or about the possible vaccine adverse effects was higher in group 2 (n = 26 [100%]) than in group 1 (n = 74 [64.9%]). Conclusion: It seems that COVID-19 vaccination does not increase HAE attacks regardless of the type of the vaccines. We recommend that HAE activity should be under control before COVID-19 vaccination, and the patients should be well informed about the safety of the vaccines.


Subject(s)
Angioedemas, Hereditary , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Angioedemas, Hereditary/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disease Progression , Treatment Outcome
15.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(6): 555-558, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109626

ABSTRACT

Background: Rashes after coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccinations occur with typical and atypical presentations. Objective: The goal of this article is to increase awareness and review the various diagnosis and management of cutaneous adverse reactions associated with COVID-19 vaccinations for allergy/immunology fellows, residents, general physicians, and general practitioners. Methods: Pertinent information was included from the patient's case. A review of the available literature using the works cited in the most up-to-date reviews was completed. Results: A case of a patient with cutaneous adverse reaction after COVID-19 vaccination as presented, followed by a review of cutaneous reactions after COVID-19 vaccinations. Conclusion: Providers should be aware of the different rashes after COVID-19 vaccinations. Pearls and pitfalls of the diagnosis and management are provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
17.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 258(4): 327-332, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109461

ABSTRACT

Antithrombin deficiency is a high-risk factor for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy, whereas cerebral venous thrombosis is rare. Cerebral venous thrombosis related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines has been reported; however, there are a few reports of cerebral venous thrombosis after a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination. A 25-year-old female in her sixth week of pregnancy presented with headache 24 days after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. The following day, she presented with altered sensorium and was diagnosed with severe cerebral venous thrombosis. She demonstrated heparin resistance and was found to have an inherited antithrombin deficiency. A heterozygous missense variant in SERPINC1 (c.379T>C, p.Cys127Arg, 'AT Morioka') was detected by DNA analysis. Despite intensive care with unfractionated heparin, antithrombin concentrate, and repeated endovascular treatments, she died on the sixth day of hospitalization. Cerebral venous thrombosis in pregnant women with an antithrombin deficiency can follow a rapid and fatal course. Treatment with unfractionated heparin and antithrombin concentrate may be ineffective in severe cerebral venous thrombosis cases with antithrombin deficiency. Early recognition of antithrombin deficiency and an immediate switch to other anticoagulants may be required. Although the association between cerebral venous thrombosis and the vaccine is uncertain, COVID-19 vaccinations may require careful evaluation for patients with prothrombic factors.


Subject(s)
Antithrombin III Deficiency , COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnant Women , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine , Heparin , RNA, Messenger , Antithrombin III Deficiency/complications , Antithrombin III Deficiency/genetics , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
18.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(11): 1565-1574, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109347

ABSTRACT

Paid sick leave provides workers with paid time off to receive COVID-19 vaccines and to recover from potential vaccine adverse effects. We hypothesized that US cities with paid sick leave would have higher COVID-19 vaccination coverage and narrower coverage disparities than those without such policies. Using county-level vaccination data and paid sick leave data from thirty-seven large US cities in 2021, we estimated the association between city-level paid sick leave policies and vaccination coverage in the working-age population and repeated the analysis using coverage in the population ages sixty-five and older as a negative control. We also examined associations by neighborhood social vulnerability. Cities with a paid sick leave policy had 17 percent higher vaccination coverage than cities without such a policy. We found stronger associations between paid sick leave and vaccination in the most socially vulnerable neighborhoods compared with the least socially vulnerable ones, and no association in the population ages sixty-five and older. Paid sick leave policies are associated with higher COVID-19 vaccination coverage and narrower coverage disparities. Increasing access to these policies may help increase vaccination and reduce inequities in coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sick Leave , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities , Vaccination Coverage
19.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277435, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109334

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination of adolescent and young adults is important for infection control. Factors influencing vaccination behavior in this age group include the source of information about the vaccine and social norms. However, there are few studies on factors influencing vaccination behavior among Japanese university students. This study aimed to assess beliefs, attitudes, and sources of information about the COVID-19 vaccine among university students in Japan. A cross-sectional online questionnaire survey was conducted among students in Teikyo University, Japan in September, 2021. The survey was designed to collect demographic information, vaccination status, attitudes, beliefs, and anxiety about the vaccine, sources of information, and whether or not the participant watched an educational movie. The factors associated with beliefs and attitudes were analyzed using logistic and linear regression. A total of 4,062 valid questionnaires were retrieved. The positive vaccine behavior group included 3,725 students (91.7%). The most common source of information on the COVID-19 vaccine was TV/radio (75.0%), and the most common Social networking service (SNS) for COVID-19 information was Twitter (31.1%). Approximately 85% students believed in the efficacy of vaccination. Positive attitude was associated with female sex and watching an educational movie by the university. Concern about the vaccine was positively associated with information from acquaintances or Instagram, and negatively associated with information from Twitter, and watching the educational movie. The majority of students had positive beliefs and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination, and social media and educational movies produced by the university had a large influence on their attitude toward vaccination behavior. On the contrary, some students were anxious about vaccination. Promotion of educational movies on social media by the universities is an effective way to encourage vaccination among young people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Young Adult , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Japan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(4): 2007-2031, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109267

ABSTRACT

While vaccine hesitancy has been described for the general population, vaccine hesitancy among the chronically ill has not been well explored. This study assesses COVID­19 vaccine hesitancy and uptake among individuals with chronic illness using nationwide survey data. We analyzed vaccine hesitancy prior to and after approval of the vaccines using multinomial logistic regression and binomial logistic regression, respectively. In the first survey, 39% reported they were unlikely or unsure about receiving the vaccine. In adjusted analyses, female sex, Black race, anti­vaccination attitudes, media mistrust, and not following the media were associated with vaccine hesitancy. Despite this hesitance, in the follow­up survey, 89% reported vaccine receipt, with those more fearful of COVID­19, with more trust in the media, and closely following the development of the vaccine were most likely to move from hesitance to acceptance. Vaccine hesitancy is a mutable characteristic, underscoring the need for high-quality public health messaging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Female , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination Hesitancy , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Parents , Chronic Disease
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