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1.
Infect Dis Now ; 52(8S): S7-S8, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238432

ABSTRACT

Heterologous prime boost vaccination is a primary vaccination with different vaccines, most often from different vaccine platforms. It combines the immunological properties of the different vaccines and thereby induces humoral, cellular and, in some cases, mucosal response. For Covid prevention, it has been used in primary vaccination, due to safety issues and in boosters. We have evaluated some articles reporting on the results of this type of vaccine, and demonstrating its usefulness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Vaccination/methods
2.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(4): 570-578, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237020

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Unvaccinated emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are at increased risk of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and potentially transmitting the virus to their families, coworkers, and patients. Effective vaccines for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus exist; however, vaccination rates among EMS professionals remain largely unknown. Consequently, we sought to document vaccination rates of EMS professionals and identify predictors of vaccination uptake. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of North Carolina EMS professionals after the COVID-19 vaccines were widely available. The survey assessed vaccination status as well as beliefs regarding COVID-19 illness and vaccine effectiveness. Prediction of vaccine uptake was modeled using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 860 EMS professionals completed the survey, of whom 74.7% reported receiving the COVID-19 vaccination. Most respondents believed that COVID-19 is a serious threat to the population, that they are personally at higher risk of infection, that vaccine side effects are outweighed by illness prevention, and the vaccine is safe and effective. Despite this, only 18.7% supported mandatory vaccination for EMS professionals. Statistically significant differences were observed between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups regarding vaccine safety and effectiveness, recall of employer vaccine recommendation, perceived risk of infection, degree of threat to the population, and trust in government to take actions to limit the spread of disease. Unvaccinated respondents cited reasons such as belief in personal health and natural immunity as protectors against infection, concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness, inadequate vaccine knowledge, and lack of an employer mandate for declining the vaccine. Predictors of vaccination included belief in vaccine safety (odds ratio [OR] 5.5, P=<0.001) and effectiveness (OR 4.6, P=<0.001); importance of vaccination to protect patients (OR 15.5, P=<0.001); perceived personal risk of infection (OR 1.8, P=0.04); previous receipt of influenza vaccine (OR 2.5, P=0.003); and sufficient knowledge to make an informed decision about vaccination (OR 2.4, P=0.024). CONCLUSION: In this survey of EMS professionals, over a quarter remained unvaccinated for COVID-19. Given the identified predictors of vaccine acceptance, EMS systems should focus on countering misinformation through employee educational campaigns as well as on developing policies regarding workforce immunization requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Health Personnel , Vaccination , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Making , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , North Carolina , Occupational Health , Patient Safety , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
4.
Cutis ; 111(4): E19-E27, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238122

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which emerged in China in 2019 and rapidly spread worldwide to become a pandemic in March 2020. Although the most severe manifestations concern the lower respiratory tract, COVID-19 is a multiorgan disease that also affects the skin. Several types of skin lesions have been reported to be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, though their causal relationship with the virus has not yet been well documented. In addition to the cutaneous manifestations that develop in patients with COVID-19-thought to be caused by the virus-other findings associated with the pandemic in a broader sense include dermatoses triggered or aggravated by the infection, the adverse cutaneous effects due to the drugs and protective devices used to prevent or fight the infection, and the adverse cutaneous effects of COVID-19 vaccines. We provide an overview of these dermatoses associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Skin Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/epidemiology
6.
J Int Adv Otol ; 19(3): 228-233, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Side effects occurring after COVID-19 vaccination can include vertigo and dizziness. Despite its high incidence, few studies to date have assessed dizziness/vertigo after vaccination. The present study investigated the incidence of dizziness/vertigo after COVID-19 vaccination in South Korea. METHODS: Adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccination reported to the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency from February 26, 2021, to July 31, 2022 (week 74) were analyzed. The incidence rates of dizziness/vertigo in subjects vaccinated with 5 COVID-19 vaccines, AZD1222 (AstraZeneca), BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), JNJ-78436735 (Janssen), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and NVX-CoV2373 (Novavax), were determined. RESULTS: A total of 126 725 952 doses of COVID-19 vaccine were administered, with 473 755 suspected adverse reactions (374 per 100 000 vaccinations) reported. Vertigo/dizziness was reported after the administration of 68 759 doses, or 54.3 per 100 000 vaccinations, making it the third most common adverse reaction after headache and muscle pain. CONCLUSION: Dizziness/vertigo was generally a mild adverse reaction after COVID-19 vaccination, but it was the third most common adverse reaction in Korea. Studies are necessary to clarify the causal relationship between vaccination and dizziness/vertigo and to prepare subjects for this possible adverse reaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Humans , Dizziness/chemically induced , Dizziness/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vertigo/chemically induced , Vertigo/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(5)2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237794

