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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(21): 579-588, 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238754

ABSTRACT

On September 1, 2022, CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended a single bivalent mRNA COVID-19 booster dose for persons aged ≥12 years who had completed at least a monovalent primary series. Early vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates among adults aged ≥18 years showed receipt of a bivalent booster dose provided additional protection against COVID-19-associated emergency department and urgent care visits and hospitalizations compared with that in persons who had received only monovalent vaccine doses (1); however, insufficient time had elapsed since bivalent vaccine authorization to assess the durability of this protection. The VISION Network* assessed VE against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations by time since bivalent vaccine receipt during September 13, 2022-April 21, 2023, among adults aged ≥18 years with and without immunocompromising conditions. During the first 7-59 days after vaccination, compared with no vaccination, VE for receipt of a bivalent vaccine dose among adults aged ≥18 years was 62% (95% CI = 57%-67%) among adults without immunocompromising conditions and 28% (95% CI = 10%-42%) among adults with immunocompromising conditions. Among adults without immunocompromising conditions, VE declined to 24% (95% CI = 12%-33%) among those aged ≥18 years by 120-179 days after vaccination. VE was generally lower for adults with immunocompromising conditions. A bivalent booster dose provided the highest protection, and protection was sustained through at least 179 days against critical outcomes, including intensive care unit (ICU) admission or in-hospital death. These data support updated recommendations allowing additional optional bivalent COVID-19 vaccine doses for certain high-risk populations. All eligible persons should stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hospital Mortality , mRNA Vaccines , Vaccines, Combined
3.
Inquiry ; 60: 469580231168494, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236459

ABSTRACT

Acceptance of the SARS-CoV-2) COVID-19( vaccine is a very important factor to keep health workers safe. The study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine using a health belief model among health workers in Iran The study was a tools design study that was conducted in the period from February to March 2020, Iran Questionnaire items were designed using text review. The sampling method was multi-stage. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis at a 95% confidence level using SPSS software version 16. The designed questionnaire had an appropriate content validity and internal consistency. Also, the exploratory factor analysis showed that a 5-factor structure was extracted and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the conceptual five-factor structure of the measure had good fit indices. Reliability was evaluated using internal consistency. Cronbach Alpha coefficient was .82 and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was .9. It can be concluded that the instrument designed in the preliminary stage of psychometrics properties had good validity and reliability indicators. Also, the constructs of the health belief model well explain the determinants of the intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine at the individual level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Health Belief Model , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination Hesitancy
4.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(4): 570-578, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237020

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Unvaccinated emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are at increased risk of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and potentially transmitting the virus to their families, coworkers, and patients. Effective vaccines for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus exist; however, vaccination rates among EMS professionals remain largely unknown. Consequently, we sought to document vaccination rates of EMS professionals and identify predictors of vaccination uptake. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of North Carolina EMS professionals after the COVID-19 vaccines were widely available. The survey assessed vaccination status as well as beliefs regarding COVID-19 illness and vaccine effectiveness. Prediction of vaccine uptake was modeled using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 860 EMS professionals completed the survey, of whom 74.7% reported receiving the COVID-19 vaccination. Most respondents believed that COVID-19 is a serious threat to the population, that they are personally at higher risk of infection, that vaccine side effects are outweighed by illness prevention, and the vaccine is safe and effective. Despite this, only 18.7% supported mandatory vaccination for EMS professionals. Statistically significant differences were observed between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups regarding vaccine safety and effectiveness, recall of employer vaccine recommendation, perceived risk of infection, degree of threat to the population, and trust in government to take actions to limit the spread of disease. Unvaccinated respondents cited reasons such as belief in personal health and natural immunity as protectors against infection, concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness, inadequate vaccine knowledge, and lack of an employer mandate for declining the vaccine. Predictors of vaccination included belief in vaccine safety (odds ratio [OR] 5.5, P=<0.001) and effectiveness (OR 4.6, P=<0.001); importance of vaccination to protect patients (OR 15.5, P=<0.001); perceived personal risk of infection (OR 1.8, P=0.04); previous receipt of influenza vaccine (OR 2.5, P=0.003); and sufficient knowledge to make an informed decision about vaccination (OR 2.4, P=0.024). CONCLUSION: In this survey of EMS professionals, over a quarter remained unvaccinated for COVID-19. Given the identified predictors of vaccine acceptance, EMS systems should focus on countering misinformation through employee educational campaigns as well as on developing policies regarding workforce immunization requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Health Personnel , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Making , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , North Carolina , Occupational Health , Patient Safety , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
5.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1141983, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328204

