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1.
Microbes Infect ; 25(4): 105082, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308846

ABSTRACT

Available COVID-19 vaccine only provide protection for a limited time due in part to the rapid emergence of viral variants with spike protein mutations, necessitating the generation of new vaccines to combat SARS-CoV-2. Two serologically distinct replication-defective chimpanzee-origin adenovirus (Ad) vectors (AdC) called AdC6 and AdC7 expressing early SARS-CoV-2 isolate spike (S) or nucleocapsid (N) proteins, the latter expressed as a fusion protein within herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D (gD), were tested individually or as a mixture in a hamster COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 challenge model. The S protein expressing AdC (AdC-S) vectors induced antibodies including those with neutralizing activity that in part cross-reacted with viral variants. Hamsters vaccinated with the AdC-S vectors were protected against serious disease and showed accelerated recovery upon SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Protection was enhanced if AdC-S vectors were given together with the AdC vaccines that expressed the gD N fusion protein (AdC-gDN). In contrast hamsters that just received the AdC-gDN vaccines showed only marginal lessening of symptoms compared to control animals. These results indicate that immune response to the N protein that is less variable than the S protein may potentiate and prolong protection achieved by the currently used S protein based genetic COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Pan troglodytes , Adenoviridae/genetics , Nucleocapsid , Immunization , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 167, 2023 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305501

ABSTRACT

The highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants severely attenuated the effectiveness of currently licensed SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on ancestral strains administered via intramuscular injection. In this study, we generated a recombinant, replication-incompetent human adenovirus type 5, Ad5-S-Omicron, that expresses Omicron BA.1 spike. Intranasal, but not intramuscular vaccination, elicited spike-specific respiratory mucosal IgA and residential T cell immune responses, in addition to systemic neutralizing antibodies and T cell immune responses against most Omicron subvariants. We tested intranasal Ad5-S-Omicron as a heterologous booster in mice that previously received intramuscular injection of inactivated ancestral vaccine. In addition to inducing serum broadly neutralizing antibodies, there was a significant induction of respiratory mucosal IgA and neutralizing activities against Omicron subvariants BA.1, BA.2, BA.5, BA.2.75, BF.7 as well as pre-Omicron strains Wildtype, Beta, and Delta. Serum and mucosal neutralizing activities against recently emerged XBB, BQ.1, and BQ.1.1 could also be detected but were much lower. Nasal lavage fluids from intranasal vaccination contained multimeric IgA that can bind to at least 10 spike proteins, including Omicron subvariants and pre-Omicron strains, and possessed broadly neutralizing activities. Intranasal vaccination using Ad5-S-Omicron or instillation of intranasal vaccinee's nasal lavage fluids in mouse nostrils protected mice against Omicron challenge. Taken together, intranasal Ad5-S-Omicron booster on the basis of ancestral vaccines can establish effective mucosal and systemic immunity against Omicron subvariants and multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants. This candidate vaccine warrants further development as a safe, effective, and user-friendly infection and transmission-blocking vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin A
3.
Eur J Immunol ; 53(7): e2249941, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301549

ABSTRACT

The first worldwide article reporting that injections of synthetic nonreplicating mRNA could be used as a vaccine, which originated from a French team located in Paris, was published in the European Journal of Immunology (EJI) in 1993. It relied on work conducted by several research groups in a handful of countries since the 1960s, which put forward the precise description of eukaryotic mRNA and the method to reproduce this molecule in vitro as well as how to transfect it into mammalian cells. Thereafter, the first industrial development of this technology began in Germany in 2000, with the founding of CureVac, which stemmed from another description of a synthetic mRNA vaccine published in EJI in 2000. The first clinical studies investigating mRNA vaccines in humans were performed as collaboration between CureVac and the University of Tübingen in Germany as early as 2003. Finally, the first worldwide approved mRNA vaccine (an anti-COVID-19 vaccine) is based on the mRNA technologies developed by BioNTech since its 2008 foundation in Mainz, Germany, and earlier by the pioneering academic work of its founders. In addition to the past, present, and future of mRNA-based vaccines, the article aims to present the geographical distribution of the early work, how the development of the technology was implemented by several independent and internationally distributed research teams, as well as the controversies on the optimal way to design or formulate and administer mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccines, Synthetic , Humans , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Germany , Pancreas , Paris , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Mammals
5.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 38(9): 3353-3362, 2022 Sep 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264708

