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1.
Acta Biomater ; 164: 387-396, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293246

ABSTRACT

Short peptides are poor immunogens. One way to increase their immune responses is by arraying immunogens in multivalency. Simple and efficient scaffolds for spatial controlling the inter-antigen distance and enhancing immune activation are required. Here, we report a molecular vaccine design principle that maximally drives potent SARS-CoV-2 RBD subunit vaccine on DNA duplex to induce robust and efficacious immune responses in vivo. We expect that the DNA-peptide epitope platform represents a facile and generalizable strategy to enhance the immune response. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: DNA scaffolds offer a biocompatible and convenient platform for arraying immunogens in multivalency antigenic peptides, and spatially control the inter-antigen distance. This can effectively enhance immune response. Peptide (instead of entire protein) vaccines are highly attractive. However, short peptides are poor immunogens. Our DNA scaffolded multivalent peptide immunogen system induced robust and efficacious immune response in vivo as demonstrated by the antigenic peptide against SARS-CoV-2. The present strategy could be readily generalized and adapted to prepare multivalent vaccines against other viruses or disease. Particularly, the different antigens could be integrated into one single vaccine and lead to super-vaccines that can protect the host from multiple different viruses or multiple variants of the same virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Combined , COVID-19/prevention & control , Peptides , DNA
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(3): 1185-1191, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 vaccination has been linked to numerous reports of menstrual disorders as potential side effects. However, menstrual cycle results after vaccination were not collected throughout clinical trials. According to other research, COVID-19 vaccination and menstrual disorders have no discernible connection, and menstrual disorders are temporary. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We asked questions about menstruation disturbances following the first and second doses of the COVID-19 vaccine in a population-based cohort of adult Saudi women to determine whether the vaccination is linked to menstrual cycle irregularities. RESULTS: According to the results, 63.9% of women experienced variations in their menstrual cycle either after the first or second dose. Such results show that COVID-19 vaccination impacts women's menstrual cycles. However, there is no need for concern because the alterations are relatively minor, and the menstrual cycle usually returns to normal within two months. Additionally, there are no obvious distinctions between the various vaccine types or body mass. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support and explain the self-reports of menstrual cycle variations. We have discussed reasons for these problems that describe the mechanism of the relationship between them and the immune response. Such reasons will help prevent hormonal imbalances and the influence of therapies and immunizations on the reproductive system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Menstruation Disturbances , Menstrual Cycle
3.
ACS Chem Biol ; 18(4): 915-923, 2023 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288615

ABSTRACT

Modification of antigens to improve their immunogenicity represents a promising direction for the development of protein vaccine. Here, we designed facilely prepared adjuvant-free vaccines in which the N-glycan of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) glycoprotein was oxidized by sodium periodate. This strategy only minimally modifies the glycans and does not interfere with the epitope peptides. The RBD glycoprotein oxidized by high concentrations of periodate (RBDHO) significantly enhanced antigen uptake mediated by scavenger receptors and promoted the activation of antigen-presenting cells. Without any external adjuvant, two doses of RBDHO elicited 324- and 27-fold increases in IgG antibody titers and neutralizing antibody titers, respectively, compared to the unmodified RBD antigen. Meanwhile, the RBDHO vaccine could cross-neutralize all of the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. In addition, RBDHO effectively enhanced cellular immune responses. This study provides a new insight for the development of adjuvant-free protein vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233101

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus pandemic has claimed more than 6.5 million lives and, despite the development and use of COVID-19 vaccines, remains a major global public health problem. The development of specific drugs for the treatment of this disease remains a very urgent task. In the context of a repurposing strategy, we previously screened a library of nucleoside analogs showing different types of biological activity against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The screening revealed compounds capable of inhibiting the reproduction of SARS-CoV-2 with EC50 values in the range of 20-50 µM. Here we present the design and synthesis of various analogs of the leader compounds, the evaluation of their cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in cell cultures, as well as experimental data on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibition. Several compounds have been shown to prevent the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the RNA substrate, likely inhibiting virus replication. Three of the synthesized compounds have also been shown to inhibit influenza virus. The structures of these compounds can be used for further optimization in order to develop an antiviral drug.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Nucleosides/chemistry , RNA, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Virus Replication , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase
5.
J Fam Pract ; 70(2): 86;89;92, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148373

ABSTRACT

Prioritized immunization is advised with the 2 COVID-19 vaccines. A third meningococcal ACWY vaccine is now the only one approved for those > 55 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Meningococcal Vaccines/pharmacology , Adolescent , Adult , Advisory Committees , Age Factors , Aged , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Young Adult
6.
J Med Chem ; 66(2): 1467-1483, 2023 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185475