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The risk of autonomic dysfunction with COVID-19 vaccines used worldwide in the COVID-19 pandemic remains a topic of debate. Heart rate variability has a number of parameters that can be used to assess autonomic nervous system dynamics. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) on heart rate variability and autonomic nervous system parameters, and the duration of the effect. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 healthy individuals who visited an outpatient clinic to receive the COVID-19 vaccination were included in this prospective observational study. Heart rate variability parameters were measured before vaccination and on days 2 and 10 after vaccination. SDNN, rMSSD and pNN50 values were evaluated for time series analyses, and LF, HF, and LF/HV values for frequency-dependent analyses. Results: The SDNN and rMSDD values declined significantly on day 2 after vaccination, while the pNN50 and LF/HF values increased significantly on day 10. The values at pre-vaccination and at day 10 were comparable. The pNN50 and LF/HF values declined significantly on day 2 and increased significantly on day 10. The values at pre-vaccination and at day 10 were comparable. Conclusions: This study showed that the decline in HRV observed with COVID-19 vaccination was temporary, and that the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination did not cause permanent autonomic dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Heart Rate/physiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Autonomic Nervous System
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(2): 2217076, 2023 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237403

ABSTRACT

Since COVID-19 became a global pandemic in 2020, the development and application of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has become an important task to prevent the spread of the epidemic. In addition to the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, the adverse reactions caused by vaccines in a small number of people also deserve our attention. We aimed to discuss and analyze the possible causes of Sweet syndrome caused by the COVID-19 vaccine by integrating the effective information from 16 patients and combining it with the latest views on the innate immune mechanism. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for published patient reports on the occurrence or recurrence of Sweet syndrome after COVID-19 vaccination. We summarized the basic information of the patients, the type of vaccination, the presence of underlying diseases, and the clinical manifestations, clinical treatment and prognosis of the patients. The results were reported in narrative methods and were sorted into tables. We initially identified 53 studies. 16 articles were included through full-text screening. Based on the table we compiled, we generally concluded that the first dose of any type of COVID-19 vaccine was more likely to cause Sweet syndrome than subsequent doses. Sweet syndrome may occur after COVID-19 vaccination. Clinicians should consider Sweet syndrome in addition to common adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis and infection when a patient presents with acute fever accompanied by nodular erythema, pustules, and edematous plaques after COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Sweet Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweet Syndrome/chemically induced
10.
Thromb Res ; 228: 137-144, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237228

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Reported thromboembolic events after SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations are still raising concerns, predominantly in non-scientific population. The aim of our study was to investigate the differences between haemostasis and inflammatory markers in the subjects vaccinated with mRNA BNT162b2 and vector Ad26.CoV2.S vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 87 subjects vaccinated with mRNA BNT162b2 and 84 with Ad26.CoV2.S vaccine. All the laboratory parameters (TAT, F 1 + 2, IL-6, CRP, big endothelin-1, platelets, fibrinogen, D-dimers, VWF activity) were investigated for the mRNA vaccine at five (before the first dose, 7 and 14 days after the first and second vaccine dose), and three time points (before the first dose, 7 and 14 days after) for the vector vaccine, respectively. All the markers were measured by well-established laboratory methods. RESULTS: Our results have shown statistically higher CRP levels in the vector group 7 days after vaccination (P = 0.014). Furthermore, study has revealed statistically significant rise in D-dimers (P = 0.004) between tested time points in both vaccine groups but without clinical repercussions. CONCLUSION: Although statistically significant changes in haemostasis markers have been obtained, they remained clinically irrelevant. Thus, our study implicates that there is no plausible scientific evidence of a significant disruption in the coagulation and inflammatory processes after vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA and Ad26.CoV2.S vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation , RNA, Messenger
11.
J Fam Pract ; 72(4): 185-187, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236545

