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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 382, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547778

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is a major concern and a new threat to immunocompromised patients. Patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are at increased risk of infections, in particular when they have active disease and are on immunosuppressive treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and radiological features of three patients with COVID-19 associated with chronic IBD as well as their management and outcomes. The study was conducted at the Hassan II University Teaching Hospital in Fes, Morocco over a 3-month period. We assessed all patients with disease onset. All patients had mild symptoms or were asymptomatic. No changes or delays in treatment regimens occurred and none of patients developed severe COVID-19. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results were positive in all patients. Radiological examinations were conducted. Chest scanner showed ground-glass opacities in one case. Treatment was based on hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin. Outcome was good in all cases. This preliminary report suggests that patients with chronic IBD aren't at higher risk of developing COVID-19 compared to the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Adult , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Morocco
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 93, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547720

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 serology tests could play a crucial role in estimating the prevalence of COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COVID-19 among travellers and workers in Bukavu, a city in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Methods: between May and August 2020, the Cellex qSARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Test (Cellex, Inc., USA), lateral flow immunoassay was used to rapidly detect and differentiate antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among travellers and workers seeking medical certification. Results: among the 684 residents of the city of Bukavu screened for COVID-19 (4.2% Hispanic, 2.8% other African, 0.9% Asian), the seroprevalence anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 40.8% (IgG+/IgM+: 34.6%; IgG+/IgM-: 0.5%; IgG-/IgM+: 5.4%). Cumulative seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies increased from 24.5% to 35.2% from May to August 2020. Independent predictors of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were age > 60 years [adjusted OR = 2.07(1.26-3.38)] and non-membership of the medical staff [adjusted OR = 2.28 (1.22-4.26)]. Thirteen point nine percent of patients seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were symptomatic and hospitalized. Conclusion: this study shows a very high seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among travellers and workers in Bukavu, a city in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, which may positively affect community immunity in the study population. Thus, the management of COVID-19 should be contextualized according to local realities.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoassay , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 55, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547713

ABSTRACT

The first outbreak of epidemic respiratory disease due to unknown etiology was reported in the Chinese city of Wuhan December 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) firstly used the term "new coronavirus 2019" on December 29, 2019. This pandemic, which is currently called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. It was subsequently called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the WHO. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in all employees of the Nouakchott National Hospital Center (CHN). The study was conducted during the week 20/05/2020 to 27/05/2020. It involved 853 employees of all ranks (doctors, pharmacists, nurses, secretaries, security personnel, administrators...) of whom 504 were male and 331 were female, with a sex ratio of 1,52 with an average age of 39 years, ranging from 20 to 60 years. The screening for IgG and IgM antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was performed using Biotime (Xiamen Biotime Biotechnology Co., Ltd.) immunochromatographic technique. Out of 835 employees included in our study, 14 were positive (1.67%) of whom 12 had IgM and IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and 2 had isolated IgM. Nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in these 14 patients and was positive in six. While PCR is the gold standard for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, serological tests for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, in particular rapid tests (RDTs) are a diagnostic complement to COVID-19. They have the advantage of being easy to realize, of being safe both in the laboratories and outside the laboratories. RDTs enabled us to detect asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers within CHN employees. This allowed for patients management and isolation to protect patients and their environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Mauritania/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Serologic Tests/methods , Young Adult
4.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(8): 1463-1467, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546996