ABSTRACT

Exploring potent adjuvants and new vaccine strategies is crucial for the development of protein vaccines. In this work, we synthesized a new TLR4 agonist, structurally simplified lipid A analogue GAP112, as a potent built-in adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD protein. The new TLR4 agonist GAP112 was site-selectively conjugated on the N-terminus of RBD to construct an adjuvant-protein conjugate vaccine in a liposomal formulation. It is the first time that a TLR4 agonist is site-specifically and quantitatively conjugated to a protein antigen. Compared with an unconjugated mixture of GAP112/RBD, a two-dose immunization of the GAP112-RBD conjugate vaccine strongly activated innate immune cells, elicited a 223-fold increase in RBD-specific antibodies, and markedly enhanced T-cell responses. Antibodies induced by GAP112-RBD also effectively cross-neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants (Delta/B.1.617.2 and Omicron/B.1.1.529). This conjugate strategy provides an effective method to greatly enhance the immunogenicity of antigen in protein vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and other diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liposomes , Humans , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Vaccines, Conjugate , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Antibodies
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090212

ABSTRACT

Mutations in surface proteins enable emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to escape a substantial fraction of neutralizing antibodies and may thus weaken vaccine-driven immunity. To compare available vaccines and justify revaccination, rapid evaluation of antibody (Ab) responses to currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants of interest (VOI) and concern (VOC) is needed. Here, we developed a multiplex protein microarray-based system for rapid profiling of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab levels in human sera. The microarray system was validated using sera samples from SARS-CoV-2-free donors and those diagnosed with COVID-19 based on PCR and enzyme immunoassays. Microarray-based profiling of vaccinated donors revealed a substantial difference in anti-VOC Ab levels elicited by the replication-deficient adenovirus vector-base (Sputnik V) and whole-virion (CoviVac Russia COVID-19) vaccines. Whole-virion vaccine-induced Abs showed minor but statistically significant cross-reactivity with the human blood coagulation factor 1 (fibrinogen) and thrombin. However, their effects on blood clotting were negligible, according to thrombin time tests, providing evidence against the concept of pronounced cross-reactivity-related side effects of the vaccine. Importantly, all samples were collected in the pre-Omicron period but showed noticeable responses to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the Omicron spike protein. Thus, using the new express Ab-profiling system, we confirmed the inter-variant cross-reactivity of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs and demonstrated the relative potency of the vaccines against new VOCs.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Microarray Analysis
8.
ESMO Open ; 7(5): 100574, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role and the durability of the immunogenicity of the third dose of vaccine against COVID-19 variants of concern in cancer patients have to be elucidated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have prospectively evaluated the immunogenicity of the third dose of the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine in triggering both humoral and cell-mediated immune response in patients with solid tumors undergoing active treatment 6 months after the booster. Neutralizing antibody (NT Ab) titers and total anti-spike immunoglobulin G concentrations were measured in serum. Heparinized whole blood samples were used for the SARS-CoV-2 interferon-γ release assay (IGRA). RESULTS: Six months after the third dose only two patients (2.4%) showed negative spike-specific immunoglobulin G antibody levels (<33.8 BAU/ml). The median level of SARS-CoV-2 NT Abs decreased and only 39/83 (47%) subjects showed maximum levels of NT Abs. T-cellular positive response was observed in 38/61 (62.3%) patients; the highest median level of response was observed 21 days after the third dose (354 mIU/ml, interquartile range 83.3-846.3 mIU/ml). The lowest median level of NT Ab response was observed against the Omicron variant (1 : 10, interquartile range 1 : 10-1 : 40) with a significant reduced rate of responder subjects with respect to the wild-type strain (77.5% versus 95%; P = 0.0022) and Delta variant (77.5% versus 93.7%; P = 0.0053). During the follow-up period, seven patients (8%) had a confirmed post-vaccination infection, but none of them required hospitalization or oxygen therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our work highlights a significant humoral and cellular immune response among patients with solid tumors 6 months after the third BNT162b2 vaccine dose, although a reduction in neutralizing activity against Omicron was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , BNT162 Vaccine , Longitudinal Studies , Antibodies, Viral , Viral Vaccines/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G , Immunity, Cellular , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Oxygen
9.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264994, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938426

