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1.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 475-489, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101547

ABSTRACT

The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections featured new and important findings about the neurologic complications of HIV-1, COVID-19, and other infections. Long-term analyses identified that cognitive decline over time, phenotypic aging, and stroke are associated with various comorbidities in people with HIV. Neuroimaging studies showed greater neuroinflammation, white matter damage, demyelination, and overall brain aging in people with chronic HIV infection. Childhood trauma and exposure to environmental pollutants contribute to these neuroimaging findings. Studies of blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers showed that systemic inflammation, neurodegeneration, endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and iron dysregulation are associated with worse cognition in people with HIV. Some animal studies focused on myeloid cells of the central nervous system, but other animal and human studies showed that lymphoid cells also contribute to HIV neuropathogenesis. The deleterious central nervous system effects of polypharmacy and anticholinergic drugs in people with HIV were demonstrated. In contrast, a large randomized controlled trial showed that integrase strand transfer inhibitor therapy was not associated with neurotoxicity. Studies of cryptococcal meningitis demonstrated he cost-effectiveness of single high-dose liposomal amphotericin and the prognostic value of the cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay. People hospitalized with COVID-19 had more anxiety over time after discharge. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen is present in cerebrospinal fluid in the absence of viral RNA. Systemic inflammation, astrocyte activation, and tryptophan metabolism pathways are associated with post-COVID-19 neurologic syndromes. Whether these processes are independent or intertwined during HIV-1 and COVID-19 infections requires further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Nervous System Diseases , Male , Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation
2.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 67(10): 561-569, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101091

ABSTRACT

The study of the characteristics and dynamics of laboratory biomarkers in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent COVID-19-associated pneumonia is of great clinical importance for preventing the risk of adverse events. IN the study we used data from 65 patients in the present work. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included patients with CVD: arterial hypertension (AH) in combination with coronary artery disease (CAD) without DM2 (n=45), group 2 included patients with CVD and DM2 (n=20). Patients were examined at baseline in the infectious disease hospital and 3 months after discharge. During laboratory examination of blood biosamples we evaluated parameters of general blood test; biochemical and immunologicai parameters; elastic properties of the vascular wall. The analyzed leukocyte parameters and their index coefficients - increase in NLR ratio (neutrophils/lymphocytes) and decrease in LYM/CRP ratio (lymphocytes/CRP) were more significantly changed in DM2 group. Patients in both groups had a significant excess of baseline max CRP concentrations with decrease in parameters after 3 months, but with persistent excess values in group 2. Three months after discharge patients with DM2 had levels of hs-CRP, IL-1ß and TNFa and NT-proBNP, that exceeded both the reference values and those in group 1, which reflected the presence of more pronounced vascular inflammatory potential for possible adverse events in this group of patients in post-COVID period. The method of multiple regression showed that DM2 is an independent risk factor for increased stiffness of the vascular wall. Thus, dynamic control of laboratory parameters has prognostic value in assessing the nature of the course of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in patients with CVD and DM2 developing an algorithm for personalized monitoring of patients in the post-COVID period with the aim of timely prevention of unwanted vascular complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Biomarkers
3.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(6): 577-587, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100904