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 has brought about tests from many manufacturers. While molecular and rapid antigen tests are targeted for early diagnosis, immunoassays have a larger role in epidemiological studies, understanding longitudinal immunity, and in vaccine development and response. METHODS: The performance of the LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay was evaluated against the Beckman ACCESS SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay in New Mexico, and against the Siemens ADVIA Centaur COV2G assay in New York. Discordant samples were parsed using a microneutralization assay. RESULTS: A SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity rate of 23.8% was observed in the samples tested in New York (September 2020), while in the same month the positivity rate was 1.5% in New Mexico. Positive and negative agreement were 67.6% (95% CI 49.5-82.6%) and 99.8% (95% CI 99.5-99.9%), respectively, with the Beckman test, and 98.0% (95% CI 95.7-99.3%) and 94.8% (95% CI 93.4-96.0%), respectively, with the Siemens test. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies discloses an AUC, area under the curve, of 0.996 (95% CI 0.992-0.999) for the LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay. The criterion associated to the Youden Index was determined to be >12.9 kAU/L with a sensitivity of 99.44% and a specificity of 99.82%. CONCLUSIONS: The LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay is highly sensitive and specific. The balance of these parameters, without emphasis on high specificity alone, is particularly important when applied to high prevalence populations, where a highly sensitive assay will result in reporting a lower number of false negative subjects.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Area Under Curve , Automation , COVID-19/virology , Humans , ROC Curve , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
BMC Med Imaging ; 21(1): 154, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes tens of million infection world-wide. Many machine learning methods have been proposed for the computer-aided diagnosis between COVID-19 and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from chest computed tomography (CT) images. Most of these methods utilized the location-specific handcrafted features based on the segmentation results to improve the diagnose performance. However, the prerequisite segmentation step is time-consuming and needs the intervention by lots of expert radiologists, which cannot be achieved in the areas with limited medical resources. METHODS: We propose a generative adversarial feature completion and diagnosis network (GACDN) that simultaneously generates handcrafted features by radiomic counterparts and makes accurate diagnoses based on both original and generated features. Specifically, we first calculate the radiomic features from the CT images. Then, in order to fast obtain the location-specific handcrafted features, we use the proposed GACDN to generate them by its corresponding radiomic features. Finally, we use both radiomic features and location-specific handcrafted features for COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: For the performance of our generated location-specific handcrafted features, the results of four basic classifiers show that it has an average of 3.21% increase in diagnoses accuracy. Besides, the experimental results on COVID-19 dataset show that our proposed method achieved superior performance in COVID-19 vs. community acquired pneumonia (CAP) classification compared with the state-of-the-art methods. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method significantly improves the diagnoses accuracy of COVID-19 vs. CAP in the condition of incomplete location-specific handcrafted features. Besides, it is also applicable in some regions lacking of expert radiologists and high-performance computing resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Deep Learning , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/methods , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
7.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(6): 644-650, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread throughout the world. During treatment, we found that the majority of patients had a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb). Interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) was the primary suspected drug that was related to Hb reduction. Thus, the study aimed to investigate whether IFN-α2b could induce Hb reduction in severe patients with COVID-19 and its potential mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 50 patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University with severe COVID-19 infection were enrolled from February 12th to 24th, 2020. The demographics, baseline characteristics, clinical data, and therapeutic regimen were collected retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the declined use of IFN-α2b on day 14. The Hb levels on admission, day 7, day14, and day 21 were collected and analyzed. The primary endpoint was the level of Hb on day 21. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients in the IFN-stop group and 19 patients in the non-IFN-stop group were reviewed. The age, gender, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, nutritional status, disease severity, complications, and other factors of the patients were compared, no difference was found between the IFN-stop group and the non-IFN-stop group. The Hb levels of all patients significantly decreased on day 7 compared with that on admission (p < .0001). In the IFN-stop group, the Hb level was increased in 7 days after IFN-α2b was stopped (p = .0008), whereas no difference was found between day 14 and day 21 in the non-IFN-stop group (p = .3152). CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2b was associated with Hb reduction in the treatment of severe patients of COVID-19. Clinicians should be aware of the high incidence of Hb reduction for patients treated by IFN-α2b.


Subject(s)
Anemia/chemically induced , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon alpha-2/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112353, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544808

ABSTRACT

Almost 80% of people confronting COVID-19 recover from COVID-19 disease without any particular treatments. They experience heterogeneous symptoms; a wide range of respiratory symptoms, cough, dyspnea, fever, and viral pneumonia. However, some others need urgent intervention and special treatment to get rid of this widespread disease. So far, there isn't any unique drug for the potential treatment of COVID 19. However, some available therapeutic drugs used for other diseases seem beneficial for the COVID-19 treatment. On the other hand, there is a robust global concern for developing an efficient COVID-19 vaccine to control the COVID-19 pandemic sustainably. According to the WHO report, since 8 October 2021, 320 vaccines have been in progress. 194 vaccines are in the pre-clinical development stage that 126 of them are in clinical progression. Here, in this paper, we have comprehensively reviewed the most recent and updated information about coronavirus and its mutations, all the potential therapeutic approaches for treating COVID-19, developed diagnostic systems for COVID- 19 and the available COVID-19 vaccines and their mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , World Health Organization
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6703-6713, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544323