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 severely impacted world health and, as a consequence of the measures implemented to stop the spread of the virus, also irreversibly damaged the world economy. Research shows that receiving the COVID-19 vaccine is the most successful measure to combat the virus and could also address its indirect consequences. However, vaccine hesitancy is growing worldwide and the WHO names this hesitancy as one of the top ten threats to global health. This study investigates the trend in positive attitudes towards vaccines across ten countries since a positive attitude is important. Furthermore, we investigate those variables related to having a positive attitude, as these factors could potentially increase the uptake of vaccines. We derive our text corpus from vaccine-related tweets, harvested in real-time from Twitter. Using Natural Language Processing (NLP), we derive the sentiment and emotions contained in the tweets to construct daily time-series data. We analyse a panel dataset spanning both the Northern and Southern hemispheres from 1 February 2021 to 31 July 2021. To determine the relationship between several variables and the positive sentiment (attitude) towards vaccines, we run various models, including POLS, Panel Fixed Effects and Instrumental Variables estimations. Our results show that more information about vaccines' safety and the expected side effects are needed to increase positive attitudes towards vaccines. Additionally, government procurement and the vaccine rollout should improve. Accessibility to the vaccine should be a priority, and a collective effort should be made to increase positive messaging about the vaccine, especially on social media. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the emotional challenges associated with vaccine uptake and inform policymakers, health workers, and stakeholders who communicate to the public during infectious disease outbreaks. Additionally, the global fight against COVID-19 might be lost if the attitude towards vaccines is not improved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Attitude , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Emotions , Global Health , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Natural Language Processing , Optimism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Media , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/trends , Vaccination Hesitancy/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Hesitancy/trends , Vaccines
11.
Br J Haematol ; 198(4): 668-679, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874397

ABSTRACT

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients remain at high risk of adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and emerging variants. The optimal prophylactic vaccine strategy for this cohort is not defined. T cell-mediated immunity is a critical component of graft-versus-tumour effect and in determining vaccine immunogenicity. Using validated anti-spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and S-specific interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFNγ-ELIspot) assays we analysed response to a two-dose vaccination schedule (either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) in 33 HSCT recipients at ≤2 years from transplant, alongside vaccine-matched healthy controls (HCs). After two vaccines, infection-naïve HSCT recipients had a significantly lower rate of seroconversion compared to infection-naïve HCs (25/32 HSCT vs. 39/39 HCs no responders) and had lower S-specific T-cell responses. The HSCT recipients who received BNT162b2 had a higher rate of seroconversion compared to ChAdOx1 (89% vs. 74%) and significantly higher anti-S IgG titres (p = 0.022). S-specific T-cell responses were seen after one vaccine in HCs and HSCT recipients. However, two vaccines enhanced S-specific T-cell responses in HCs but not in the majority of HSCT recipients. These data demonstrate limited immunogenicity of two-dose vaccination strategies in HSCT recipients, bolstering evidence of the need for additional boosters and/or alternative prophylactic measures in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , Bone Marrow Transplantation/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Seroconversion , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820291

ABSTRACT

During the sustained COVID-19 pandemic, global mass vaccination to achieve herd immunity can prevent further viral spread and mutation. A protein subunit vaccine that is safe, effective, stable, has few storage restrictions, and involves a liable manufacturing process would be advantageous to distribute around the world. Here, we designed and produced a recombinant spike (S)-Trimer that is maintained in a prefusion state and exhibits a high ACE2 binding affinity. Rodents received different doses of S-Trimer (0.5, 5, or 20 µg) antigen formulated with aluminum hydroxide (Alum) or an emulsion-type adjuvant (SWE), or no adjuvant. After two vaccinations, the antibody response, T-cell responses, and number of follicular helper T-cells (Tfh) or germinal center (GC) B cells were assessed in mice; the protective efficacy was evaluated on a Syrian hamster infection model. The mouse studies demonstrated that adjuvating the S-Trimer with SWE induced a potent humoral immune response and Th1-biased cellular immune responses (in low dose) that were superior to those induced by Alum. In the Syrian hamster studies, when S-Trimer was adjuvanted with SWE, higher levels of neutralizing antibodies were induced against live SARS-CoV-2 from the original lineage and against the emergence of variants (Beta or Delta) with a slightly decreased potency. In addition, the SWE adjuvant demonstrated a dose-sparing effect; thus, a lower dose of S-Trimer as an antigen (0.5 µg) can induce comparable antisera and provide complete protection from viral infection. These data support the utility of SWE as an adjuvant to enhance the immunogenicity of the S-Trimer vaccine, which is feasible for further clinical testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Th1 Cells , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Cricetinae , Emulsions , Humans , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology
13.
Med (N Y) ; 3(5): 309-324.e6, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019, viral variants with greater transmissibility or immune-evasion properties have arisen, which could jeopardize recently deployed vaccine- and antibody-based countermeasures. METHODS: Here, we evaluated in mice and hamsters the efficacy of a pre-clinical version of the Moderna mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273) and the Johnson & Johnson recombinant adenoviral-vectored vaccine (Ad26.COV2.S) against the B.1.621 (Mu) variant of SARS-CoV-2, which contains spike mutations T95I, Y144S, Y145N, R346K, E484K, N501Y, D614G, P681H, and D950N. FINDINGS: Immunization of 129S2 and K18-human ACE2 transgenic mice with the mRNA-1273 vaccine protected against weight loss, lung infection, and lung pathology after challenge with the B.1.621 or WA1/2020 N501Y/D614G SARS-CoV-2 strain. Similarly, immunization of 129S2 mice and Syrian hamsters with a high dose of Ad26.COV2.S reduced lung infection after B.1.621 virus challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, immunity induced by the mRNA-1273 or Ad26.COV2.S vaccine can protect against the B.1.621 variant of SARS-CoV-2 in multiple animal models. FUNDING: This study was supported by the NIH (R01 AI157155 and U01 AI151810), NIAID Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Response [CEIRR] contracts 75N93021C00014 and 75N93021C00016, and the Collaborative Influenza Vaccine Innovation Centers [CIVIC] contract 75N93019C00051. It was also supported, in part, by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Center for Research on Influenza Pathogenesis (HHSN272201400008C) and the Japan Program for Infectious Diseases Research and Infrastructure (JP21wm0125002) from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , mRNA Vaccines , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/pharmacology , Ad26COVS1 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Cricetinae , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/pharmacology
14.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263155, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793533