ABSTRACT

Background: Transplanted patients receiving immunosuppressive agents are at a higher risk of Coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19), and their polypharmacy state makes the choice of treatment challenging. This study aimed to assess the drug-related problems (DRP) and clinical pharmacists' interventions to manage transplanted patients and candidates for transplantation with COVID-19. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the COVID-19 intensive care unit of Shiraz Organ Transplantation Center (Iran), from March 2020 to April 2021. Patients were admitted to the COVID-19 intensive care unit based on clinical symptoms or positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. The clinical pharmacist reviewed all medications and physicians' orders on a daily basis and evaluated DRPs in accordance with the pharmaceutical care network of Europe (PCNE) classification (V 8.01). The treatment team was informed of the DRPs, and the acceptance or rejection of the intervention was also documented. Data were analyzed using SPSS (Version 25.0). In order to determine the proportion and determinants of drug-related problems, descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied, respectively. Results: A clinical pharmacist reviewed 631 individuals with 11770 medication orders, and 639 DRPs were found in 69% of them with an average of 1.01±1 per patient. The most commonly reported DRPs were treatment efficacy issues followed by adverse drug reactions (ADRs). A total of 982 interventions were provided at prescriber, patient, and drug levels, of which 801 were accepted, and 659 (82.27%) were fully implemented. Conclusion: There have been considerable drug-related issues in managing transplanted patients with COVID-19. DRPs are more common in people with polypharmacy, more than three comorbidities, and hydroxychloroquine regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Iran/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation
4.
In Vivo ; 36(6): 2800-2805, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to determine whether psychological stress associated with the COVID-19 pandemic might exacerbate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and decrease lower urinary tract function in outpatients with LUTS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 104 patients who visited our hospital during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological stress was evaluated by the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18). Subjects were divided into aggravation and non-aggravation of psychological stress groups according to the SRS-18. LUTS was evaluated according to the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Lower urinary tract function was evaluated as the post-void residual urine volume (PVR). Comparisons of scores and changes in scores of each parameter before versus during/after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic were performed between the two groups. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were included in each group. We observed no significant differences in the comparison of scores at each time point and in changes in total IPSS score, voiding symptom subscores and PVR between the two groups. Although no significant differences in storage symptom subscores were observed between the two groups, changes in storage symptom subscores increased significantly during the first wave of the pandemic in the aggravation of psychological stress group (p=0.02). However, no significant increase was observed after the first wave. CONCLUSION: Psychological stress during the COVID-19 pandemic might transiently aggravate storage symptoms in patients with LUTS. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of transient worsening of LUTS during future pandemics, and transiently additional medication might be effective in such patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Male , Humans , Prostatic Hyperplasia/drug therapy , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/epidemiology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/etiology , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological
5.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 28(11): 1655-1658, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100494

ABSTRACT

The pulmonary symptoms secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome in coronavirus (COVID-19) infections are the most common presentation for the disease; however, it is now known that in a small portion of patients, severe hemorrhagic complications can also be seen. In this report, three cases of elderly women with known COVID-19 infection, developing spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma on anticoagulation therapy, are presented. Three cases presented above emphasize the need to perform a computed tomography examination after a sudden hemodynamic deterioration and a decrease in hemoglobin count in COVID-19 patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Since this clinical deterioration can be caused by spontaneous rectus sheath hematomas (RSH), it must be taken into consideration while examination. If these RSHs rupture into the abdominal cavity, the outcome may be fatal in few hours as represented in two of our cases. Major spontaneous hemorrhage in COVID-19 patients is quite uncommon; therefore, it may cause serious complications as it is rarely taken into consideration. Failure to acknowledge such a risk could significantly worsen the prognosis of the patients especially in ERs and ICUs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muscular Diseases , Humans , Female , Aged , Rectus Abdominis/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Hematoma/etiology , Hematoma/complications , Muscular Diseases/complications , Muscular Diseases/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
6.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 52(5): 324-330, 2022 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100078