ABSTRACT

Scores to identify patients at high risk of progression of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may become instrumental for clinical decision-making and patient management. We used patient data from the multicentre Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2-Infected Patients (LEOSS) and applied variable selection to develop a simplified scoring system to identify patients at increased risk of critical illness or death. A total of 1946 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were included in the initial analysis and assigned to derivation and validation cohorts (n = 1297 and n = 649, respectively). Stability selection from over 100 baseline predictors for the combined endpoint of progression to the critical phase or COVID-19-related death enabled the development of a simplified score consisting of five predictors: C-reactive protein (CRP), age, clinical disease phase (uncomplicated vs. complicated), serum urea, and D-dimer (abbreviated as CAPS-D score). This score yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.85) in the validation cohort for predicting the combined endpoint within 7 days of diagnosis and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.85) during full follow-up. We used an additional prospective cohort of 682 patients, diagnosed largely after the "first wave" of the pandemic to validate the predictive accuracy of the score and observed similar results (AUC for the event within 7 days: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.78-0.87]; for full follow-up: 0.82 [95% CI: 0.78-0.86]). An easily applicable score to calculate the risk of COVID-19 progression to critical illness or death was thus established and validated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Urea/blood , Young Adult
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6696-6702, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544322

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 has caused enormous fatalities worldwide. Serological assays are important for detection of asymptomatic or mild cases of COVID-19, and sero-prevalence and vaccine efficacy studies. Here, we evaluated and compared the performance of seven commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)s for detection of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG). The ELISAs were evaluated with a characterized panel of 100 serum samples from qRT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients, collected 14 days post onset disease, 100 SARS-CoV-2 negative samples and compared the results with that of neutralization assay. Results were analysed by creating the receiver operating characteristic curve of all the assays in reference to the neutralization assay. All kits, were found to be suitable for detection of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 with high accuracy. The DiaPro COVID-19 IgG ELISA showed the highest sensitivity (98%) among the kits. The assays demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in detecting the IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. However, the presence of IgG antibodies does not always correspond to neutralizing antibodies. Due to their good accuracy indices, these assays can also aid in tracing mild infections, in cohort studies and in pre-vaccine evaluations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6837-6840, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gargle samples have been proposed as a noninvasive method for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The clinical performance of gargle specimens diluted in Cobas® PCR Media and in Cobas® Omni Lysis Reagent was compared to oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab (ONPS) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were recruited prospectively in two COVID-19 screening clinics. In addition to the ONPS, participants gargled with 5 ml of natural spring water split in the laboratory as follows: 1 ml was added to 4.3 ml of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) media and 400 µl was added to 200 µl of lysis buffer. Testing was performed with the Cobas® SARS-CoV-2 test on the Cobas® 6800 or 8800 platforms. RESULTS: Overall, 134/647 (20.7%) participants were considered infected because the ONPS or at least one gargle test was positive. ONPS had, respectively, a sensitivity of 96.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91.3-98.5); both gargle processing methods were slightly less but equally sensitive (90.3% [95% CI: 83.9-94.3]). When ONPS and gargle specimens were both positive, the mean cycle threshold (Ct ) was significantly higher for gargles, suggesting lower viral loads. CONCLUSION: Gargle specimens directly added in PCR Media provide a similar clinical sensitivity to chemical lysis, both having a slightly, not significantly, lower sensitivity to ONPS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Viral Load/genetics
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6808-6812, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544312

ABSTRACT

Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 is the mainstay of COVID-19 diagnosis, yet there are conflicting reports on its diagnostic performance. Wide ranges of false-negative PCR tests have been reported depending on clinical presentation, the timing of testing, specimens tested, testing method, and reference standard used. We aimed to estimate the frequency of discordance between initial nasopharyngeal (NP) PCR and repeat NP sampling PCR and serology in acutely ill patients admitted to the hospital. Panel diagnosis of COVID-19 infection is further utilized in discordance analysis. Included in the study were 160 patients initially tested by NP PCR with repeat NP sampling PCR and/or serology performed. The percent agreement between initial and repeat PCR was 96.7%, while the percent agreement between initial PCR and serology was 98.9%. There were 5 (3.1%) cases with discordance on repeat testing. After discordance analysis, 2 (1.4%) true cases tested negative on initial PCR. Using available diagnostic methods, discordance on repeat NP sampling PCR and/or serology is a rare occurrence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reference Standards , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6611-6618, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544309

