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2.
Lancet ; 398(10308): 1317-1343, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2184616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of COVID-19 renewed the focus on how health systems across the globe are financed, especially during public health emergencies. Development assistance is an important source of health financing in many low-income countries, yet little is known about how much of this funding was disbursed for COVID-19. We aimed to put development assistance for health for COVID-19 in the context of broader trends in global health financing, and to estimate total health spending from 1995 to 2050 and development assistance for COVID-19 in 2020. METHODS: We estimated domestic health spending and development assistance for health to generate total health-sector spending estimates for 204 countries and territories. We leveraged data from the WHO Global Health Expenditure Database to produce estimates of domestic health spending. To generate estimates for development assistance for health, we relied on project-level disbursement data from the major international development agencies' online databases and annual financial statements and reports for information on income sources. To adjust our estimates for 2020 to include disbursements related to COVID-19, we extracted project data on commitments and disbursements from a broader set of databases (because not all of the data sources used to estimate the historical series extend to 2020), including the UN Office of Humanitarian Assistance Financial Tracking Service and the International Aid Transparency Initiative. We reported all the historic and future spending estimates in inflation-adjusted 2020 US$, 2020 US$ per capita, purchasing-power parity-adjusted US$ per capita, and as a proportion of gross domestic product. We used various models to generate future health spending to 2050. FINDINGS: In 2019, health spending globally reached $8·8 trillion (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 8·7-8·8) or $1132 (1119-1143) per person. Spending on health varied within and across income groups and geographical regions. Of this total, $40·4 billion (0·5%, 95% UI 0·5-0·5) was development assistance for health provided to low-income and middle-income countries, which made up 24·6% (UI 24·0-25·1) of total spending in low-income countries. We estimate that $54·8 billion in development assistance for health was disbursed in 2020. Of this, $13·7 billion was targeted toward the COVID-19 health response. $12·3 billion was newly committed and $1·4 billion was repurposed from existing health projects. $3·1 billion (22·4%) of the funds focused on country-level coordination and $2·4 billion (17·9%) was for supply chain and logistics. Only $714·4 million (7·7%) of COVID-19 development assistance for health went to Latin America, despite this region reporting 34·3% of total recorded COVID-19 deaths in low-income or middle-income countries in 2020. Spending on health is expected to rise to $1519 (1448-1591) per person in 2050, although spending across countries is expected to remain varied. INTERPRETATION: Global health spending is expected to continue to grow, but remain unequally distributed between countries. We estimate that development organisations substantially increased the amount of development assistance for health provided in 2020. Continued efforts are needed to raise sufficient resources to mitigate the pandemic for the most vulnerable, and to help curtail the pandemic for all. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Developing Countries/economics , Economic Development , Healthcare Financing , International Agencies/economics , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Financing, Government/economics , Financing, Government/organization & administration , Global Health/economics , Government Programs/economics , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/trends , Gross Domestic Product , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , Health Expenditures/trends , Humans , International Agencies/organization & administration , International Cooperation
3.
Nature ; 611(7935): 332-345, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106424

ABSTRACT

Despite notable scientific and medical advances, broader political, socioeconomic and behavioural factors continue to undercut the response to the COVID-19 pandemic1,2. Here we convened, as part of this Delphi study, a diverse, multidisciplinary panel of 386 academic, health, non-governmental organization, government and other experts in COVID-19 response from 112 countries and territories to recommend specific actions to end this persistent global threat to public health. The panel developed a set of 41 consensus statements and 57 recommendations to governments, health systems, industry and other key stakeholders across six domains: communication; health systems; vaccination; prevention; treatment and care; and inequities. In the wake of nearly three years of fragmented global and national responses, it is instructive to note that three of the highest-ranked recommendations call for the adoption of whole-of-society and whole-of-government approaches1, while maintaining proven prevention measures using a vaccines-plus approach2 that employs a range of public health and financial support measures to complement vaccination. Other recommendations with at least 99% combined agreement advise governments and other stakeholders to improve communication, rebuild public trust and engage communities3 in the management of pandemic responses. The findings of the study, which have been further endorsed by 184 organizations globally, include points of unanimous agreement, as well as six recommendations with >5% disagreement, that provide health and social policy actions to address inadequacies in the pandemic response and help to bring this public health threat to an end.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delphi Technique , International Cooperation , Public Health , Humans , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Government , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/economics , Public Health/methods , Organizations , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Health Education , Health Policy , Public Opinion
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(25): e2117155119, 2022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004835