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Retinal vascular complications have been described in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to analyze retinal microvascular changes and their correlations with clinical findings. Materials and Methods: This case-controlled study was conducted in a university hospital. The right eyes of 52 otherwise healthy patients recovered from COVID-19 and 42 healthy controls were examined with optical coherence tomography angiography. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare vessel density (VD) and foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters. Associations with treatment choices, pneumonia, and laboratory findings were analyzed. Results: Twenty-nine patients (56%) and 18 healthy controls (43%) were men. Mean age of the COVID-19 group was 39.00±13.04 years. Twenty-two patients had pneumonia, 18 (35%) received hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), 17 (33%) received HCQ plus low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and 10 (19%) received favipiravir. The patient group had lower parafoveal VD in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and lower parafoveal VD and perifoveal VD in the deep capillary plexus (DCP) than controls (p=0.003, p=0.004, p=0.001). FAZ area did not differ significantly (p=0.953). Perifoveal VD in the DCP was also significantly lower in the HCQ+LMWH group than the HCQ group (p=0.020) and in the presence of pneumonia (p=0.040). C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin levels were negatively correlated with perifoveal VD in the DCP (r=-0.445, p=0.023; r=-0.451, p=0.040). Ferritin was also negatively correlated with parafoveal VD in the SCP (r=-0.532, p=0.013). Conclusion: Parafoveal and perifoveal VD was found to be lower in the COVID-19 group. Presence of pneumonia, need for LMWH prophylaxis, and levels of CRP and ferritin were found to be negatively associated with retinal VD. Large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the clinical importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Male , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Fovea Centralis , COVID-19/complications , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Ferritins
7.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(39): 5735-5749, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was perhaps the most severe global health crisis in living memory. Alongside respiratory symptoms, elevated liver enzymes, abnormal liver function, and even acute liver failure were reported in patients suffering from severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2 pneumonia. However, the precise triggers of these forms of liver damage and how they affect the course and outcomes of COVID-19 itself remain unclear. AIM: To analyze the impact of liver enzyme abnormalities on the severity and outcomes of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. METHODS: In this study, 684 depersonalized medical records from patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during the 2020-2021 period were analyzed. COVID-19 was diagnosed according to the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health (2021). Patients were assigned to two groups: those with elevated liver enzymes (Group 1: 603 patients), where at least one out of four liver enzymes were elevated (following the norm of hospital laboratory tests: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥ 40, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ≥ 40, gamma-glutamyl transferase ≥ 36, or alkaline phosphatase ≥ 150) at any point of hospitalization, from admission to discharge; and the control group (Group 2: 81 patients), with normal liver enzymes during hospitalization. COVID-19 severity was assessed according to the interim World Health Organization guidance (2022). Data on viral pneumonia complications, laboratory tests, and underlying diseases were also collected and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 603 (88.2%) patients produced abnormal liver test results. ALT and AST levels were elevated by a factor of less than 3 in 54.9% and 74.8% of cases with increased enzyme levels, respectively. Patients in Group 1 had almost double the chance of bacterial viral pneumonia complications [odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, P = 0.0217], required oxygen supply more often, and displayed higher biochemical inflammation indices than those in Group 2. No differences in other COVID-19 complications or underlying diseases were observed between groups. Preexisting hepatitis of a different etiology was rarely documented (in only 3.5% of patients), and had no impact on the severity of COVID-19. Only 5 (0.73%) patients experienced acute liver failure, 4 of whom died. Overall, the majority of the deceased patients (17 out of 20) had elevated liver enzymes, and most were male. All deceased patients had at least one underlying disease or combination thereof, and the deceased suffered significantly more often from heart diseases, hypertension, and urinary tract infections than those who made recoveries. Alongside male gender (OR = 1.72, P = 0.0161) and older age (OR = 1.02, P = 0.0234), diabetes (OR = 3.22, P = 0.0016) and hyperlipidemia (OR = 2.67, P = 0.0238), but not obesity, were confirmed as independent factors associated with more a severe COVID-19 infection in our cohort. CONCLUSION: In our study, the presence of liver impairment allows us to predict a more severe inflammation with a higher risk of bacterial complication and worse outcomes of COVID-19. Therefore, patients with severe disease forms should have their liver tests monitored regularly and their results should be considered when selecting treatment to avoid further liver damage or even insufficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Pneumonia, Viral , United States , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Liver Failure, Acute/complications , Inflammation/complications
8.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(39): 5723-5730, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099934

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 is an infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and was declared a global pandemic with more than 500 million reported cases and more than 6 million deaths worldwide to date. Although it has transitioned into the endemic phase in many countries, the mortality rate and overall prognosis of the disease are still abysmal and need further improvement. There has been evidence that shows the significance of SARS-CoV-2-related liver injury. Here, we review the literature on the various spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced liver injury and the possible mechanisms of damage to the hepatobiliary system. This review aimed to illustrate the latest understanding regarding SARS-CoV-2-induced liver injury including the high-risk populations, the characteristic clinical manifestations, the possible pathogenic mechanism, the pathological changes, the current suggestions for clinical treatment for various spectrum of populations, and the prognosis of the condition. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 patients with a liver injury warrant close monitoring as it is associated with the more severe and poorer outcome of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury, Chronic , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(39): 5666-5678, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099933