ABSTRACT

A fusion protein containing a tetanus toxin peptide, a tuftsin peptide and a SARS-CoV-2S protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) was prepared to investigate the effect of intramolecular adjuvant on humoral and cellular immunity of RBD protein. The tetanus toxin peptide, tuftsin peptide and S protein RBD region were connected by a flexible polypeptide, and a recombinant vector was constructed after codon optimization. The recombinant S-TT-tuftsin protein was prepared by prokaryotic expression and purification. BALB/c mice were immunized after mixed with aluminum adjuvant, and the humoral and cellular immune effects were evaluated. The recombinant S-TT-tuftsin protein was expressed as an inclusion body, and was purified by ion exchange chromatography and renaturated by gradient dialysis. The renaturated protein was identified by Dot blotting and reacted with serum of descendants immunized with SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine. The results showed that the antibody level reached a plateau after 35 days of immunization, and the serum antibody ELISA titer of mice immunized with recombinant protein containing intramolecular adjuvant was up to 1:66 240, which was significantly higher than that of mice immunized with S-RBD protein (P < 0.05). At the same time, the recombinant protein containing intramolecular adjuvant stimulated mice to produce a stronger lymphocyte proliferation ability. The stimulation index was 4.71±0.15, which was significantly different from that of the S-RBD protein (1.83±0.09) (P < 0.000 1). Intramolecular adjuvant tetanus toxin peptide and tuftsin peptide significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune effect of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein RBD domain, which provideda theoretical basis for the development of subunit vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuftsin , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Aluminum , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Tetanus Toxin , Vaccines, Subunit
6.
Arch Microbiol ; 205(4): 150, 2023 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250864

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has infected 673,010,496 patients and caused the death of 6,854,959 cases globally until today. Enormous efforts have been made to develop fundamentally different COVID-19 vaccine platforms. Nucleic acid-based vaccines consisting of mRNA and DNA vaccines (third-generation vaccines) have been promising in terms of rapid and convenient production and efficient provocation of immune responses against the COVID-19. Several DNA-based (ZyCoV-D, INO-4800, AG0302-COVID19, and GX-19N) and mRNA-based (BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and ARCoV) approved vaccine platforms have been utilized for the COVID-19 prevention. mRNA vaccines are at the forefront of all platforms for COVID-19 prevention. However, these vaccines have lower stability, while DNA vaccines are needed with higher doses to stimulate the immune responses. Intracellular delivery of nucleic acid-based vaccines and their adverse events needs further research. Considering re-emergence of the COVID-19 variants of concern, vaccine reassessment and the development of polyvalent vaccines, or pan-coronavirus strategies, is essential for effective infection prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines, DNA , Humans , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Nucleic Acid-Based Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Messenger
7.
Med Res Rev ; 43(4): 932-971, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262534

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic can hardly end with the emergence of different variants over time. In the past 2 years, several variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as the Delta and Omicron variants, have emerged with higher transmissibility, immune evasion and drug resistance, leading to higher morbidity and mortality in the population. The prevalent variants of concern (VOCs) share several mutations on the spike that can affect virus characteristics, including transmissibility, antigenicity, and immune evasion. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that the neutralization capacity of sera from COVID-19 convalescent or vaccinated individuals is decreased against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Moreover, the vaccine effectiveness of current COVID-19 vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 VOCs is not as high as that against wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, more attention might be paid to how the mutations impact vaccine effectiveness. In this review, we summarized the current studies on the mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 spike, particularly of the receptor binding domain, to elaborate on how the mutations impact the infectivity, transmissibility and immune evasion of the virus. The effects of mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 spike on the current therapeutics were highlighted, and potential strategies for future vaccine development were suggested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Vaccine Development , Mutation
8.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 120(7): 1746-1761, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265006