ABSTRACT

Background: The safety of COVID-19 vaccines has been clarified in clinical trials; however, some immunocompromised patients, such as myasthenia gravis (MG) patients, are still hesitant to receive vaccines. Whether COVID-19 vaccination increases the risk of disease worsening in these patients remains unknown. This study aims to evaluate the risk of disease exacerbation in COVID-19-vaccinated MG patients. Methods: The data in this study were collected from the MG database at Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, and the Tertiary Referral Diagnostic Center at Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, from 1 April 2022 to 31 October 2022. A self-controlled case series method was applied, and the incidence rate ratios were calculated in the prespecified risk period using conditional Poisson regression. Results: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines did not increase the risk of disease exacerbation in MG patients with stable disease status. A few patients experienced transient disease worsening, but the symptoms were mild. It is noted that more attention should be paid to thymoma-related MG, especially within 1 week after COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccination has no long-term impact on MG relapse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Thymus Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Research Design , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
JAMA Pediatr ; 177(7): 710-717, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323675

ABSTRACT

Importance: Active monitoring of health outcomes after COVID-19 vaccination offers early detection of rare outcomes that may not be identified in prelicensure trials. Objective: To conduct near-real-time monitoring of health outcomes following BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination in the US pediatric population aged 5 to 17 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based study was conducted under a public health surveillance mandate from the US Food and Drug Administration. Participants aged 5 to 17 years were included if they received BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination through mid 2022 and had continuous enrollment in a medical health insurance plan from the start of an outcome-specific clean window until the COVID-19 vaccination. Surveillance of 20 prespecified health outcomes was conducted in near real time within a cohort of vaccinated individuals from the earliest Emergency Use Authorization date for the BNT162b2 vaccination (December 11, 2020) and was expanded as more pediatric age groups received authorization through May and June 2022. All 20 health outcomes were monitored descriptively, 13 of which additionally underwent sequential testing. For these 13 health outcomes, the increased risk of each outcome after vaccination was compared with a historical baseline with adjustments for repeated looks at the data as well as a claims processing delay. A sequential testing approach was used, which declared a safety signal when the log likelihood ratio comparing the observed rate ratio against the null hypothesis exceeded a critical value. Exposure: Exposure was defined as receipt of a BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine dose. The primary analysis assessed primary series doses together (dose 1 + dose 2), and dose-specific secondary analyses were conducted. Follow-up time was censored for death, disenrollment, end of the outcome-specific risk window, end of the study period, or a receipt of a subsequent vaccine dose. Main Outcomes: Twenty prespecified health outcomes: 13 were assessed using sequential testing and 7 were monitored descriptively because of a lack of historical comparator data. Results: This study included 3 017 352 enrollees aged 5 to 17 years. Of the enrollees across all 3 databases, 1 510 817 (50.1%) were males, 1 506 499 (49.9%) were females, and 2 867 436 (95.0%) lived in an urban area. In the primary sequential analyses, a safety signal was observed only for myocarditis or pericarditis after primary series vaccination with BNT162b2 in the age group 12 to 17 years across all 3 databases. No safety signals were observed for the 12 other outcomes assessed using sequential testing. Conclusions and Relevance: Among 20 health outcomes that were monitored in near real time, a safety signal was identified for only myocarditis or pericarditis. Consistent with other published reports, these results provide additional evidence that COVID-19 vaccines are safe in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Child , Female , Humans , Male , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 994311, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325164