ABSTRACT

The objective of this longitudinal cohort study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in healthcare workers employed at healthcare settings in three rural counties in eastern South Dakota and western Minnesota from May 13, 2020, through December 22, 2020. Three blood draws were performed at five clinical sites and tested for the presence of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2. Serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies using a fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA), neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 spike-pseudotyped particles (SARS-CoV-2pp) assay, and serum virus neutralization (SVN) assay. The seroprevalence was determined to be 1/336 (0.29%) for samples collected from 5/13/20 to 7/13/20, 5/260 (1.92%) for samples collected from 8/13/20 to 9/25/20, and 35/235 (14.89%) for samples collected from 10/16/20 to 12/22/20. Eight of the 35 (22.8%) seropositive individuals identified in the final draw did not report a previous diagnosis with COVID-19. There was a high correlation (>90%) between the FMIA and virus neutralization assays. Each clinical site's seroprevalence was higher than the cumulative incidence for the general public in the respective county as reported by state public health agencies. As of December 2020, there was a high percentage (85%) of seronegative individuals in the study population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Rural Health Services/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Minnesota/epidemiology , Neutralization Tests , Seroepidemiologic Studies , South Dakota/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6803-6807, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544308

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device as a point-of-care diagnostic tool for COVID-19 in 357 patients at a pediatric emergency department. Thirty-four patients tested positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, of which 24 were positive by the antigen assay. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 70.5% and 100%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Immunologic Tests/methods , Infant , Male , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , Point-of-Care Testing , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6582-6587, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544305

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G (IgM/IgG) rapid antibody test results in symptomatic patients with COVID-19 and their chest computed tomography (CT) data. A total of 320 patients admitted to our hospital for different durations due to COVID-19 were included in the study. Serum samples were obtained within 0-7 days from COVID-19 patients confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and chest CT scan. According to the SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR results, the patients included in the study were divided into two groups: PCR positive group (n = 46) and PCR negative group (n = 274). The relationship between chest CT and rapid antibody test results were compared statistically. Of the 320 COVID-19 serum samples, IgM, IgG, and IgM/IgG were detected in 8.4%, 0.3%, and 11.6% within 1 week, respectively. IgG/IgM antibodies were not detected in 79.7% of the patients. In the study, 249 (77.8%) of 320 patients had positive chest CT scans. Four (5.6%) of 71 patients with negative chest CT scans had IgM and two (2.8%) were both IgM/IgG positive. IgM was detected in 23 (9.2%), IgG in one (0.4%), and IgM/IgG in 35 (14%) of chest CT scan positive patients. The rate of CT findings in patients with antibody positivity was found to be significantly higher than those with antibody negativity. The results of the present study show the accurate and equivalent performance of serological antibody assays and chest CT in detecting SARS-CoV-2 within 0-7 days from the onset of COVID19 symptoms. When RT-PCR is not available, we believe that the combination of immunochromatographic test and chest CT scan can increase diagnostic sensitivity for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6544-6550, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544302

ABSTRACT

We developed a rapid and simple magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay on the Real Express-6 analyzer, which could simultaneously detect immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 virus in human blood within 18 min, and which could be used to detect clinical studies to verify its clinical efficacy. We selected blood samples from 185 COVID-19 patients confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 271 negative patients to determine the clinical detection sensitivity, specificity, stability, and precision of this method. Meanwhile, we also surveyed the dynamic variance of viral antibodies during SARS-CoV-2 infection. This rapid immunoassay test has huge potential benefits for rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 infection and may help clinical drug and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross Reactions/immunology , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Luminescent Measurements , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6512-6518, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544296

ABSTRACT

There is a great demand for more rapid tests for SARS-CoV-2 detection to reduce waiting time, boost public health strategies for combating disease, decrease costs, and prevent overwhelming laboratory capacities. This study was conducted to assess the performance of 10 lateral flow device viral antigen immunoassays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. We analyzed 231 nasopharyngeal samples collected from October 2020 to December 2020, from suspected COVID-19 cases and contacts of positive cases at Biotechnology Research Center laboratories, Tripoli, Libya. The performance of 10 COVID-19 Antigen (Ag) rapid test devices for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen was compared to a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In this study, 161 cases had symptoms consistent with COVID-19. The mean duration from symptom onset was 6.6 ± 4.3 days. The median cycle threshold (Ct ) of positive samples was 25. Among the 108 positive samples detected by RT-qPCR, the COVID-19 antigen (Ag) tests detected 83 cases correctly. All rapid Ag test devices used in this study showed 100% specificity. While tests from six manufacturers had an overall sensitivity range from 75% to 100%, the remaining four tests had a sensitivity of 50%-71.43%. Sensitivity during the first 6 days of symptoms and in samples with high viral loads (Ct < 25), was 100% in all but two of the test platforms. False-negative samples had a median Ct of 34 and an average duration of onset of symptoms of 11.3 days (range = 5-20 days). Antigen test diagnosis has high sensitivity and specificity in early disease when patients present less than 7 days of symptom onset. Patients are encouraged to test as soon as they get COVID-19-related symptoms within 1 week and to seek medical advice within 24 h if they develop disturbed smell/taste. The use of rapid antigen tests is important for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic and reducing the burden on molecular diagnostic laboratories.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Adult , COVID-19 Serological Testing/economics , False Negative Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoassay/economics , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Time Factors , Viral Load
18.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6778-6781, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544295

