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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22848, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532101

ABSTRACT

While mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are exceedingly effective in preventing symptomatic infection, their immune response features remain to be clarified. In the present prospective study, 225 healthy individuals in Japan, who received two BNT162b2 doses, were enrolled. Correlates of BNT162b2-elicited SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activity (50% neutralization titer: NT50; assessed using infectious virions) with various determinants were examined and the potency of sera against variants of concerns was determined. Significant rise in NT50s was seen in sera on day 28 post-1st dose. A moderate inverse correlation was seen between NT50s and ages, but no correlation seen between NT50s and adverse effects. NT50s and SARS-CoV-2-S1-binding-IgG levels on day 28 post-1st dose and pain scores following the 2nd dose were greater in women than in men. The average half-life of NT50s was ~ 68 days, and 23.6% (49 out of 208 individuals) failed to show detectable neutralizing activity on day 150. While sera from elite-responders (NT50s > 1,500: the top 4% among the participants) potently to moderately blocked all variants of concerns examined, some sera with low NT50s failed to block the B.1.351-beta strain. Since BNT162b2-elicited immunity against SARS-CoV-2 is short, an additional vaccine or other protective measures are needed.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Immunologic Tests , Japan , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21308, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493219

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to present and evaluate novel oral vaccines, based on self-amplifying RNA lipid nanparticles (saRNA LNPs), saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum LNPs, and saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum, to neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) variants alpha and delta. After invitro evaluation of the oral vaccines on HEK293T/17 cells, we found that saRNA LNPs, saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum LNPs, and saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum could express S-protein at both mRNA and protein levels. In the next step, BALB/c mice were orally vaccinated with saRNA LNPs, saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum LNPs, and saRNA transfected Lactobacillus plantarum at weeks 1 and 3. Importantly, a high titer of IgG and IgA was observed by all of them, sharply in week 6 (P < 0.05). In all study groups, their ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 was upper 1, indicating Th1-biased responses. Wild-type viral neutralization assay showed that the secreted antibodies in vaccinated mice and recovered COVID-19 patients could neutralize SARS-COV-2 variants alpha and delta. After oral administration of oral vaccines, biodistribution assay was done. It was found that all of them had the same biodistribution pattern. The highest concentration of S-protein was seen in the small intestine, followed by the large intestine and liver.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lactobacillus plantarum/genetics , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transfection/methods , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Models, Animal , Neutralization Tests , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tissue Distribution
4.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 75(1): 3-13, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335555

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, first recognized in China in 2019, within a few months caused a global pandemic of a disease called COVID-19. The high incidence and mortality of COVID-19 was the reason for the beginning of intensive work on the development of an effective vaccine. In Poland, mass vaccinations against this disease began at the end of December 2020. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the presented study was to determine the effectiveness of stimulating the production of specific antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 by the Pfizer vaccine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The presence of IgA and IgG antibodies to the spike (S protein) of SARSCoV-2 was tested by the ELISA/Euroimmun in serum samples obtained from 140 the employees of NIPH-NIH (137 were vaccinated). In addition, the presence of IgG antibodies to S protein, nucleoprotein, and mixture of both in selected serum samples was tested by the newly developed in NIPH-NIH in-house ELISA assay. RESULTS: IgA and IgG antibodies to the S protein of the SARS-CoV-2 were detected by ELISA/Euroimmun, respectively in 136 and in all 137 vaccinated persons. There were no statistically significant differences in the level of antibodies depending on the sex and age of the vaccinated persons. Slightly higher levels of antibodies have been demonstrated in vaccinated subjects with documented preexisting SARS-CoV-2 immunity compared to subjects without COVID-19 history. The presence of IgA and IgG antibodies was found in respectively, 18 (45.0%) and all 40 (100.0%) tested vaccinated persons by the in-house ELISA with mixture antigen. The study showed that ELISA assay with N protein as an antigen may enable the distinction between antibodies acquired after infection and after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in the presented study clearly demonstrate the high effectiveness of the Pfizer vaccine in stimulation of the human immune system to produce antibodies specific for the S protein of the SARS-CoV-2. It is necessary to continue testing vaccine antibody levels at various times after vaccination to determine the potential duration of humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Workplace/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1113-1119, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287454

ABSTRACT

The amazing effort of vaccination against COVID-19, with more than 2 billion vaccine doses administered all around the world as of 16 June 2021, has changed the history of this pandemic, drastically reducing the number of severe cases or deaths in countries were mass vaccination campaign have been carried out. However, the people's rising enthusiasm has been blunted in late February 2021 by the report of several cases of unusual thrombotic events in combination with thrombocytopenia after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Vaxzevria), and a few months later also after Ad26.COV2. S vaccines. Of note, both products used an Adenovirus-based (AdV) platform to deliver the mRNA molecule - coding for the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. A clinical entity characterized by cerebral and/or splanchnic vein thrombosis, often associated with multiple thromboses, with thrombocytopenia and bleeding, and sometimes disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), was soon recognized as a new syndrome, named vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) or thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS). VITT was mainly observed in females under 55 years of age, between 4 and 16 days after receiving only Adenovirus-based vaccine and displayed a seriously high fatality rate. This prompted the Medicine Regulatory Agencies of various countries to enforce the pharmacovigilance programs, and to provide some advices to restrict the use of AdV-based vaccines to some age groups. This point-of view is aimed at providing a comprehensive review of epidemiological issues, pathogenetic hypothesis and treatment strategies of this rare but compelling syndrome, thus helping physicians to offer an up-to dated and evidence-based counseling to their often alarmed patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Correlation of Data , Expert Testimony , Humans , Thrombocytopenia/physiopathology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods
6.
Pharm Res ; 38(3): 473-478, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117456

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has left scientists and clinicians no choice but a race to find solutions to save lives while controlling the rapid spreading. Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines have become the front-runners because of their safety profiles, precise and reproducible immune response with more cost-effective and faster production than other types of vaccines. However, the physicochemical properties of naked mRNA necessitate innovative delivery technologies to ferry these 'messengers' to ribosomes inside cells by crossing various barriers and subsequently induce an immune response. Intracellular delivery followed by endosomal escape represents the key strategies for cytoplasmic delivery of mRNA vaccines to the target. This Perspective provides insights into how state-of-the-art nanotechnology helps break the delivery barriers and advance the development of mRNA vaccines. The challenges remaining and future perspectives are outlined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytoplasm/metabolism , Drug Carriers , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles , Ribosomes/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacokinetics , Drug Compounding , Humans , Nanomedicine , Vaccines, Synthetic/chemistry
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