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV2 vaccination efficiently prevents severe COVID-19, although hematological patients, particularly under therapy, respond less well. Besides vaccine efficacy, adherence to vaccination is essential for ensuring adequate protection of this vulnerable population. Methods: We evaluated the impact of a program aimed at maximizing patient adherence by comparing the rate of SARS-CoV2 vaccination of our hematological patients and a matched sample of the general population. Results: Vaccination rates were 88.9% among 2,156 patients, aged 65.2 ± 15.8 years (M ± SD, range 19-86 years). Rates differed considerably with age, i.e. 84.2% between 18-64 years and 92.4% above 65 years (p<0.0001), but not with sex. In the general population, rates were 76.3% overall, 73.0% between 18-64 and 86.7% above 65 years, all significantly lower than among patients, overall (Standardized Incidence ratio (SIR) 1.17; 95%CI 1.12-1.22, p<0.0001) as well as among younger (SIR 1.15; 1.07-1.24, p<0.0001) or older (SIR 1.06; 1.00-1.13, p=0.046) people. Vaccination rates increased to 92.2% overall (SIR 1.21; 1.16-1.27, p<0.0001), 88.5% in younger (SIR 1.21; 1.13-1.30, p<0.0001) and 94.8% in older (SIR 1.09; 1.03-1.12, p=0.0043) patients, after excluding those with medical contraindications, and further to 95.6% overall (SIR 1.26; 1.20-1.32, p<0.0001), 93.8% in younger (SIR 1.29; 1.20-1.38, p<0.0001) and 96.9% in older (SIR 1.11; 1.05-1.18, p=0.0004) patients, after excluding those not seen in hematology in 2021. Conclusions: Vaccination rates were significantly higher in hematological patients compared to the general population regardless of age, sex and municipality. Acceptance of Covid vaccines by hematological patients may be improved by targeted information campaigns carried out by trusted health care professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Hematologic Diseases , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Vaccination , Aged , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Treatment Adherence and Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hematologic Diseases/therapy
9.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 51(3): 174-180, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315909

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines, particularly, have been associated with an increased risk of allergic reactions and rarely anaphylaxis. Although rare, vaccine reactions can cause significant anxiety and fear in the population, leading to indecision and vaccine refusal. This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the role of polyethylene glycol (PEG) sensitivity in vaccination decision-making in pediatric patients at high risk of allergy or with suspected allergic reactions to the first dose of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) vaccine. Seventeen enrolled patients were found to have decreased readiness to receive the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine after developing hypersensitivity to multiple and/or injectable drugs. Skin testing was performed. A basophil activation test with PEG-2000 and 4000 was performed on three patients who were ineligible for skin prick tests. Nine patients with negative tests received the vaccine without complications. One patient had urticarial angioedema despite negative tests. Three patients with positive tests did not agree to desensitization with the mRNA vaccine, and one of them was vaccinated with the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. Four patients recurred despite negative tests. The general recommendation for patients describing severe reactions to drugs, foods, and allergens, such as toxins that do not contain the adjuvants of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, is to be routinely vaccinated with safety precautions. Excipients such as PEG and polysorbate-80 used in COVID-19 vaccines could be potential allergens, but this hypothesis is unclear. The predictive values of these adjuvants for skin testing and in vitro testing are controversial. Further research is needed on the hypersensitivity reactions of adjuvants, the predictive values of skin tests, and etiopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , Polysorbates/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1169666, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312883