ABSTRACT

Protein expression from stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) clones is an established but time-consuming method for manufacturing therapeutic recombinant proteins. The use of faster, alternative approaches, such as non-clonal stable pools, has been restricted due to lower productivity and longstanding regulatory guidelines. Recently, the performance of stable pools has improved dramatically, making them a viable option for quickly producing drug substance for GLP-toxicology and early-phase clinical trials in scenarios such as pandemics that demand rapid production timelines. Compared to stable CHO clones which can take several months to generate and characterize, stable pool development can be completed in only a few weeks. Here, we compared the productivity and product quality of trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike protein ectodomains produced from stable CHO pools or clones. Using a set of biophysical and biochemical assays we show that product quality is very similar and that CHO pools demonstrate sufficient productivity to generate vaccine candidates for early clinical trials. Based on these data, we propose that regulatory guidelines should be updated to permit production of early clinical trial material from CHO pools to enable more rapid and cost-effective clinical evaluation of potentially life-saving vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Animals , Humans , Cricetulus , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , CHO Cells , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241081

ABSTRACT

mRNA vaccines have been demonstrated as a powerful alternative to traditional conventional vaccines because of their high potency, safety and efficacy, capacity for rapid clinical development, and potential for rapid, low-cost manufacturing. These vaccines have progressed from being a mere curiosity to emerging as COVID-19 pandemic vaccine front-runners. The advancements in the field of nanotechnology for developing delivery vehicles for mRNA vaccines are highly significant. In this review we have summarized each and every aspect of the mRNA vaccine. The article describes the mRNA structure, its pharmacological function of immunity induction, lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), and the upstream, downstream, and formulation process of mRNA vaccine manufacturing. Additionally, mRNA vaccines in clinical trials are also described. A deep dive into the future perspectives of mRNA vaccines, such as its freeze-drying, delivery systems, and LNPs targeting antigen-presenting cells and dendritic cells, are also summarized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , mRNA Vaccines , Antigen-Presenting Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic
10.
JAMA ; 329(9): 697-700, 2023 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244724

ABSTRACT

This Medical News story examines the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed plans for an annual COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/standards , United States Food and Drug Administration , United States
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236480

ABSTRACT

Phages are highly ubiquitous biological agents, which means they are ideal tools for molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology. The development of a phage display technology was a turning point in the design of phage-based vaccines. Phages are now recognized as universal adjuvant-free nanovaccine platforms. Phages are well-suited for vaccine design owing to their high stability in harsh conditions and simple and inexpensive large-scale production. The aim of this review is to summarize the overall breadth of the antiviral therapeutic perspective of phages contributing to the development of phage-based vaccines for COVID-19. We show that phage vaccines induce a strong and specific humoral response by targeted phage particles carrying the epitopes of SARS-CoV-2. Further, the engineering of the T4 bacteriophage by CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) presents phage vaccines as a valuable platform with potential capabilities of genetic plasticity, intrinsic immunogenicity, and stability.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Bacteriophages/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bacteriophage T4/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232081

ABSTRACT

Betacoronaviruses have already troubled humanity more than once. In 2002-2003 and 2012, the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, respectively, caused outbreaks of respiratory syndromes with a fatal outcome. The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has become a pandemic. These three coronaviruses belong to the genus Betacoronavirus and have a zoonotic origin. The emergence of new coronavirus infections in the future cannot be ruled out, and vaccination is the main way to prevent the spread of the infection. Previous experience in the development of vaccines against SARS and MERS has helped to develop a number of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in a fairly short time. Among them, there are quite a few recombinant protein vaccines, which seem to be very promising in terms of safety, minimization of side effects, storage and transportation conditions. The problem of developing a universal betacoronavirus vaccine is also still relevant. Here, we summarize the information on the designing of vaccines based on recombinant proteins against highly pathogenic human betacoronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1035111, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215274