ABSTRACT

The patient's recent vaccine was the most remarkable thing about his medical history.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Exanthema , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Exanthema/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 10(4)2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235895

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), a recently described entity characterized by thrombosis at unusual locations such as cerebral venous sinus and splanchnic vein, has been rarely described after adenoviral-encoded COVID-19 vaccines. In this study, we report the immunohistological correlates in 3 fatal cases of cerebral venous thrombosis related to VITT analyzed at an academic medical center. METHODS: Detailed neuropathologic studies were performed in 3 cases of cerebral venous thrombosis related to VITT after adenoviral COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: Autopsy revealed extensive cerebral vein thrombosis in all 3 cases. Polarized thrombi were observed with a high density of neutrophils in the core and a low density in the tail. Endothelial cells adjacent to the thrombus were largely destroyed. Markers of neutrophil extracellular trap and complement activation were present at the border and within the cerebral vein thrombi. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was detected within the thrombus and in the adjacent vessel wall. DISCUSSION: Data indicate that neutrophils and complement activation associated with antispike immunity triggered by the vaccine is probably involved in the disease process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Endothelial Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
14.
Ups J Med Sci ; 1282023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235891

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines are associated with an increased risk of myocarditis using hospital discharge diagnoses as an outcome. The validity of these register-based diagnoses is uncertain. Methods: Patient records for subjects < 40 years of age and a diagnosis of myocarditis in the Swedish National Patient Register were manually reviewed. Brighton Collaboration diagnosis criteria for myocarditis were applied based on patient history, clinical examination, laboratory data, electrocardiograms, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and myocardial biopsy. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios, comparing the register-based outcome variable to validated outcomes. Interrater reliability was assessed by a blinded re-evaluation. Results: Overall, 95.6% (327/342) of cases registered as myocarditis were confirmed (definite, probable or possible myocarditis according to Brighton Collaboration diagnosis criteria, positive predictive value 0.96 [95% CI 0.93-0.98]). Of the 4.4% (15/342) cases reclassified as no myocarditis or as insufficient information, two cases had been exposed to the COVID-19 vaccine no more than 28 days before the myocarditis diagnosis, two cases were exposed >28 days before admission and 11 cases were unexposed to the vaccine. The reclassification had only minor impact on incidence rate ratios for myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination. In total, 51 cases were sampled for a blinded re-evaluation. Of the 30 randomly sampled cases initially classified as either definite or probably myocarditis, none were re-classified after re-evaluation. Of the in all 15 cases initially classified as no myocarditis or insufficient information, 7 were after re-evaluation re-classified as probable or possible myocarditis. This re-classification was mostly due to substantial variability in electrocardiogram interpretation. Conclusion: This validation of register-based diagnoses of myocarditis by manual patient record review confirmed the register diagnosis in 96% of cases and had high interrater reliability. Reclassification had only a minor impact on the incidence rate ratios for myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , Sweden/epidemiology , Biopsy
15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2209919, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235641

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 vaccination campaign, possible ChAdOx1-S-associated risks of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome led to implement ChAdOx1-S/BNT162b2 heterologous vaccination, despite the limited information on its reactogenicity and safety. We conducted a prospective observational post-marketing surveillance study to assess the safety of this heterologous schedule. A casually selected sample of recipients (n: 85; age: 18-60 years) of ChAdOx1-S/BNT162b2 at the vaccination hub of the Foggia Hospital, Italy, was matched with an equal sample of recipients of homologous BNT162b2. Safety was evaluated 7 days, 1 month and 14 weeks after the primary vaccination series using an adapted version of the "V-safe active surveillance for COVID-19 vaccine safety" CDC standardized questionnaire. After 7 days, local reactions were highly frequent (>80%) in both groups, and systemic reactions were less common (<70%). Moderate or severe pain at the injection site (OR = 3.62; 95%CI, 1.45-9.33), moderate/severe fatigue (OR = 3.40; 95%CI, 1.22-9.49), moderate/severe headache (OR = 4.72; 95%CI, 1.37-16.23), intake of antipyretics (OR = 3.05; 95 CI%, 1.35-6.88), inability to perform daily activities and work (OR = 2.64; 95%CI, 1.24-5.62) were significantly more common with heterologous than homologous vaccination. No significant difference in self-reported health status was recorded 1 month or 14 weeks after the second dose with BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1-S/BNT162b2. Our study confirms the safety of both heterologous and homologous vaccination, with a slight increase in some short-term adverse events for the heterologous regimen. Therefore, administering a second dose of a mRNA vaccine to the recipients of a previous dose of viral vector vaccine may have represented an advantageous strategy to improve flexibility and to accelerate the vaccination campaign.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects , Italy , Marketing
16.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9171, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235416