ABSTRACT

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients must be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 as quickly as possible after transplantation. The difficulty in obtaining recommended SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for allo-HSCT recipients motivated us to utilize an accessible and affordable SARS-CoV-2 vaccine with a recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD)-tetanus toxoid (TT)-conjugated platform shortly after allo-HSCT in the developing country of Iran. Methods: This prospective, single-arm study aimed to investigate immunogenicity and its predictors following a three-dose SARS-CoV-2 RBD-TT-conjugated vaccine regimen administered at 4-week (± 1-week) intervals in patients within 3-12 months post allo-HSCT. An immune status ratio (ISR) was measured at baseline and 4 weeks (± 1 week) after each vaccine dose using a semiquantitative immunoassay. Using the median ISR as a cut-off point for immune response intensity, we performed a logistic regression analysis to determine the predictive impact of several baseline factors on the intensity of the serologic response following the third vaccination dose. Results: Thirty-six allo-HSCT recipients, with a mean age of 42.42 years and a median time of 133 days between hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) and the start of vaccination, were analyzed. Our findings, using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) model, indicated that, compared with the baseline ISR of 1.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 to 2.17], the ISR increased significantly during the three-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination regimen. The ISR reached 2.32 (95% CI 1.84 to 2.79; p = 0.010) after the second dose and 3.87 (95% CI 3.25 to 4.48; p = 0.001) after the third dose of vaccine, reflecting 69.44% and 91.66% seropositivity, respectively. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the female sex of the donor [odds ratio (OR) 8.67; p = 0.028] and a higher level donor ISR at allo-HSCT (OR 3.56; p = 0.050) were the two positive predictors of strong immune response following the third vaccine dose. No serious adverse events (i.e., grades 3 and 4) were observed following the vaccination regimen. Conclusions: We concluded that early vaccination of allo-HSCT recipients with a three-dose RBD-TT-conjugated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is safe and could improve the early post-allo-HSCT immune response. We further believe that the pre-allo-HSCT SARS-CoV-2 immunization of donors may enhance post-allo-HSCT seroconversion in allo-HSCT recipients who receive the entire course of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine during the first year after allo-HSCT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tetanus Toxoid
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 151: e83, 2023 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297315

ABSTRACT

The aim of our study was to examine the position of vaccinated people regarding the proposal for mandatory and seasonal vaccination against COVID-19 in Serbia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of people who came to receive a third dose of COVID-19 at the Institute of Public Health of Serbia in September and October 2021. Data were collected by means of a sociodemographic questionnaire. The study sample comprised 366 vaccinated adults. Factors associated with the belief that vaccination against COVID-19 should become mandatory were being married, being informed about COVID-19 from TV programmes and medical journals, trust in health professionals, and having friends affected by COVID-19. In addition to these predictors, factors associated with the belief that COVID-19 vaccination should become seasonal were being older, consistently wearing facemasks, and not being employed. The results of this study highlight that trust in information delivery, evidence-based data, and healthcare providers may be a major driver of mandatory and seasonal vaccine uptake. A careful assessment of the epidemiological situation, the capacity of the health system, and the risk-benefit ratio is needed in order to introduce seasonal and/or mandatory vaccination against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Seasons , Serbia/epidemiology , Vaccination , Mandatory Programs
13.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 36(4): 400-407, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302564

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Comirnaty® is an mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 which has been administered to millions of people since the end of 2020. Our aim was to study epidemiological and clinical factors influencing reactogenicity and functional limitation after the first two doses of the vaccine in health care workers (HCWs). METHODS: Prospective post-authorization cohort study to monitor safety and effectiveness of the vaccine. RESULTS: Local side effects were mild and presented both with first and second dose of Comirnaty. Systemic side effects were more frequent after 2nd dose. Nevertheless, previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with systemic effects after the first dose of the vaccine (OR ranging from 2 to 6). No severe adverse effects were reported. According to multivariate analysis, the degree of self-reported functional limitation after the first dose increased with age, female sex, previous COVID-19 contact, previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). After the second dose, the degree of functional limitation observed was lower in those with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and it was positively associated to the degree of functional limitation after the first dose. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic adverse effects were more frequent after the second dose of Comirnaty. Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with systemic effects after the first dose. Age, female sex, previous COVID-19, previous isolation due to COVID-19 contact, and CCI showed to be independent predictors of the degree of functional limitation after the 1st dose of Comirnaty®. After the 2nd dose, the degree of functional limitation was lower in those who previously had SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Vaccines , Female , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Health Personnel , Hospitals, Teaching , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities
15.
J Med Virol ; 95(4): e28736, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305162