ABSTRACT

This paper provides a picture of how societies in the G7 countries have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our point of departure is to examine the effects of the pandemic in terms of four fundamental normative sources for well-being: Solidarity (S; willingness for social cooperation), Agency (A; empowerment to shape one's prospects through one's own efforts), GDP (G), and Environmental Performance (E)-SAGE for short. The normative foundations of SAGE are communitarianism, classical liberalism, materialistic utilitarianism, and ecoethics. We find that although G and E responded predictably and uniformly to the pandemic (such as G declining and carbon emissions improving), the societal responses were strikingly different. Societies that are cohesive and empowered (high S and A) may be expected to cope with the pandemic better than those that are fragmented and disempowered (low S and A). Furthermore, the pandemic has had diverse effects on S and A; while some societies became cohering and empowering (rising S and A), others became fragmenting and disempowering (falling S and A), and yet others became fragmenting and empowering. We also show that most G7 countries experienced greater tribalization (measured as the difference between inward S and outward S) during the pandemic. These trends are a matter of concern since they suggest that the willingness and perceived ability to address collective challenges collectively have waned. The analysis also suggests that governments' social policies may have an important role to play alongside economic and health policies in coping with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Public Policy , Social Behavior , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Cooperative Behavior , Empowerment , Gross Domestic Product , Humans , Social Responsibility
7.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S6-S18, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972183

ABSTRACT

The spread of the emerging pathogen, named as SARS-CoV-2, has led to an unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic since 1918 influenza pandemic. This review first sheds light on the similarity on global transmission, surges of pandemics, and the disparity of prevention between two pandemics. Such a brief comparison also provides an insight into the potential sequelae of COVID-19 based on the inference drawn from the fact that a cascade of successive influenza pandemic occurred after 1918 and also the previous experience on the epidemic of SARS and MERS occurring in 2003 and 2015, respectively. We then propose a systematic framework for elucidating emerging infectious disease (EID) such as COVID-19 with a panorama viewpoint from natural infection and disease process, public health interventions (non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and vaccine), clinical treatments and therapies (antivirals), until global aspects of health and economic loss, and economic evaluation of interventions with emphasis on mass vaccination. This review not only concisely delves for evidence-based scientific literatures from the origin of outbreak, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 to three surges of pandemic, and NPIs and vaccine uptakes but also provides a new insight into how to apply big data analytics to identify unprecedented discoveries through COVID-19 pandemic scenario embracing from biomedical to economic viewpoints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S95-S105, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine is supposed to be the most effective means to prevent COVID-19 as it may not only save lives but also reduce productivity loss due to resuming pre-pandemic activities. Providing the results of economic evaluation for mass vaccination is of paramount importance for all stakeholders worldwide. METHODS: We developed a Markov decision tree for the economic evaluation of mass vaccination against COVID-19. The effectiveness of reducing outcomes after the administration of three COVID-19 vaccines (BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and AZD1222 (Oxford-AstraZeneca)) were modelled with empirical parameters obtained from literatures. The direct cost of vaccine and COVID-19 related medical cost, the indirect cost of productivity loss due to vaccine jabs and hospitalization, and the productivity loss were accumulated given different vaccination scenarios. We reported the incremental cost-utility ratio and benefit/cost (B/C) ratio of three vaccines compared to no vaccination with a probabilistic approach. RESULTS: Moderna and Pfizer vaccines won the greatest effectiveness among the three vaccines under consideration. After taking both direct and indirect costs into account, all of the three vaccines dominated no vaccination strategy. The results of B/C ratio show that one dollar invested in vaccine would have USD $13, USD $23, and USD $28 in return for Moderna, Pfizer, and AstraZeneca, respectively when health and education loss are considered. The corresponding figures taking value of the statistical life into account were USD $176, USD $300, and USD $443. CONCLUSION: Mass vaccination against COVID-19 with three current available vaccines is cost-saving for gaining more lives and less cost incurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mass Vaccination , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Mass Vaccination/economics
9.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264484, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938418

ABSTRACT

Companies developing automated driving system (ADS) technologies have spent heavily in recent years to conduct live testing of autonomous vehicles operating in real world environments to ensure their reliable and safe operations. However, the unexpected onset and ongoing resurgent effects of the Covid-19 pandemic starting in March 2020 has serve to halt, change, or delay the achievement of these new product development test objectives. This study draws on data obtained from the California automated vehicle test program to determine the extent that testing trends, test resumptions, and test environments have been affected by the pandemic. The importance of government policies to support and enable autonomous vehicles development during pandemic conditions is highlighted.


