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1.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 31(12): 1601-1614, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595833

ABSTRACT

To overcome the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination campaigns are the highest priority of majority of countries. Limited supply and worldwide disproportionate availability issues for the approved vaccines, together with concerns about rare side-effects have recently initiated the switch to heterologous vaccination, commonly known as mixing of vaccines. The COVID-19 vaccines are highly effective in the general population. However, none of the vaccines is 100% efficacious or effective, with variants posing more challenges, resulting in breakthrough cases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of immune responses to variants of concern (VOC) and breakthrough infections. Furthermore, we discuss the scope of heterologous vaccination and future strategies to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic, including fractionation of vaccine doses and alternative route of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Heterologous , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/trends , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Mice
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2130800, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490643

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although there are reports of COVID-19 vaccine implementation in real-world populations, these come from high-income countries or from experience with messenger RNA technology vaccines. Data on outcomes of vaccine deployment in low- or middle-income countries are lacking. Objective: To assess whether the pragmatic application of the 3 COVID-19 vaccines available in Argentina, 2 of which have no reports of evaluation in real-world settings to date, were associated with a reduction in morbidity, all-cause mortality, and mortality due to COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used individual and ecological data to explore outcomes following vaccination with rAd26-rAd5, ChAdOx1, and BBIBP-CorV. To correct for differences in exposure times, results are shown using incidence density per 100 000 person-days from the start of the vaccination campaign (December 29, 2020) to the occurrence of an event or the end of follow-up (May 15, 2021). Participants included 663 602 people aged at least 60 years residing in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Statistical analysis was performed from June 1 to June 15, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis of COVID-19 confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, death from all causes, and death within 30 days of a diagnosis of COVID-19. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate associations with all 3 outcomes. Results: Among 663 602 residents of the city of Buenos Aires included in the study, 540 792 (81.4%) were vaccinated with at least 1 dose, with 457 066 receiving 1 dose (mean [SD] age, 74.5 (8.9) years; 61.5% were female [n = 281 284]; 68.0% [n = 310 987] received the rAd26-rAd5 vaccine; 29.5% [n = 135 036] received ChAdOx1; 2.4% [n = 11 043] received BBIBP-CorV) and 83 726 receiving 2 doses (mean [SD] age, 73.4 [6.8] years; 63.5% were female [n = 53 204]). The incidence density of confirmed COVID-19 was 36.25 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 35.80-36.70 cases/100 000 person-days) among those who did not receive a vaccine, 19.13 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 18.63-19.62 cases/100 000 person-days) among those who received 1 dose, and 4.33 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 3.85-4.81 cases/100 000 person-days) among those who received 2 doses. All-cause mortality was 11.74 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 11.51-11.96 cases/100 000 person-days), 4.01 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 3.78-4.24 cases/100 000 person-days) and 0.40 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 0.26-0.55 cases/100 000 person-days). COVID-19-related-death rate was 2.31 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 2.19-2.42 cases/100 000 person-days), 0.59 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 0.50-0.67 cases/100 000 person-days), and 0.04 cases/100 000 person-days (95% CI, 0.0-0.09 cases/100 000 person-days) among the same groups. A 2-dose vaccination schedule was associated with an 88.1% (95% CI, 86.8%-89.2%) reduction in documented infection, 96.6% (95% CI, 95.3%-97.5%) reduction in all-cause death, and 98.3% (95% CI, 95.3%-99.4%) reduction in COVID-19-related death. A single dose was associated with a 47.2% (95% CI, 44.2%-50.1%) reduction in documented infection, 65.8% (95% CI, 61.7%-69.5%) reduction in all-cause death, and 74.5% (95% CI, 66%-80.8%) reduction in COVID-19-related death. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that within the first 5 months after the start of the vaccination campaign, vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in COVID-19 infection as well as a reduction in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Ecological Parameter Monitoring/methods , Ecological Parameter Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccine Potency
4.
Pharmacotherapy ; 41(10): 837-850, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479434