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The emergence of multiple variants of concerns (VOCs) with higher number of Spike mutations have led to enhanced immune escape by the SARS-CoV-2. With the increasing number of vaccination breakthrough (VBT) infections, it is important to understand the possible reason/s of the breakthrough infections. Methods: We performed transcriptome sequencing of 57 VBT and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients, followed by differential expression and co-expression analysis of the lncRNAs and the mRNAs. The regulatory mechanism was highlighted by analysis towards repeat element distribution within the co-expressed lncRNAs, followed by repeats driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the promoter regions of genes from the same topologically associated domains (TAD). Results: We identified 727 differentially expressed lncRNAs (153 upregulated and 574 downregulated) and 338 mRNAs (34 up- and 334 downregulated) in the VBT patients. This includes LUCAT1, MALAT1, ROR1-AS1, UGDH-AS1 and LINC00273 mediated modulation of immune response, whereas MALAT1, NEAT1 and GAS5 regulated inflammatory response in the VBT. LncRNA-mRNA co-expression analysis highlighted 34 lncRNAs interacting with 267 mRNAs. We also observed a higher abundance of Alu, LINE1 and LTRs within the interacting lncRNAs of the VBT patients. These interacting lncRNAs have higher interaction with the promoter region of the genes from the same TAD, compared to the non-interacting lncRNAs with the enrichment of Alu and LINE1 in the gene promoter. Discussion: Significant downregulation and GSEA of the TAD gene suggest Alu and LINE1 driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the TAD genes as a possible mechanism of lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response. The lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response might explain the SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections with milder symptoms in the VBT. Besides, the study also highlights repeat element mediated regulation of genes in 3D as another possible way of lncRNA-mediated immune-regulation modulating vaccination breakthroughs milder disease phenotype and shorter hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Transcriptome , Down-Regulation , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Vaccination , RNA, Messenger , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Inflammation/genetics
14.
Mol Cells ; 46(1): 41-47, 2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217666

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of mRNA vaccines has contributed to the management of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, suggesting that this technology may be used to manage future outbreaks of infectious diseases. Because the antigens targeted by mRNA vaccines can be easily altered by simply changing the sequence present in the coding region of mRNA structures, it is more appropriate to develop vaccines, especially during rapidly developing outbreaks of infectious diseases. In addition to allowing rapid development, mRNA vaccines have great potential in inducing successful antigen-specific immunity by expressing target antigens in cells and simultaneously triggering immune responses. Indeed, the two COVID-19 mRNA vaccines approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have shown significant efficacy in preventing infections. The ability of mRNAs to produce target proteins that are defective in specific diseases has enabled the development of options to treat intractable diseases. Clinical applications of mRNA vaccines/therapeutics require strategies to safely deliver the RNA molecules into targeted cells. The present review summarizes current knowledge about mRNA vaccines/ therapeutics, their clinical applications, and their delivery strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , mRNA Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , mRNA Vaccines/administration & dosage , Open Reading Frames , Pandemics , United States
15.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 70(3): 1189-1205, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2172675

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown rapid global spread and has resulted in a significant death toll worldwide. In this study, we aimed to design a multi-epitope vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 based on structural proteins S, M, N, and E. We identified B- and T-cell epitopes and then the antigenicity, toxicity, allergenicity, and similarity of predicted epitopes were analyzed. T-cell epitopes were docked with corresponding HLA alleles. Consequently, the selected T- and B-cell epitopes were included in the final construct. All selected epitopes were connected with different linkers and flagellin and pan-HLA DR binding epitopes (PADRE) as an adjuvant were used in the vaccine construct. Furthermore, molecular docking was used to evaluate the complex between the final vaccine construct and two alleles, HLA-A*02:01 and HLA-DRB1*01:01. Finally, codons were optimized for in silico cloning into pET28a(+) vector using SnapGene. The final vaccine construct comprised 11 CTL, HTL, and B-cell epitopes corresponding to 394 amino acid residues. In silico evaluation showed that the designed vaccine might potentially promote an immune response. Further in vivo preclinical and clinical testing is required to determine the safety and efficacy of the designed vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunodominant Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Computational Biology/methods
17.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279428, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197098

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, the agent of COVID-19, caused unprecedented loss of lives and economic decline worldwide. Although the introduction of public health measures, vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics disrupted the spread of the SARS-CoV-2, the emergence of variants poses substantial threat. This study traced SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating in Uganda by July 2021 to inform the necessity for refinement of the intervention medical products. A comprehensive in silico analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 genomes detected in clinical samples collected from COVID-19 patients in Uganda revealed occurrence of structural protein variants with potential of escaping detection, resisting antibody therapy, or increased infectivity. The genome sequence dataset was retrieved from the GISAID database and the open reading frame encoding the spike, envelope, membrane, or nucleocapsid proteins was translated. The obtained protein sequences were aligned and inspected for existence of variants. The variant positions on each of the four alignment sets were mapped on predicted epitopes as well as the 3D structures. Additionally, sequences within each of the sets were clustered by family. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to assess relationship between the encountered spike protein sequences and Wuhan-Hu-1 wild-type, or the Alpha, Beta, Delta and Gamma variants of concern. Strikingly, the frequency of each of the spike protein point mutations F157L/Del, D614G and P681H/R was over 50%. The furin and the transmembrane serine protease 2 cleavage sites were unaffected by mutation. Whereas the Delta dominated the spike sequences (16.5%, 91/550), Gamma was not detected. The envelope protein was the most conserved with 96.3% (525/545) sequences being wild-type followed by membrane at 68.4% (397/580). Although the nucleocapsid protein sequences varied, the variant residue positions were less concentrated at the RNA binding domains. The dominant nucleocapsid sequence variant was S202N (34.5%, 205/595). These findings offer baseline information required for refining the existing COVID-19 vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Phylogeny , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Uganda/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Point Mutation
18.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 174(2): 246-249, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174485