Subject(s)
Automation/methods , Mechanical Tests/methods , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Automation/economics , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/economics , California , Humans , Mechanical Tests/economics , User-Centered Design
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(14)2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928557

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is still raging. Similar to other RNA viruses, SARS-COV-2 is constantly mutating, which leads to the production of many infectious and lethal strains. For instance, the omicron variant detected in November 2021 became the leading strain of infection in many countries around the world and sparked an intense public debate on social media. The aim of this study is to explore the Chinese public's perception of the omicron variants on social media. A total of 121,632 points of data relating to omicron on Sina Weibo from 0:00 27 November 2021 to 23:59:59 30 March 2022 (Beijing time) were collected and analyzed with LDA-based topic modeling and DLUT-Emotion ontology-based sentiment analysis. The results indicate that (1) the public discussion of omicron is based on five topics, including omicron's impact on the economy, the omicron infection situation in other countries/regions, the omicron infection situation in China, omicron and vaccines and pandemic prevention and control for omicron. (2) From the 3 sentiment orientations of 121,632 valid Weibo posts, 49,402 posts were judged as positive emotions, accounting for approximately 40.6%; 47,667 were negative emotions, accounting for nearly 39.2%; and 24,563 were neutral emotions, accounting for about 20.2%. (3) The result of the analysis of the temporal trend of the seven categories of emotion attribution showed that fear kept decreasing, whereas good kept increasing. This study provides more insights into public perceptions of and attitudes toward emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. The results of this study may provide further recommendations for the Chinese government, public health authorities, and the media to promote knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 variant pandemic-resistant messages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotions , Latent Class Analysis , Public Opinion , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentiment Analysis , Social Media , Attitude , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Federal Government , Health Education , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Public Health
11.
Health Econ ; 31(9): 2050-2071, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905855

ABSTRACT

Governments worldwide have issued massive amounts of debt to inject fiscal stimulus during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper analyzes fiscal responses to an epidemic, in which interactions at work increase the risk of disease and mortality. Fiscal policies, which are designed to borrow against the future and provide transfers to individuals suffering economic hardship, can facilitate consumption smoothing while reduce hours worked and hence mitigate infections. We examine the optimal fiscal policy and characterize the condition under which fiscal policy improves social welfare. We then extend the model analyzing the static and dynamic pecuniary externalities under scale economies-the decrease in labor supply during the epidemic lowers the contemporaneous average wage rate while enhances the post-epidemic workforce health and productivity. We suggest that fiscal policy may not work effectively unless the government coordinates working time, and the optimal size of public debt is affected by production technology and disease severity and transmissibility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fiscal Policy , Pandemics/economics , Social Welfare/economics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Efficiency , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poverty , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Time Factors , Workflow , Workforce/economics , Workload/economics
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(27): e2200816119, 2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908383

ABSTRACT

We investigated the immediate and longer-term impact (over 4-6 months) of probable COVID-19 infection on mental health, wellbeing, financial hardship, and social interactions among older people living in England. Data were analysed from 5146 older adults participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing who provided data before the pandemic (2018-19) and at two COVID-19 assessments in 2020 (June-July and November-December). The associations of probable COVID-19 infection (first COVID-19 assessment) with depression, anxiety, poor quality of life (QoL), loneliness, financial hardship, and social contact with family/friends at the first and second COVID-19 assessments were tested using linear/logistic regression and were adjusted for pre-pandemic outcome measures. Participants with probable infection had higher levels of depression and anxiety, poorer QoL, and greater loneliness scores compared with those without probable infection at both the first (ORdepression = 1.62, P-value = 0.005; ORanxiety = 1.59, P-value = 0.049; bpoorQoL = 1.34, P < 0.001; bloneliness = 0.49, P < 0.001) and second (ORdepression = 1.56, P-value = 0.003; ORanxiety = 1.55, P-value = 0.041; bpoorQoL = 1.38, P-value < 0.001; bloneliness = 0.31, P-value = 0.024) COVID-19 assessments. Participants with probable infection also experienced greater financial difficulties than those without infection at the first assessment (OR = 1.50, P-value = 0.011). Probable COVID-19 infection is associated with longer-term deterioration of mental health and wellbeing and short-term increases in financial hardship among older adults. It is important to monitor the mental health of older people affected by COVID-19 and provide additional support to those in need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Financial Stress , Mental Health , Aged , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Loneliness , Longitudinal Studies , Quality of Life
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 666, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900550