ABSTRACT

A high-throughput, fully automated antigen detection test for SARS-CoV-2 is a viable alternative to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for mass screening during outbreaks. In this study, we compared RT-qPCR for viral load and the VITROS® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test with reference to the results of the LUMIPULSE® SARS-CoV-2 Ag Test. Of 128 nasopharyngeal swab specimens taken from patients suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2, 49 were positive and 79 were negative according to RT-qPCR. Consistent dose-dependent detection with VITROS® assay was successfully achieved when using nasopharyngeal swab specimens with Ct values of 32.0 or lesser, whereas the CLEIA-based LUMIPULSE® assay was able to detect lower viral loads compared with the VITROS® assay. Our results show that the performance of the VITROS® assay was satisfactory for the diagnosis of contagious COVID-19 patients in the clinical setting. Highlights The performance of the VITROS® SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test was sufficient for the diagnosis of contagious COVID-19. This test showed high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in samples with a Ct value of 32 or less.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoenzyme Techniques/methods , Immunologic Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/immunology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/immunology
19.
JAMA ; 326(19): 1930-1939, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544170

ABSTRACT

Importance: The effect of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection on vaccine protection remains poorly understood. Objective: To assess protection from SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection after mRNA vaccination among persons with vs without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Matched-cohort studies in Qatar for the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines. A total of 1 531 736 individuals vaccinated with either vaccine between December 21, 2020, and September 19, 2021, were followed up beginning 14 days after receiving the second dose until September 19, 2021. Exposures: Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident SARS-CoV-2 infection, defined as a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive nasopharyngeal swab regardless of reason for PCR testing or presence of symptoms. Cumulative incidence was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator method. Results: The BNT162b2-vaccinated cohort comprised 99 226 individuals with and 290 432 matched individuals without prior PCR-confirmed infection (median age, 37 years; 68% male). The mRNA-1273-vaccinated cohort comprised 58 096 individuals with and 169 514 matched individuals without prior PCR-confirmed infection (median age, 36 years; 73% male). Among BNT162b2-vaccinated persons, 159 reinfections occurred in those with and 2509 in those without prior infection 14 days or more after dose 2. Among mRNA-1273-vaccinated persons, 43 reinfections occurred in those with and 368 infections in those without prior infection. Cumulative infection incidence among BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals was an estimated 0.15% (95% CI, 0.12%-0.18%) in those with and 0.83% (95% CI, 0.79%-0.87%) in those without prior infection at 120 days of follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio for breakthrough infection with prior infection, 0.18 [95% CI, 0.15-0.21]; P < .001). Cumulative infection incidence among mRNA-1273-vaccinated individuals was an estimated 0.11% (95% CI, 0.08%-0.15%) in those with and 0.35% (95% CI, 0.32%-0.40%) in those without prior infection at 120 days of follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.25-0.48]; P < .001). Vaccinated individuals with prior infection 6 months or more before dose 1 had statistically significantly lower risk for breakthrough infection than those vaccinated less than 6 months before dose 1 (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.42-0.92]; P = .02 for BNT162b2 and 0.40 [95% CI, 0.18-0.91]; P = .03 for mRNA-1273 vaccination). Conclusions and Relevance: Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk for breakthrough infection among individuals receiving the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines in Qatar between December 21, 2020, and September 19, 2021. The observational study design precludes direct comparisons of infection risk between the 2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qatar
20.
AIDS ; 35(14): 2401-2404, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541608

ABSTRACT

Among 582 participants in Western Kenya who were retrospectively tested from January through March 2020, 19 (3.3%) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The prevalence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was similar between participants with and without HIV (3.1% vs. 4%, P = 0.68). One participant reported a cough in the preceding week but others denied symptoms. These may represent cross-reactivity or asymptomatic infections that predated the first reported COVID-19 cases in Kenya.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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