ABSTRACT

Rates and modulators of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine nonresponse and breakthrough infections remain unclear in serially vaccinated transplant recipients. In a prospective, mono-centric, observational study, 1878 adult solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, with prior SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, were included between March 2021 and February 2022. SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG antibodies were measured at inclusion and details on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses and infection were collected. No life-threatening adverse events were reported after a total of 4039 vaccine doses. In transplant recipients without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 1636), antibody response rates ranged widely, from 47% in lung transplant to 90% in liver transplant and 91% in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients after third vaccine dose. Antibody positivity rate and levels increased after each vaccine dose in all types of transplant recipients. In multivariable analysis, older age, chronic kidney disease and daily dose of mycophenolate and corticosteroids were negatively associated with antibody response rate. Overall rate of breakthrough infections was 25.2% and mainly (90.2%) occurred after third and fourth vaccine dose. Lung transplant recipients had the highest rates of severe breakthrough infection (10.5%) and death (2.5%). In multivariable analysis, older age, daily dose of mycophenolate and corticosteroids were associated with severe breakthrough infection. Transplant recipients with infection before first vaccine dose (n = 160) had higher antibody response rates and levels after each vaccine dose, and a significantly lower overall rate of breakthrough infections compared to those without prior infection. Antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and rate of severe breakthrough infections vary largely between different transplant types and are modulated by specific risk factors. The observed heterogeneity supports a tailored approach against COVID-19 in transplant recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adult , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Breakthrough Infections , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin G , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
16.
Transplant Proc ; 55(5): 1223-1225, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the comorbidity, disease progress, and vaccination status of liver transplant patients followed up in our hospital who had COVID-19. METHODS: Liver transplant patients with COVID-19 were included between 11 March 2020 and 15 September 2022. Demographic data, disease progress, and COVID-19 vaccines were recorded. The SPSS 24.0 (IBM SPSS, Inc, Armonk, NY, United States) program was used for analysis. The data were analyzed using the χ2 test. P values < .05 were considered clinically significant. RESULTS: Sixteen SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (+) patients were detected. Twelve (75.0%) patients were male; the mean age was 49.56 ± 14.0 years (24-76 years). The mean transplant time was 156.69 ± 54.05 months. Four (25.0%) of the 5 (31.3%) patients with comorbidities had hypertension, and 1 (6.3%) had diabetes. None of the patients had an underlying lung disease. All the patients received immunosuppressive therapy, and the most common combination was antimetabolite and calcineurin inhibitor (9 patients [69.2%]). Nine patients (56.3%) had a fever, whereas 6 (37.5%) had respiratory symptoms. Two (33.3%) had pneumonia. Five (31.4%) patients were hospitalized, and 1 (20%) was admitted to the intensive care unit due to non-invasive mechanical ventilation needs. No patient died due to COVID-19. A statistically significant correlation was found between the presence of fever, respiratory symptoms, and hospitalization (P < .05). Of those vaccinated, 10 (66.7%) were infected before the COVID-19 vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The course of COVID-19 in liver recipients without any underlying disease other than transplantation is not different from that in the healthy population. Immunosuppressive therapy was continued in patients with the disease, and two-thirds did not require hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hospitals, University , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(16): 437-444, 2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294643

ABSTRACT

In 2021, the CDC Director declared that racism is a serious threat to public health,* reflecting a growing awareness of racism as a cause of health inequities, health disparities, and disease. Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19-related hospitalization and death (1,2) illustrate the need to examine root causes, including experiences of discrimination. This report describes the association between reported experiences of discrimination in U.S. health care settings and COVID-19 vaccination status and intent to be vaccinated by race and ethnicity during April 22, 2021-November 26, 2022, based on the analysis of interview data collected from 1,154,347 respondents to the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM). Overall, 3.5% of adults aged ≥18 years reported having worse health care experiences compared with persons of other races and ethnicities (i.e., they experienced discrimination), with significantly higher percentages reported by persons who identified as non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) (10.7%), non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) (7.2%), non-Hispanic multiple or other race (multiple or other race) (6.7%), Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) (4.5%), non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) (3.9%), and non-Hispanic Asian (Asian) (2.8%) than by non-Hispanic White (White) persons (1.6%). Unadjusted differences in prevalence of being unvaccinated against COVID-19 among respondents reporting worse health care experiences than persons of other races and ethnicities compared with those who reported that their health care experiences were the same as those of persons of other races and ethnicities were statistically significant overall (5.3) and for NHOPI (19.2), White (10.5), multiple or other race (5.7), Black (4.6), Asian (4.3), and Hispanic (2.6) adults. Findings were similar for vaccination intent. Eliminating inequitable experiences in health care settings might help reduce some disparities in receipt of a COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Healthcare Disparities , Racism , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Ethnicity , Health Services Accessibility , United States/epidemiology
18.
PeerJ ; 11: e14727, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300126