ABSTRACT

As of August 2021, there were three COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States for the prevention of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). The purpose of this narrative review is to examine the early experience from the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of BNT162b2 (Pfizer, Inc./BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna, Inc.), and Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson and Johnson/Janssen Global Services, LLC) through July 2021. The EUA data from the clinical trials have largely been corroborated by real-world effectiveness investigations post-authorization. These studies indicate that immunity is obtained within 2 weeks post-vaccination and may endure for 6 months. The immunity conferred by the vaccines may also be effective against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Additionally, populations not included in the emergency use authorization studies may also benefit from vaccination. This look back at the initial clinical experience can be used by the global community to inform and develop COVID-19 vaccine programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Societies, Pharmaceutical/trends
5.
Cell ; 184(20): 5077-5081, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474390

ABSTRACT

As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic evolves, new variants continue to emerge. Some highly transmissible variants, such as Delta, also raised concerns about the effectiveness provided by current vaccines. Understanding immunological correlates of protection and how laboratory findings correspond to clinical effectiveness is imperative to shape future vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112176, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412768

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its new variants reported in different countries have posed a serious threat to human health and social fabrics worldwide. In addition, these new variants hindered the efforts of vaccines and other therapeutic developments. In this review article, we explained the emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2, their transmission risk, mortality rate, and, more importantly, the impact of each new variant on the efficacy of the developed vaccines reported in different literature and findings. The literature reported that with the emergence of new variants, the efficacy of different vaccines is declined, hospitalization and the risk of reinfection is increased. The reports concluded that the emergence of a variant that entirely evades the immune response triggered by the vaccine is improbable. The emergence of new variants and reports of re-infections are creating a more distressing situation and therefore demands further investigation to formulate an effective therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Treatment Outcome
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112107, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372895

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused and is still causing significant mortality and economic consequences all over the globe. As of today, there are three U.S Food and Drug administration (FDA) approved vaccines, Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Janssen COVID-19 vaccine. Also, the antiviral drug remdesivir and two combinations of monoclonal antibodies are authorized for Emergency use (EUA) in certain patients. Furthermore, baricitinib was approved in Japan (April 23, 2021). Despite available vaccines and EUA, pharmacological therapy for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 is still highly required. There are several ongoing clinical trials investigating the efficacy of clinically available drugs in treating COVID-19. In this study, selected novel pharmacological agents for the possible treatment of COVID-19 will be discussed. Point of discussion will cover mechanism of action, supporting evidence for safety and efficacy and reached stage in development. Drugs were classified into three classes according to the phase of viral life cycle they target. Phase I, the early infective phase, relies on supportive care and symptomatic treatment as needed. In phase II, the pulmonary phase, treatment aims at inhibiting viral entry or replication. Drugs used during this phase are famotidine, monoclonal antibodies, nanobodies, ivermectin, remdesivir, camostat mesylate and other antiviral agents. Finally, phase III, the hyper-inflammatory phase, tocilizumab, dexamethasone, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), and melatonin are used. The aim of this study is to summarize current findings and suggest gaps in knowledge that can influence future COVID-19 treatment study design.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Drug Development , Humans , Medication Therapy Management/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(9): e23937, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358069

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To deal with COVID-19, various countries have made many efforts, including the research and development of vaccines. The purpose of this manuscript was to summarize the development, application, and problems of COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: This article reviewed the existing literature to see the development of the COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: We found that different types of vaccines had their own advantages and disadvantages. At the same time, the side effects of the vaccine, the dose of vaccination, the evaluation of the efficacy, and the application of the vaccine were all things worth studying. CONCLUSION: The successful development of the COVID-19 vaccine concerns almost all countries and people in the world. We must do an excellent job of researching the immunogenicity and immune reactivity of the vaccines. We hope this review can help colleagues at home and abroad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Development/methods , Humans
11.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(10): 626-636, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349669

