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1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(2): 228-229, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096442

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has migrated to regions that were initially spared, and it is likely that different populations are currently at risk for illness. Herein, we present our observations of the change in characteristics and resource use of COVID-19 patients over time in a national system of community hospitals to help inform those managing surge planning, operational management, and future policy decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitals, Community , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virginia/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Hum Immunol ; 83(12): 797-802, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061225

ABSTRACT

Differences in outcome to COVID-19 infection in different individuals is largely attributed to genetic heterogeneity leading to differential immune responses across individuals and populations. HLA is one such genetic factor that varies across individuals leading to differences in how T-cell responses are triggered against SARS-CoV-2, directly influencing disease susceptibility. HLA alleles that influence COVID-19 outcome, by virtue of epitope binding and presentation, have been identified in cohorts worldwide. However, the heterogeneity in HLA distribution across ethnic groups limits the generality of such association. In this study, we address this limitation by comparing the recognition of CTL epitopes across HLA genotypes and ethnic groups. Using HLA allele frequency data for ethnic groups from Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND), we construct synthetic populations for each ethnic group and show that CTL epitope strength varies across HLA genotypes and populations. We also observe that HLA genotypes, in certain cases, can have high CTL epitope strengths in the absence of top-responsive HLA alleles. Finally, we show that the theoretical estimate of responsiveness and hence protection offered by a HLA allele is bound to vary across ethnic groups, due to the influence of other HLA alleles within the HLA genotype on CTL epitope recognition. This emphasizes the need for studying HLA-disease associations at the genotype level rather than at a single allele level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HLA Antigens , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic , Humans , Alleles , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Ethnicity , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , HLA Antigens/genetics
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 225, 2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exclusive breastmilk feeding during the delivery hospitalization, a Joint Commission indicator of perinatal care quality, is associated with longer-term breastfeeding success. Marked racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding exclusivity and duration existed prior to COVID-19. The pandemic, accompanied by uncertainty regarding intrapartum and postpartum safety practices, may have influenced disparities in infant feeding practices. Our objective was to examine whether the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City was associated with a change in racial and ethnic disparities in exclusive breastmilk feeding during the delivery stay. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of electronic medical records from 14,964 births in two New York City hospitals. We conducted a difference-in-differences (DID) analysis to compare Black-white, Latina-white, and Asian-white disparities in exclusive breastmilk feeding in a pandemic cohort (April 1-July 31, 2020, n=3122 deliveries) to disparities in a pre-pandemic cohort (January 1, 2019-February 28, 2020, n=11,842). We defined exclusive breastmilk feeding as receipt of only breastmilk during delivery hospitalization, regardless of route of administration. We ascertained severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection status from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests from nasopharyngeal swab at admission. For each DID model (e.g. Black-white disparity), we used covariate-adjusted log binomial regression models to estimate racial and ethnic risk differences, pandemic versus pre-pandemic cohort risk differences, and an interaction term representing the DID estimator. RESULTS: Exclusive breastmilk feeding increased from pre-pandemic to pandemic among white (40.8% to 46.6%, p<0.001) and Asian (27.9% to 35.8%, p=0.004) women, but not Black (22.6% to 25.3%, p=0.275) or Latina (20.1% to 21.4%, p=0.515) women overall. There was an increase in the Latina-white exclusive breastmilk feeding disparity associated with the pandemic (DID estimator=6.3 fewer cases per 100 births (95% CI=-10.8, -1.9)). We found decreased breastmilk feeding specifically among SARS-CoV-2 positive Latina women (20.1% pre-pandemic vs. 9.1% pandemic p=0.013), and no change in Black-white or Asian-white disparities. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a pandemic-related increase in the Latina-white disparity in exclusive breastmilk feeding, urging hospital policies and programs to increase equity in breastmilk feeding and perinatal care quality during and beyond this health emergency.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding/ethnology , COVID-19/ethnology , Hospitalization , Adult , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Milk, Human , New York City , Perinatal Care , Quality Indicators, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Am J Public Health ; 112(10): 1421-1428, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029853