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the development of prophylactic vaccines, including those based on new platforms, became highly relevant. One such platform is the creation of vaccines combining DNA and protein components in one construct. For the creation of DNA vaccine, we chose the full-length spike protein (S) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and used the recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S protein produced in CHO-K1 cells as a protein component. The immunogenicity of the developed combined vaccine and its individual components was compared and the contribution of each component to the induction of the immune response was analyzed. The combined DNA/protein vaccine possesses the advantages of both underlying approaches and is capable of inducing both humoral (similar to subunit vaccines) and cellular (similar to DNA vaccines) immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines, DNA , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, Combined , DNA , Antibodies, Viral
19.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 41(1): 112-127, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157718

ABSTRACT

The expeditious transmission of the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a strain of COVID-19, crumbled the global economic strength and caused a veritable collapse in health infrastructure. The molecular modeling of the novel coronavirus research sounds promising and equips more evidence about the pragmatic therapeutic options. This article proposes a machine-learning framework for identifying potential COVID-19 transcriptomic signatures. The transcriptomics data contains immune-related genes collected from multiple tissues (blood, nasal, and buccal) with accession number: GSE183071. Extensive bioinformatics work was carried out to identify the potential candidate markers, including differential expression analysis, protein interactions, gene ontology, and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway enrichment studies. The overlapping investigation found SERPING1, the gene that encodes a glycosylated plasma protein C1-INH, in all three datasets. Furthermore, the immuno-informatics study was conducted on the C1-INH protein. 5DU3, the protein identifier of C1-INH, was fetched to identify the antigenicity, major histocompatibility (MHC) Class I and II binding epitopes, allergenicity, toxicity, and immunogenicity. The screening of peptides satisfying the vaccine-design criteria based on the metrics mentioned above is performed. The drug-gene interaction study reported that Rhucin is strongly associated with SERPING1. HSIC-Lasso (Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion-least absolute shrinkage and selection operator), a model-free biomarker selection technique, was employed to identify the genes having a nonlinear relationship with the target class. The gene subset is trained with supervised machine learning models by a leave-one-out cross-validation method. Explainable artificial intelligence techniques perform the model interpretation analysis.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/genetics , Computational Biology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Gene Expression Profiling , Machine Learning , Immunity/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology
20.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 32(10): 1335-1343, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115579

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an emerging disease that poses a severe threat to global public health. As such, there is an urgent demand for vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Here, we describe a virus-like nanoparticle candidate vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 produced by an E. coli expression system. The fusion protein of a truncated ORF2-encoded protein of aa 439~608 (p170) from hepatitis E virus CCJD-517 and the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 were expressed, purified and characterized. The antigenicity and immunogenicity of p170-RBD were evaluated in vitro and in Kunming mice. Our investigation revealed that p170-RBD self-assembled into approximately 24 nm virus-like particles, which could bind to serum from vaccinated people (p < 0.001) and receptors on cells. Immunization with p170-RBD induced the titer of IgG antibody vaccine increased from 14 days post-immunization and was significantly enhanced after a booster immunization at 28 dpi, ultimately reaching a peak level on 42 dpi with a titer of 4.97 log10. Pseudovirus neutralization tests showed that the candidate vaccine induced a strong neutralizing antibody response in mice. In this research, we demonstrated that p170-RBD possesses strong antigenicity and immunogenicity and could be a potential candidate for use in future SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis E virus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Capsid Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Escherichia coli , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/genetics
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