ABSTRACT

Where 2020 saw the development and testing of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at an unprecedented pace, the first half of 2021 has seen vaccine rollout in many countries. In this Progress article, we provide a snapshot of ongoing vaccine efficacy studies, as well as real-world data on vaccine effectiveness and the impact of virus variants of concern. Where they have been deployed in a high proportion of the adult population, the currently approved vaccines have been extremely effective in preventing COVID-19, particularly severe disease. Nonetheless, there are still significant challenges in ensuring equitable vaccine access around the globe and lessons that can be learned for controlling this pandemic and for the next pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , World Health Organization
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 112015, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340558

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, an infectious disease, has emerged as one of the leading causes of death worldwide, making it one of the severe public health issues in recent decades. nCoV, the novel SARS coronavirus that causes COVID-19, has brought together scientists in the quest for possible therapeutic and preventive measures. The development of new drugs to manage COVID-19 effectively is a challenging and time-consuming process, thus encouraging extensive investigation of drug repurposing and repositioning candidates. Several medications, including remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, favipiravir, ribavirin, ritonavir, interferons, azithromycin, capivasertib and bevacizumab, are currently under clinical trials for COVID-19. In addition, several medicinal plants with considerable antiviral activities are potential therapeutic candidates for COVID-19. Statistical data show that the pandemic is yet to slow down, and authorities are placing their hopes on vaccines. Within a short period, four types of vaccines, namely, whole virus, viral vector, protein subunit, and nucleic acid (RNA/DNA), which can confer protection against COVID-19 in different ways, were already in a clinical trial. SARS-CoV-2 variants spread is associated with antibody escape from the virus Spike epitopes, which has grave concerns for viral re-infection and even compromises the effectiveness of the vaccines. Despite these efforts, COVID-19 treatment is still solely based on clinical management through supportive care. We aim to highlight the recent trends in COVID-19, relevant statistics, and clinical findings, as well as potential therapeutics, including in-line treatment methods, preventive measures, and vaccines to combat the prevalence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/classification , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Drug Development/methods , Drug Discovery/methods , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans
13.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335151

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new pathogen agent causing the coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19). This novel virus originated the most challenging pandemic in this century, causing economic and social upheaval internationally. The extreme infectiousness and high mortality rates incentivized the development of vaccines to control this pandemic to prevent further morbidity and mortality. This international scenario led academic scientists, industries, and governments to work and collaborate strongly to make a portfolio of vaccines available at an unprecedented pace. Indeed, the robust collaboration between public systems and private companies led to resolutive actions for accelerating therapeutic interventions and vaccines mechanism. These strategies contributed to rapidly identifying safe and effective vaccines as quickly and efficiently as possible. Preclinical research employed animal models to develop vaccines that induce protective and long-lived immune responses. A spectrum of vaccines is worldwide under investigation in various preclinical and clinical studies to develop both individual protection and safe development of population-level herd immunity. Companies employed and developed different technological approaches for vaccines production, including inactivated vaccines, live-attenuated, non-replicating viral vector vaccines, as well as acid nucleic-based vaccines. In this view, the present narrative review provides an overview of current vaccination strategies, taking into account both preclinical studies and clinical trials in humans. Furthermore, to better understand immunization, animal models on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis are also briefly discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , Humans , Models, Animal , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, DNA
14.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 14(11): 1413-1425, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334128

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Lung transplant patients are immunocompromised because of the medication they receive to prevent rejection, and as a consequence are susceptible to (respiratory) infections. Adequate vaccination strategies, including COVID-19 vaccination, are therefore needed to minimize infection risks. AREAS COVERED: The international vaccination guidelines for lung transplant patients are reviewed, including the data on immunogenicity and effectivity of the vaccines. The impact on response to vaccination of the various categories of immunosuppressive drugs, used in the posttransplant period, on response to vaccination is described. A number of immunosuppressive and/or anti-inflammatory drugs also is used for controlling the immunopathology of severe COVID-19. Current available COVID-19 vaccines, both mRNA or adenovirus based are recommended for lung transplant patients. EXPERT OPINION: In order to improve survival and quality of life, infections of lung transplant patients should be prevented by vaccination. When possible, vaccination should start already during the pre-transplantation period when the patient is on the waiting list. Booster vaccinations should be given post-transplantation, but only when immunosuppression has been tapered. Vaccine design based on mRNA technology could allow the design of an array of vaccines against other respiratory viruses, offering a better protection for lung transplant patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Lung Transplantation , Quality of Life , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/drug effects , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Lung Transplantation/methods , Lung Transplantation/psychology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/standards
15.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 71, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332318