ABSTRACT

The worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is a complex and multivariate process differentiated across countries, and geographical distance is acceptable as a critical determinant of the uneven spreading. Although social connectivity is a defining condition for virus transmission, the network paradigm in the study of the COVID-19 spatio-temporal spread has not been used accordingly. Toward contributing to this demand, this paper uses network analysis to develop a multidimensional methodological framework for understanding the uneven (cross-country) spread of COVID-19 in the context of the globally interconnected economy. The globally interconnected system of tourism mobility is modeled as a complex network and studied within the context of a three-dimensional (3D) conceptual model composed of network connectivity, economic openness, and spatial impedance variables. The analysis reveals two main stages in the temporal spread of COVID-19, defined by the cutting-point of the 44th day from Wuhan. The first describes the outbreak in Asia and North America, the second stage in Europe, South America, and Africa, while the outbreak in Oceania intermediates. The analysis also illustrates that the average node degree exponentially decays as a function of COVID-19 emergence time. This finding implies that the highly connected nodes, in the Global Tourism Network (GTN), are disproportionally earlier infected by the pandemic than the other nodes. Moreover, countries with the same network centrality as China are early infected on average by COVID-19. The paper also finds that network interconnectedness, economic openness, and transport integration are critical determinants in the early global spread of the pandemic, and it reveals that the spatio-temporal patterns of the worldwide spreading of COVID-19 are more a matter of network interconnectivity than of spatial proximity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/transmission , Global Health/economics , Pandemics/economics , Disease Outbreaks/economics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
14.
Science ; 376(6599): 1262-1263, 2022 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901910
15.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0259869, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883586

ABSTRACT

The purpose of our study is to figure out the transitions of the cryptocurrency market due to the outbreak of COVID-19 through network analysis, and we studied the complexity of the market from different perspectives. To construct a cryptocurrency network, we first apply a mutual information method to the daily log return values of 102 digital currencies from January 1, 2019, to December 31, 2020, and also apply a correlation coefficient method for comparison. Based on these two methods, we construct networks by applying the minimum spanning tree and the planar maximally filtered graph. Furthermore, we study the statistical and topological properties of these networks. Numerical results demonstrate that the degree distribution follows the power-law and the graphs after the COVID-19 outbreak have noticeable differences in network measurements compared to before. Moreover, the results of graphs constructed by each method are different in topological and statistical properties and the network's behavior. In particular, during the post-COVID-19 period, it can be seen that Ethereum and Qtum are the most influential cryptocurrencies in both methods. Our results provide insight and expectations for investors in terms of sharing information about cryptocurrencies amid the uncertainty posed by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Investments/trends , Models, Economic , COVID-19/economics , Humans , Information Dissemination , Investments/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/economics , Uncertainty
16.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 5578284, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840656

ABSTRACT

The end of the year 2019 was marked by the introduction of a third highly pathogenic coronavirus, after SARS-CoV (2003) and MERS-CoV (2012), in the human population which was officially declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Indeed, the pandemic of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 19) has evolved at an unprecedented rate: after its emergence in Wuhan, the capital of the province of Hubei of the People's Republic of China, in December 2019, the total number of confirmed cases did not cease growing very quickly in the world. In this manuscript, we have provided an overview of the impact of COVID-19 on health, and we have proposed different nutrients suitable for infected patients to boost their immune systems. On the other hand, we have described the advantages and disadvantages of COVID-19 on the environment including the quality of water, air, waste management, and energy consumption, as well as the impact of this pandemic on human psychology, the educational system, and the global economy. In addition, we have tried to come up with some solutions to counter the negative repercussions of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Education , Environment , Global Burden of Disease , Global Health , Humans , Public Health , Social Change , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
N Engl J Med ; 386(26): 2449-2451, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830293
18.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262264, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793544