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, there is an increased risk of COVID-19 infection among front-line health workers (FHW). This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of FHW of Pakistan after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: A population web-based survey on COVID-19 vaccine was conducted on 635 FHW in Pakistan between April 15, 2021, and July 15, 2021. The survey focused on four main sections consisting of socio-demographic data, knowledge, attitude, and practices after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. The data was analyzed on SPSS. p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Overall, 60% of FHW were nervous before getting vaccinated, with the leading reason to get vaccinated being their concern to protect themselves and their community (53.4%). A majority of FHW had fear about the unseen side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine (59.7%) used in Pakistan, with the most common side effect reported as soreness at the injection site (39%). It has been noted that almost all of the FHW observed preventive practices after getting vaccinated. The results showed that married respondents had favorable practices towards COVID-19 vaccines (B = 0.53, p < 0.01) (B, unstandardized regression coefficient). It was also found that more informational sources (B = 0.19, p < 0.01), higher knowledge of vaccination (B = 0.15, p < 0.001), and favorable attitude toward vaccine (B = 0.12, p < 0.001) significantly predicted favorable practices toward COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusion: The findings reflect that FHW, though they were worried about its side effects, have good knowledge and a positive attitude after getting the COVID-19 vaccine. This study is significant as the FHWs are a symbol for guidance, a reliable source of information, and an encouraging means of receiving COVID-19 vaccine for the general public. This study also reported that post-vaccination side effects were mild which will aid in reducing the vaccine hesitancy among the general Pakistani population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pakistan/epidemiology , Vaccination/psychology
19.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 5(1): 89-93, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Omicron (B.1.1.529) SARS-COV-2 variant has raised serious concerns because of its unprecedented rapid rate of spreading and the fact that there are 36 mutations in the spike protein. Since the vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody targets are the spike protein, this may lead to the possibility of vaccine-induced humoral immunity escape. METHODS: We measured the neutralizing activity in vitro for Omicron and compared this with wild type (WH-09) and Delta variants in human and monkey sera from different types of immunity. The monkey sera samples were collected at 1 and 3 months post three-dose inactivated (PiCoVacc) and recombinant protein (ZF2001) vaccination. Human sera were collected from 1 month post three-dose inactivated vaccination. RESULTS: In inactivated vaccine sera, at 1/3 months post three-dose, geometric mean titers (GMTs) of neutralization antibody (NAb) against the Omicron variant were 4.9/5.2-fold lower than those of the wild type. In recombinant protein vaccine sera, GMTs of NAb against Omicron were 15.7/8.9-fold lower than those of the wild type. In human sera, at 1 month post three-dose inactivated vaccination, GMTs of NAb against Omicron were 3.1-fold lower than those of the wild type. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that despite a reduction in neutralization titers, cross-neutralizing activity against Omicron and Delta variants was still observed after three doses of inactivated and recombinant protein vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Cross Reactions , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Haplorhini , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
20.
Bioengineered ; 13(2): 3797-3809, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257273

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally with catastrophic damages to the public health, social and economy since the beginning of the outbreak. In 2020, Southeast Asia proved that it could prevent the worst effects of a pandemic through the closure of activities and borders and movement restriction, as well as social distancing. Nevertheless, with the occurrence of the common variants of concern (VOCs), especially Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2), Southeast Asia is facing a significant increase in the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Now, the area also has the threats of the spreading out of the dangerous variant - Omicron (B.1.1.529) from other close countries or regions. COVID-19 countermeasures such as closures and social distancing seem to be insufficient. Moreover, Southeast Asia is being held back by a shortage of vaccines and other medical resources. This work focuses on describing the COVID-19 situation, the virus variants, and the coverage of COVID-19 vaccination in the area. We also provide perspectives on the COVID-19 vaccine distribution, protecting the economic capitals, developing the green zone, and the importance of finding more vaccine supplies in Southeast Asia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asia, Southeastern , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
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