ABSTRACT

Morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 have unduly affected older adults from racial and ethnic minority groups. In this article, we highlight the experiences and vulnerabilities of diverse older adults with complex health and social needs when their access to vital, but overlooked, community-based adult day service centers (ADSCs) was abruptly cut off during a pandemic. Pandemic-related ADSC closures left vulnerable older adults and their care partners without essential daily support and services, such as health monitoring and socialization. However, the magnitude of the impact of ADSC closures on well-being, particularly among members of racial/ethnic minority groups, has yet to be measured with any form of "big data" because large-scale, nationally representative data sets consisting of participant-level information and outcomes associated with ADSC participation do not yet exist. Unmet needs of older adults resulting from pandemic-related ADSC closures are underrecognized because of a lack of systematic data collection, undermining efforts to achieve health equity. We call on ADSCs to link rigorous collection of racial and ethnic data to quality measures of access to equitable "age-friendly" care as a means of better supporting diverse community-dwelling older adults beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(10):1421-1428. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306968).


Subject(s)
Adult Day Care Centers , COVID-19 , Health Equity , Health Services Needs and Demand , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , Racial Groups
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(35): e2205813119, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001007

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic triggered global declines in life expectancy. The United States was hit particularly hard among high-income countries. Early data from the United States showed that these losses varied greatly by race/ethnicity in 2020, with Hispanic and Black Americans suffering much larger losses in life expectancy compared with White people. We add to this research by examining trends in lifespan inequality, average years of life lost, and the contribution of specific causes of death and ages to race/ethnic life-expectancy disparities in the United States from 2010 to 2020. We find that life expectancy in 2020 fell more for Hispanic and Black males (4.5 and 3.6 y, respectively) compared with White males (1.5 y). These drops nearly eliminated the previous life-expectancy advantage for the Hispanic compared with the White population, while dramatically increasing the already large gap in life expectancy between Black and White people. While the drops in life expectancy for the Hispanic population were largely attributable to official COVID-19 deaths, Black Americans saw increases in cardiovascular diseases and "deaths of despair" over this period. In 2020, lifespan inequality increased slightly for Hispanic and White populations but decreased for Black people, reflecting the younger age pattern of COVID-19 deaths for Hispanic people. Overall, the mortality burden of the COVID-19 pandemic hit race/ethnic minorities particularly hard in the United States, underscoring the importance of the social determinants of health during a public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Life Expectancy , Pandemics , African Americans , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Life Expectancy/ethnology , Male , Race Factors , United States/epidemiology , Whites
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(14): 519-522, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384037

ABSTRACT

CDC's National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) collects and reports annual mortality statistics using data from U.S. death certificates. Because of the time needed to investigate certain causes of death and to process and review data, final annual mortality data for a given year are typically released 11 months after the end of the calendar year. Daily totals reported by CDC COVID-19 case surveillance are timely but can underestimate numbers of deaths because of incomplete or delayed reporting. As a result of improvements in timeliness and the pressing need for updated, quality data during the global COVID-19 pandemic, NVSS expanded provisional data releases to produce near real-time U.S. mortality data.* This report presents an overview of provisional U.S. mortality data for 2020, including the first ranking of leading causes of death. In 2020, approximately 3,358,814 deaths† occurred in the United States. From 2019 to 2020, the estimated age-adjusted death rate increased by 15.9%, from 715.2 to 828.7 deaths per 100,000 population. COVID-19 was reported as the underlying cause of death or a contributing cause of death for an estimated 377,883 (11.3%) of those deaths (91.5 deaths per 100,000). The highest age-adjusted death rates by age, race/ethnicity, and sex occurred among adults aged ≥85 years, non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons, and males. COVID-19 death rates were highest among adults aged ≥85 years, AI/AN and Hispanic persons, and males. COVID-19 was the third leading cause of death in 2020, after heart disease and cancer. Provisional death estimates provide an early indication of shifts in mortality trends and can guide public health policies and interventions aimed at reducing numbers of deaths that are directly or indirectly associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Mortality/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , Cause of Death/trends , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/ethnology , United States/epidemiology , Vital Statistics , Young Adult
8.
J Community Psychol ; 50(6): 2703-2725, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971281