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease which emerged into a global pandemic. Although it primarily causes respiratory symptoms for affected patients, COVID-19 was shown to have multi-organ manifestations. Elevated liver enzymes appear to be commonly observed during the course of COVID-19, and there have been numerous reports of liver injury secondary to COVID-19 infection. It has been established that patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease (CLD) are more likely to have poorer outcomes following COVID-19 infection compared to those without CLD. Co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease frequently co-exist in individuals living with CLD, and a substantial population may also live with some degree of frailty. The mechanisms of how COVID-19 induces liver injury have been postulated. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is the occurrence of kidney dysfunction in patients with severe CLD/fulminant liver failure in the absence of another identifiable cause, and is usually a marker of severe decompensated liver disease. Select reports of HRS following acute COVID-19 infection have been presented, although the risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms leading to HRS in COVID-19 infection or following COVID-19 treatment remain largely unestablished due to the relative lack and novelty of published data. Evidence discussing the management of HRS in high-dependency care and intensive care contexts is only emerging. In this article, we provide an overview on the speculative pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19 induced HRS and propose strategies for clinical diagnosis and management to optimize outcomes in this scenario.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatorenal Syndrome , Liver Diseases , Humans , Hepatorenal Syndrome/epidemiology , Hepatorenal Syndrome/etiology , Hepatorenal Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/therapy , Liver Diseases/complications
10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(37): 5444-5456, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is associated with complications and mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are no prognostic scores aimed to evaluate the risk of severe disease specifically in patients with MAFLD, despite its high prevalence. Lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase have been used as markers of liver damage. Therefore, we propose an index based on lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase for the prediction of complications and mortality in patients with MAFLD and COVID-19. AIM: To evaluate the prognostic performance of an index based on lactate dehydrogenase and transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase) in patients with COVID-19 and MAFLD [liver fibrosis and nutrition (LNF)-COVID-19 index]. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, two cohorts from two different tertiary centers were included. The first was the derivation cohort to obtain the score cutoffs, and the second was the validation cohort. We included hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 and MAFLD. Liver steatosis was evaluated by computed tomography scan. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and survival analysis were used. RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, 44.6% had MAFLD; ROC curve analysis yielded a LFN-COVID-19 index > 1.67 as the best cutoff, with a sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 63%, negative predictive value of 91% and an area under the ROC curve of 0.77. In the multivariate analysis, the LFN-COVID-19 index > 1.67 was independently associated with the development of acute kidney injury (odds ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.5, P < 0.001), orotracheal intubation (odds ratio: 1.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-2.4, P < 0.001), and death (odds ratio: 2.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.6-4.5, P < 0.001) in both cohorts. CONCLUSION: LFN-COVID-19 index has a good performance to predict prognosis in patients with MAFLD and COVID-19, which could be useful for the MAFLD population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Liver , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Alanine Transaminase , Retrospective Studies , Fatty Liver/complications , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Prognosis , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Oxidoreductases , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications
11.
Br J Biomed Sci ; 79: 10426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099102

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organisation has reported that the viral disease known as COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is the leading cause of death by a single infectious agent. This narrative review examines certain components of the pandemic: its origins, early clinical data, global and UK-focussed epidemiology, vaccination, variants, and long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
12.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 296, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant treatment is recommended for at least three months after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but the persistent pulmonary clot burden after that time is unknown. METHODS: Lung perfusion was assessed by ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) SPECT/CT in 20 consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated acute PE after a minimum of three months anticoagulation therapy in a retrospective observational study. RESULTS: Remaining perfusion defects after a median treatment period of six months were observed in only two patients. All patients (13 men, seven women, mean age 55.6 ± 14.5 years) were on non-vitamin K direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). No recurrent venous thromboembolism or anticoagulant-related bleeding complications were observed. Among patients with partial clinical recovery, high-risk PE and persistent pulmonary infiltrates were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001, respectively). INTERPRETATION: Temporary DOAC treatment seems to be safe and efficacious for resolving pulmonary clot burden in SARS-CoV-2-associated acute PE. Partial clinical recovery is more likely caused by prolonged SARS-CoV-2-related parenchymal lung damage rather than by persistent pulmonary perfusion defects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Perfusion
13.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(12): 1614-1624, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098205