ABSTRACT

Despite the pandemic, 34,154 migrants, refugees or asylum-seekers landed in Sicily (Italy) in 2020, representing the main point of entry by sea into Europe. The SARS-CoV-2 surveillance program among migrants arriving to Sicily via the Mediterranean Sea, made by the combination of clinical examination and molecular testing, has been integrated by full-genome sequencing strains using the NGS technology from the last week of February. To date, more than one hundred full-genome strains have been sequenced and 8 different lineages have been identified mostly belonging to the lineages B.1.1.7 and B.1.525. As global access to COVID-19 vaccines should be ensured, the need to provide more detailed information to inform policies and to drive the possible re-engineering of vaccines needed to deal with the challenge of new and future variants should be highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sicily/epidemiology
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 111953, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322006

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are over 230 different COVID-19 vaccines under development around the world. At least three decades of scientific development in RNA biology, immunology, structural biology, genetic engineering, chemical modification, and nanoparticle technologies allowed the accelerated development of fully synthetic messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines within less than a year since the first report of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. mRNA-based vaccines have been shown to elicit broadly protective immune responses, with the added advantage of being amenable to rapid and flexible manufacturing processes. This review recapitulates current advances in engineering the first two SARS-CoV-2-spike-encoding nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccines, highlighting the strategies followed to potentiate their effectiveness and safety, thus facilitating an agile response to the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Engineering , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Drug Development/methods , Drug Discovery/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomedical Engineering/methods , Biomedical Engineering/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Liposomes/pharmacology , Nanoparticles , Nucleosides/pharmacology , Nucleosides/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology
17.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(4): 222-224, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317319

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the resulting pandemic has caused widespread health problems and social and economic disruption. Thus far in 2021, more than 4 million people worldwide have died from COVID-19, so safe and efficacious vaccines are urgently needed to restore normal economic and social activities. According to the official guidance documents of the World Health Organization (WHO), vaccines based on four major strategies including mRNA, adenoviral vectors, inactivated viruses, and recombinant proteins have entered the stage of emergency use authorization and pre-certification evaluation. The current review summarizes these vaccines and it looks ahead to the development of additional COVID-19 vaccines in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Approval/organization & administration , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , Humans , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use , World Health Organization
18.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(7): 1111-1123, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309195

ABSTRACT

The rapid and remarkably successful development, manufacture, and deployment of several effective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines is now tempered by three key challenges. First, reducing virus transmission will require prevention of asymptomatic and mild infections in addition to severe symptomatic infections. Second, the emergence of variants of concern with mutations in the S protein's receptor binding domain increases the likelihood that vaccines will have to be updated because some of these mutations render variants less optimally targeted by current vaccines. This will require coordinated global SARS-CoV-2 surveillance to link genotypes to phenotypes, potentially using the WHO's global influenza surveillance program as a guide. Third, concerns about the longevity of vaccine-induced immunity highlight the potential need for re-vaccination, depending on the extent to which the virus has been controlled and whether re-vaccination can target those at greatest risk of severe illness. Fortunately, as I discuss in this review, these challenges can be addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Genotype , Humans , Immunity , Influenza, Human , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
19.
Immunity ; 54(7): 1353-1362, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303556

ABSTRACT

Development COVID-19 vaccines in a record time has been an unprecedented global scientific achievement. However, the world has failed to ensure equitable access to what should have been a global public good. What options remain available to African countries to ensure immunization of their populations and ultimately overcome the pandemic?


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/classification , Global Health , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/trends
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