ABSTRACT

We estimated excess mortality in Medicare recipients in the United States with probable and confirmed Covid-19 infections in the general community and amongst residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities. We considered 28,389,098 Medicare and dual-eligible recipients from one year before February 29, 2020 through September 30, 2020, with mortality followed through November 30th, 2020. Probable and confirmed Covid-19 diagnoses, presumably mostly symptomatic, were determined from ICD-10 codes. We developed a Risk Stratification Index (RSI) mortality model which was applied prospectively to establish baseline mortality risk. Excess deaths attributable to Covid-19 were estimated by comparing actual-to-expected deaths based on historical (2017-2019) comparisons and in closely matched concurrent (2020) cohorts with and without Covid-19. Overall, 677,100 (2.4%) beneficiaries had confirmed Covid-19 and 2,917,604 (10.3%) had probable Covid-19. A total of 472,329 confirmed cases were community living and 204,771 were in LTC. Mortality following a probable or confirmed diagnosis in the community increased from an expected incidence of about 4.0% to actual incidence of 7.5%. In long-term care facilities, the corresponding increase was from 20.3% to 24.6%. The absolute increase was therefore similar at 3-4% in the community and in LTC residents. The percentage increase was far greater in the community (89.5%) than among patients in chronic care facilities (21.1%) who had higher baseline risk of mortality. The LTC population without probable or confirmed Covid-19 diagnoses experienced 38,932 excess deaths (34.8%) compared to historical estimates. Limitations in access to Covid-19 testing and disease under-reporting in LTC patients probably were important factors, although social isolation and disruption in usual care presumably also contributed. Remarkably, there were 31,360 (5.4%) fewer deaths than expected in community dwellers without probable or confirmed Covid-19 diagnoses. Disruptions to the healthcare system and avoided medical care were thus apparently offset by other factors, representing overall benefit. The Covid-19 pandemic had marked effects on mortality, but the effects were highly context-dependent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Medicare/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/economics , Female , Humans , Incidence , Insurance Benefits/trends , Long-Term Care/trends , Male , Mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Skilled Nursing Facilities/trends , United States
19.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262747, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793540

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 on socio-economical activities has changed everyday life. Dental hygienists, who perform aerosol generating procedures, have been strongly affected by changes in routine procedures. This cross-sectional study aimed at carrying out an online survey among dental hygienists in Lombardy. The survey was implemented after the first-wave lockdown focusing on the level of knowledge on COVID-19 and Sars-CoV-2, the virus-related changes in their attitude and working routine, and the socio-economic effects. In this report, we included 313 questionnaires of respondents (259 Females, and 54 Males; age = 33 ± 9 years). A significant percentage of respondents acknowledged the use of "word of mouth" among colleagues (n = 114, 36%) and social networks (n = 113, 36%) to be up to date on COVID-19. About half of respondents correctly identified the main COVID-19 symptoms/signs, just 13% (n = 41) identified the routes of transmission. Three quarters of respondents (n = 234, 75%) were afraid of being infected during the clinical practice, and about half of them would be afraid to treat patients having symptoms attributable to COVID-19. Twenty-one percent (n = 67) of participants also thought about changing job. Air-polishing was identified as the highest risk procedure, and 82% (n = 256) reported that they eliminated its use. Most claimed they never had a swab or a serological test, with two respondents positive to molecular test (0.6%), and 12 positives to serological test (3.8%). More than half of the participants (65%; n = 202) complained the dental hygienist is not protected, despite a loss of earnings due to lockdown between 2,000 and 10,000 euros. This study demonstrated that dental hygienists were emotionally and economically affected by the pandemic, significantly changing their work routine. Anti-epidemic protocols are pivotal to react promptly and to contain the virus in the dental setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Dental Hygienists/psychology , Adult , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Hygienists/trends , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
J Immunol Methods ; 500: 113182, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768318

ABSTRACT

Serology tests for SARS-CoV-2 have proven to be important tools to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. These serological tests can be used in low-income and remote areas for patient contact tracing, epidemiologic studies and vaccine efficacy evaluations. In this study, we used a semi-stable mammalian episomal expression system to produce high quantities of the receptor-binding domain-RBD of SARS-CoV-2 in a simple and very economical way. The recombinant antigen was tested in an in-house IgG ELISA for COVID-19 with a panel of human sera. A performance comparison of this serology test with a commercial test based on the full-length spike protein showed 100% of concordance between tests. Thus, this serological test can be an attractive and inexpensive option in scenarios of limited resources to face the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19 Serological Testing/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Genetic Engineering , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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