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The appraisal of disease severity and prediction of adverse outcomes using risk stratification tools at early disease stages is crucial to diminish mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While lung ultrasound (LUS) as an imaging technique for the diagnosis of lung diseases has recently gained a leading position, data demonstrating that it can predict adverse outcomes related to COVID-19 is scarce. The main aim of this study is therefore to assess the clinical significance of bedside LUS in COVID-19 patients who presented to the emergency department (ED). Methods: Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to the ED of our hospital between March 2021 and May 2021 and who underwent a 12-zone LUS and a lung computed tomography scan were included prospectively. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used to predict adverse events, which was our primary outcome. The secondary outcome was to discover the association of LUS score and computed tomography severity score (CT-SS) with the composite endpoints. Results: We assessed 234 patients [median age 59.0 (46.8-68.0) years; 59.4% M), including 38 (16.2%) in-hospital deaths for any cause related to COVID-19. Higher LUS score and CT-SS was found to be associated with ICU admission, intubation, and mortality. The LUS score predicted mortality risk within each stratum of NEWS. Pairwise analysis demonstrated that after adjusting a base prediction model with LUS score, significantly higher accuracy was observed in predicting both ICU admission (DBA -0.067, P = .011) and in-hospital mortality (DBA -0.086, P = .017). Conclusion: Lung ultrasound can be a practical prediction tool during the course of COVID-19 and can quantify pulmonary involvement in ED settings. It is a powerful predictor of ICU admission, intubation, and mortality and can be used as an alternative for chest computed tomography while monitoring COVID-19-related adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Point-of-Care Systems , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Semin Neurol ; 42(4): 512-522, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096904

ABSTRACT

Medication overuse headache (MOH), new daily persistent headache (NDPH), and persistent refractory headache attributed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection represent a significant burden in terms of disability and quality of life, and a challenge in terms of definition, pathophysiology, and treatment. Regarding MOH, prevention without withdrawal is not inferior to prevention with withdrawal. Preventive medications like topiramate, onabotulinumtoxinA, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) monoclonal antibodies improve chronic migraine with MOH regardless of withdrawal. The differential diagnosis of NDPH is broad and should be carefully examined. There are no guidelines for the treatment of NDPH, but options include a short course of steroids, nerve blocks, topiramate, nortriptyline, gabapentin, CGRP monoclonal antibodies, and onabotulinumtoxinA. The persistence of headache 3 months after SARS-CoV2 infection is a predictor of poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins, Type A , COVID-19 , Headache Disorders, Secondary , Headache Disorders , Humans , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/therapeutic use , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Topiramate/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Headache Disorders, Secondary/diagnosis , Headache Disorders, Secondary/drug therapy , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
16.
Indian Pediatr ; 59(7): 563-569, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With wide clinical spectrum, multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children (MIS-C) is a relatively novel condition occurring weeks to months' post SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim was to systematically review data on clinical features, laboratory parameters and therapeutics of MIS-C from India. Methods: This systematic review was done as per the PRISMA guidelines, and quality assessment was done using NIH tool for case-series. A systematic search through databases yielded studies whose data was pooled to calculate the mean frequencies with standard deviation using GraphPad software. RESULTS: Screening of 2548 articles published till December, 2021, yielded 11 case-series. World Health Organization case definition was used widely. There was a slight preponderance of males (57%), median (IQR) age was 7 (6,7) years, 63% (n=305) required intensive care unit admissions, and mortality rate was 10% (n=261). Clinical features included fever, mucocutaneous features (72%), and gastrointestinal problems (62%) in majority. Widely used treatment was corticosteroids (76%) and intravenous immunoglobulin (62%) with other options depending on patient's state. An increased level of inflammatory markers and derangement in other parameters corroborated with disease status. Kawasaki disease like features, not reported in many studies, ranged from 4-76% of patients. CONCLUSION: MIS-C presents with a wide spectrum clinical features, increased inflammatory markers and managed as per the disease course and presentation. Future studies monitoring the long-term effects of MIS-C are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
17.
Croat Med J ; 63(5): 448-452, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092960

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess the differences in clinical and laboratory parameters of non-hospitalized patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) according to the SARS-CoV-2 status. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed demographic, clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound data of adult patients admitted to the Emergency Department of University Hospital Split between March 2020 and January 2021. Patients were classified into three groups: recent COVID-19 (<1 month), non-recent COVID-19 (1 to 12 months), and non-COVID-19. RESULTS: Fifty (47.2%) of 106 patients had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection (23 patients in the recent COVID-19 and 27 in non-recent COVID-19 group). The three groups did not significantly differ in demographic and clinical parameters, including the location of deep venous thrombosis. The recent COVID-19 group had significantly higher neutrophils and CRP levels, and significantly lower prothrombin than the other two groups. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm the role of elevated inflammatory and coagulation response in DVT development in the first month after the infection, but not in non-recent COVID-19 or non-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thrombosis , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Risk Factors
18.
Croat Med J ; 63(5): 431-437, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092956