ABSTRACT

With limited availability of vaccines, an efficient use of the limited supply of vaccines in order to achieve herd immunity will be an important tool to combat the wide-spread prevalence of COVID-19. Here, we compare a selection of strategies for vaccine distribution, including a novel targeted vaccination approach (EHR) that provides a noticeable increase in vaccine impact on disease spread compared to age-prioritized and random selection vaccination schemes. Using high-fidelity individual-based computer simulations with Oslo, Norway as an example, we find that for a community reproductive number in a setting where the base pre-vaccination reproduction number R = 2.1 without population immunity, the EHR method reaches herd immunity at 48% of the population vaccinated with 90% efficiency, whereas the common age-prioritized approach needs 89%, and a population-wide random selection approach requires 61%. We find that age-based strategies have a substantially weaker impact on epidemic spread and struggle to achieve herd immunity under the majority of conditions. Furthermore, the vaccination of minors is essential to achieving herd immunity, even for ideal vaccines providing 100% protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Epidemics , Humans , Immunity, Herd/immunology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination , Vaccines
15.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263351, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793531

ABSTRACT

Pandemics, such as the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, represents a health threat to humans worldwide. During times of heightened health risks, the public's perceptions, and acceptance of evidence-based preventive measures, such as vaccines, is of high relevance. Moreover, people might seek other preventive remedies to protect themselves from getting infected (e.g., herbal remedies, nutritional supplements). A recent study on consumers' preference for naturalness showed that people put more weight on perceived naturalness of a preventive remedy compared to a curative one. This result was attributed to the increased focus on perceived effectiveness as opposed to perceived risk. This raises the question whether the current pandemic would shift people's perceptions from prevention to curing and thus, exhibit a preference for synthetic remedies because they are seen as more effective. The present online experiment (conducted in April 2021) investigated people's perceptions of vaccines and remedies within the context of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. A 2x2 between-subject design with type of remedy (natural vs. synthetic) and salience of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (high vs. low) was conducted in Switzerland in spring 2021 (N = 452). The data did not provide evidence of a curative mindset for preventive remedies, as the participants exhibited a clear preference for the natural remedy compared to the synthetic remedy. Our study stresses the importance of understanding people's mindsets on how to protect themselves from infection with a virus during an ongoing pandemic to tackle misinformation and vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Communication , Consumer Behavior , Dissent and Disputes , Female , Humans , Information Dissemination , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Switzerland , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy/trends , Vaccines
16.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263671, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742001

ABSTRACT

Novel therapeutic strategies are needed to control the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) pandemic. Here, we present a protocol to anchor the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S-)protein in the cytoplasmic membranes of erythrocyte liposomes. A surfactant was used to stabilize the S-protein's structure in the aqueous environment before insertion and to facilitate reconstitution of the S-proteins in the erythrocyte membranes. The insertion process was studied using coarse grained Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Liposome formation and S-protein anchoring was studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS), ELV-protein co-sedimentation assays, fluorescent microcopy and cryo-TEM. The Erythro-VLPs (erythrocyte based virus like particles) have a well defined size of ∼200 nm and an average protein density on the outer membrane of up to ∼300 proteins/µm2. The correct insertion and functional conformation of the S-proteins was verified by dose-dependent binding to ACE-2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) in biolayer interferometry (BLI) assays. Seroconversion was observed in a pilot mouse trial after 14 days when administered intravenously, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). This red blood cell based platform can open novel possibilities for therapeutics for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) including variants, and other viruses in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Erythrocyte Membrane , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Erythrocyte Membrane/chemistry , Erythrocyte Membrane/immunology , Female , Liposomes , Mice , Pilot Projects , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/pharmacology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/chemistry , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/pharmacology
17.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(10): 1703-1705, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740876