ABSTRACT

Throughout the pandemic era, COVID-19 was one of the remarkable unexpected situations over the past few years, but with the decentralization and globalization of efforts and knowledge, a successful vaccine-based control strategy was efficiently designed and applied worldwide. On the other hand, excused confusion and hesitation have widely impacted public health. This paper aims to reduce COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy taking into consideration the patient's medical history. The dataset used in this study is the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) dataset which was created as a corporation between the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to gather reported side effects that may be caused by PFIEZER, JANSSEN, and MODERNA vaccines. In this paper, a Deep Learning (DL) model has been developed to identify the relationship between a certain type of COVID-19 vaccine (i.e. PFIEZER, JANSSEN, and MODERNA) and the adverse reactions that may occur in vaccinated patients. The adverse reactions under study are the recovery condition, possibility to be hospitalized, and death status. In the first phase of the proposed model, the dataset has been pre-proceesed, while in the second phase, the Pigeon swarm optimization algorithm is used to optimally select the most promising features that affect the performance of the proposed model. The patient's status after vaccination dataset is grouped into three target classes (Death, Hospitalized, and Recovered). In the third phase, Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is implemented for both each vaccine type and each target class. The results show that the proposed model gives the highest accuracy scores which are 96.031% for the Death target class in the case of PFIEZER vaccination. While in JANSSEN vaccination, the Hospitalized target class has shown the highest performance with an accuracy of 94.7%. Finally, the model has the best performance for the Recovered target class in MODERNA vaccination with an accuracy of 97.794%. Based on the accuracy and the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, we can conclude that the proposed model is promising for identifying the relationship between the side effects of COVID-19 vaccines and the patient's status after vaccination. The study displayed that certain side effects were increased in patients according to the type of COVID-19 vaccines. Side effects related to CNS and hemopoietic systems demonstrated high values in all studied COVID-19 vaccines. In the frame of precision medicine, these findings can support the medical staff to select the best COVID-19 vaccine based on the medical history of the patient.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Vaccines , United States , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health , Vaccination/adverse effects
17.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234853

ABSTRACT

The benefits of SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNA vaccines are well known, including a significant decline in COVID-19 morbidity and a decrease in the mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 infected persons. However, pharmacovigilance studies have revealed the existence of rare cases of cardiovascular complications after mass vaccination using such formulations. Cases of high blood pressure have also been reported but were rarely documented under perfectly controlled medical supervision. The press release of these warning signals triggered a huge debate over COVID-19 vaccines' safety. Thereby, our attention was quickly focused on issues involving the risk of myocarditis, acute coronary syndrome, hypertension and thrombosis. Rare cases of undesirable post-vaccine pathophysiological phenomena should question us, especially when they occur in young subjects. They are more likely to occur with inappropriate use of mRNA vaccine (e.g., at the time when the immune response is already very active during a low-noise infection in the process of healing), leading to angiotensin II (Ang II) induced inflammation triggering tissue damage. Such harmful effects observed after the COVID-19 vaccine evoke a possible molecular mimicry of the viral spike transiently dysregulating angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) function. Although the benefit/risk ratio of SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNA vaccine is very favorable, it seems reasonable to suggest medical surveillance to patients with a history of cardiovascular diseases who receive the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Molecular Mimicry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
18.
Eur Heart J ; 44(24): 2234-2243, 2023 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234164