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate stroke characteristics in patients with concomitant coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Croatia during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective study investigated the characteristics of two groups of ischemic stroke patients: those who developed COVID-19 infection before stroke and those who developed the infection during the hospital stay after stroke onset. Stroke etiology was classified according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 255 stroke patients from 12 Croatian hospitals. The two groups of ischemic stroke patients differed in stroke etiology (P=0.038). Patients with COVID-19 infection before stroke had fewer cardioembolic strokes (46% vs 29.1%), more cryptogenic strokes (32.5% vs 14.3%), and more strokes in multiple vascular territories (12.4% vs 1.8%). The percentage of large-vessel occlusions was high in both groups (49.6% and 44.4%). Median modified Rankin Scale score on discharge was 4 in both groups. Mortality was 36.4% in the group with stroke after COVID-19 and 33.3% in the group with COVID-19 after stroke. CONCLUSION: Ischemic stroke after COVID-19 differs in etiology from ischemic stroke complicated by COVID-19 infection. Both patient groups are characterized by severe disability and high mortality. Raising the awareness of prehospital stroke and optimization of clinical workflow are important if we want to improve the stroke outcomes by acute recanalization techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Croatia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology
19.
Croat Med J ; 63(5): 490-494, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092263

ABSTRACT

Acquired antibodies against factor II (prothrombin) are rare and most commonly associated with severe liver disease or vitamin K antagonist treatment. In very rare cases, these antibodies and associated hypoprothrombinemia are found in patients with lupus anticoagulant (LAC), an antiphospholipid antibody that inhibits phospholipid-dependent coagulation tests. This uncommon entity, called lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LAHPS), may cause both severe, life-threatening bleeding and a predisposition to thrombosis. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a variety of coagulation abnormalities and an increased risk of thrombosis. Bleeding may occur, but it is less common than thromboembolism and has mostly been described in association with the severity of the disease and anticoagulation treatment in hospitalized patients, rarely in the post-acute phase of the disease. We report on a case of an 80-year-old man who developed LAHPS with prothrombin antibodies and severe bleeding after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , COVID-19 , Hypoprothrombinemias , Male , Humans , Aged, 80 and over , Hypoprothrombinemias/complications , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor , COVID-19/complications , Prothrombin , Disease Susceptibility/complications , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Hemorrhage/etiology
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e937147, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is used as a treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Severe hypoxia with hypoxic vasoconstriction caused by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can induce pulmonary hypertension with hemodynamic implications, mainly secondary to right ventricle (RV) systolic function impairment. We report the case of the use of iNO in a critically ill patient with bilateral SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and severe ARDS and hypoxemia leading to acute severe PAH, causing a ventilation/perfusion mismatch, RV pressure overload, and RV systolic dysfunction. CASE REPORT A 36-year-old woman was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with a severe ARDS associated with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Severe hypoxia and hypoxic vasoconstriction developed, leading to an acute increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, severe to moderate tricuspid regurgitation, RV pressure overload, RV systolic function impairment, and RV dilatation. Following 24 h of treatment with iNO at 15 ppm, significant oxygenation and hemodynamic improvement were noted, allowing vasopressors to be stopped. After 24 h of iNO treatment, echocardiography showed very mild tricuspid regurgitation, a non-dilated RV, no impairment of transverse free wall contractility, and no paradoxical septal motion. iNO was maintained for 7 days. The dose of iNO was progressively decreased with no adverse effects and maintaining an improvement of oxygenation and hemodynamic status, allowing respiratory weaning. CONCLUSIONS Sustained acute hypoxia in ARDS secondary to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia can lead to PAH, causing a ventilation/perfusion mismatch and RV systolic impairment. iNO can be considered in patients with significant PAH causing hypoxemia and RV dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency , Female , Humans , Adult , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Administration, Inhalation , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Hypoxia/etiology
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