ABSTRACT

The recent emergency use authorization of a third COVID-19 vaccine means that most patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) will soon be eligible to be vaccinated. Gastroenterology clinicians should be prepared to address patients' concerns regarding safety and efficacy of vaccines. They should also strongly recommend that all their patients be vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine. Additionally, they should be prepared to educate patients about logistics that will result in successful vaccination completion. All these measures will be crucial to ensure high uptake among their patients with IBD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Gastroenterologists , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/psychology , Patient Participation/methods , Patient Participation/psychology , Physician's Role , Preventive Health Services , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/methods
18.
Korean J Intern Med ; 37(2): 455-459, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Data comparing the antibody responses of different coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine platforms according to dose with natural severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-induced antibody responses are limited. METHODS: Blood samples from adult patients with mild and severe COVID-19 and healthcare workers who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (2nd dose at 12-week intervals) and BNT162b2 vaccine (2nd dose at 3-week intervals) were collected and compared by immunoglobulin G immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 specific spike protein using an in-house-developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A total of 53 patients, including 12 and 41 with mild and severe COVID-19, respectively, were analyzed. In addition, a total of 73 healthcare workers, including 37 who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and 36 who received BNT162b2, were enrolled. Antibody responses after the first and second doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine or the first dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine were similar to those in convalescent patients with mild COVID-19, but lower than those in convalescent patients with severe COVID-19, respectively. However, after the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine, the antibody response was comparable to that in convalescent patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the second dose of mRNA vaccination may be more beneficial in terms of long-term immunity and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 variant infection than a single dose of COVID-19 vaccination or homologous second challenge ChAdOx1 nCoV-19.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibody Formation/drug effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/pharmacology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/pharmacology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/therapeutic use , Humans
19.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(24): 3925-3928, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730326

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants are important components in vaccines to increase the immunogenicity of proteins and induce optimal immunity. In this study, we designed a novel ternary adjuvant system Alum + c-GAMP + poly(I:C) with STING agonist 3,3'-c-GAMP (c-GAMP) and TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) co-adsorbed on the conventional adjuvant aluminum gel (Alum), and further constructed an S1 protein vaccine. Two doses of vaccination with the ternary adjuvant vaccine were sufficient to induce a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response and robust humoral and cellular immunity. Additionally, the ternary adjuvant group had effective neutralizing activity against live virus SARS-CoV-2 and pseudovirus of all variants of concern (alpha, beta, gamma, delta and omicron). These results indicate that the ternary adjuvants have a significant synergistic effect and can rapidly trigger potent immune responses; the combination of the ternary adjuvant system with S1 protein is a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Alum Compounds , Aluminum , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Poly I
20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 69, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721495

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and the gradually decreasing neutralizing antibodies over time post vaccination have led to an increase in incidents of breakthrough infection across the world. To investigate the potential protective effect of the recombinant protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine targeting receptor-binding domain (RBD) (PS-RBD) and whole inactivated virus particle vaccine (IV) against the variant strains, in this study, rhesus macaques were immunized with PS-RBD or IV vaccine, followed by a Beta variant (B.1.351) challenge. Although neutralizing activity against the Beta variant was reduced compared with that against the prototype, the decreased viral load in both upper and lower respiratory tracts, milder pathological changes, and downregulated inflammatory cytokine levels in lung tissues after challenge demonstrated that PS-RBD and IV still provided effective protection against the Beta variant in the macaque model. Furthermore, PS-RBD-induced macaque sera possessed general binding and neutralizing activity to Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants in our study, though the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers declined by varying degrees, demonstrating potential protection of PS-RBD against current circulating variants of concern (VOCs). Interestingly, although the IV vaccine-induced extremely low neutralizing antibody titers against the Beta variant, it still showed reduction for viral load and significantly alleviated pathological change. Other correlates of vaccine-induced protection (CoP) like antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and immune memory were both confirmed to be existing in IV vaccinated group and possibly be involved in the protective mechanism.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/pharmacology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology
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