ABSTRACT

AIMS: A comprehensive nationwide study on the incidence and outcomes of COVID-19 vaccination-related myocarditis (VRM) is in need. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 44 276 704 individuals with at least 1 dose of COVID-19 vaccination, the incidence and clinical courses of VRM cases confirmed by the Expert Adjudication Committee of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency were analyzed. COVID-19 VRM was confirmed in 480 cases (1.08 cases per 100 000 persons). Vaccination-related myocarditis incidence was significantly higher in men than in women (1.35 vs. 0.82 per 100 000 persons, P < 0.001) and in mRNA vaccines than in other vaccines (1.46 vs. 0.14 per 100 000 persons, P < 0.001). Vaccination-related myocarditis incidence was highest in males between the ages of 12 and 17 years (5.29 cases per 100 000 persons) and lowest in females over 70 years (0.16 cases per 100 000 persons). Severe VRM was identified in 95 cases (19.8% of total VRM, 0.22 per 100 000 vaccinated persons), 85 intensive care unit admission (17.7%), 36 fulminant myocarditis (7.5%), 21 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (4.4%), 21 deaths (4.4%), and 1 heart transplantation (0.2%). Eight out of 21 deaths were sudden cardiac death (SCD) attributable to VRM proved by an autopsy, and all cases of SCD attributable to VRM were aged under 45 years and received mRNA vaccines. CONCLUSION: Although COVID-19 VRM was rare and showed relatively favorable clinical courses, severe VRM was found in 19.8% of all VRM cases. Moreover, SCD should be closely monitored as a potentially fatal complication of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , mRNA Vaccines , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
19.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1167533, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233774

ABSTRACT

Background: The immune response and safety of inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines among patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), especially those with cirrhosis, are not clear. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines among CHB patients with and without cirrhosis. Patients and methods: A total of 643 CHB patients who received two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac) were enrolled. Serum samples were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 S-receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) at enrollment. Data on adverse events (AEs) within 7 days after the second dose were obtained using a questionnaire. Results: A total of 416 non-cirrhotic and 227 cirrhotic patients were included in the analysis. Cirrhotic patients had lower antibody titers than non-cirrhotic patients after adjusting for age, sex, and time interval (2.45 vs. 2.60 ng/ml, p = 0.034). Furthermore, the study revealed that cirrhotic patients demonstrated a slower rate of seropositivity increase, with the highest rate being recorded at week 4 and reaching 94.7%. On the other hand, among non-cirrhotic patients, the seropositivity rate peak was observed at week 2 and reached 96.0%. In addition, cirrhotic patients displayed a more rapid decline in the seropositivity rate, dropping to 54.5% after ≥16 weeks, while non-cirrhotic patients exhibited a decrease to 67.2% after the same time period. The overall incidence of AEs was low (18.4%), and all AEs were mild and self-limiting. In addition, 16.0% of participants had mild liver function abnormalities, and half of them returned to normality within the next 6 months without additional therapy. The participants who experienced liver function abnormalities showed a higher seropositivity rate and antibody titer than those who did not (91.6% vs. 79.5%, p = 0.005; 2.73 vs. 2.41 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Cirrhotic CHB patients had lower antibody titers to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines than non-cirrhotic patients. The vaccines were generally well tolerated in both non-cirrhotic and cirrhotic CHB patient groups. Patients with abnormal liver function may have a better antibody response than those without.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Liver Cirrhosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Male , Female
20.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8441, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233593

ABSTRACT

The physiological effects of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) are well documented, yet the behavioural effects not well known. Risk compensation suggests that gains in personal safety, as a result of vaccination, are offset by increases in risky behaviour, such as socialising, commuting and working outside the home. This is potentially important because transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is driven by contacts, which could be amplified by vaccine-related risk compensation. Here, we show that behaviours were overall unrelated to personal vaccination, but-adjusting for variation in mitigation policies-were responsive to the level of vaccination in the wider population: individuals in the UK were risk compensating when rates of vaccination were rising. This effect was observed across four nations of the UK, each of which varied policies autonomously.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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