ABSTRACT

The pandemic has disproportionately affected African American college students, who have experienced significant work-related, academic, financial, and socio-emotional challenges due to COVID-19. The purpose of the study is to investigate how African American students cope with the severe impact of COVID-19 on their emotional well-being leveraging the benefits of self-care coping measures, COVID-19 knowledge, and communication with others to enhance perceived control and social connectedness. A structural equation modeling and a path analysis of 254 responses from a Historically Black College and University showed that emotional well-being was positively predicted by self-care coping strategies, feelings of being in control in life, and social connectedness. In addition, respondents who adopted mind-body balance coping strategies, those who are knowledgeable about COVID-19, and those in more constant communication with others attained a strong sense of being in control, and in turn the empowerment increased their emotional well-being.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Mental Health , Students , Adaptation, Psychological , African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Emotions , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Humans , Internal-External Control , Mental Health/ethnology , Social Cohesion/ethnology , Students/psychology , Universities
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1220, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 self-testing (ST) is an innovative strategy with the potential to increase the access and uptake of testing and ultimately to limit the spread of the virus. To maximize the uptake and reach of this promising strategy and inform intervention development and scale up, research is needed to understand the acceptability of and willingness to use this tool. This is vital to ensure that Black/African Americans are reached by the Biden-Harris Administration's free national COVID-19 ST program. This study aimed to explore the acceptability and recommendations to promote and scale-up the uptake of COVID-19 ST among Black/African Americans. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess barriers and facilitators to the uptake of COVID-19 ST among a convenience sample of 28 self-identified Black/African Americans from schools, community centers, and faith-based institutions in Ohio and Maryland. Inductive content analysis was conducted to identify categories and subcategories related to acceptability and recommendations for implementing and scaling up COVID-19 ST in communities. RESULTS: Participants perceived COVID-19 self-testing as an acceptable tool that is beneficial to prevent transmission and address some of the barriers associated with health facility testing, such as transportation cost and human contact at the health facility. However, concerns were raised regarding the accurate use of the kits and costs. Recommendations for implementing and scaling up COVID-19 ST included engagement of community stakeholders to disseminate information about COVID-19 self-testing and creating culturally appropriate education tools to promote knowledge of and clear instructions about how to properly use COVID-19 ST kits. Based on these recommendations, the COVID-19 STEP (Self-Testing Education and Promotion) Project is being developed and will involve engaging community partners such as barbers, church leaders, and other community-based organizations to increase the uptake and use of free COVID-19 ST kits among Black/African Americans. CONCLUSION: Findings showed that most participants considered COVID-19 ST valuable for encouraging COVID-19 testing. However, cost and accuracy concerns may pose barriers. Future work should consider implementing interventions that leverage the benefits of COVID-19 ST and further assess the extent to which these identified facilitators and barriers may influence COVID-19 ST uptake.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 Testing , Self-Testing , African Americans/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans
10.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 7043, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893591

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated communities throughout the world and has required rapid paradigm changes in the manner in which health care is administered. Previous health models and practices have been modified and changed at a rapid pace. This commentary provides the experiences of a regional Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation in a COVID-19 vaccination program led and managed by Aboriginal Health Practitioners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Community Health Services , Health Services, Indigenous , Physician's Role , Vaccination , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Victoria/epidemiology
11.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(2): 1107-1113, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846908

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, challenges arose for a Native American residential substance use disorder treatment program in California (e.g., insufficient housing for quarantining, inadequate telehealth bandwidth, food shortages, client skepticism regarding safety needs). These challenges were addressed, culturally appropriate services continued, no clients tested positive for COVID-19, and unexpected benefits arose.


Subject(s)
American Indians or Alaska Natives , COVID-19/ethnology , Substance-Related Disorders/ethnology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Telemedicine/standards , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , California/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(12): 466-473, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761303

ABSTRACT

Beginning the week of December 19-25, 2021, the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) became the predominant circulating variant in the United States (i.e., accounted for >50% of sequenced isolates).* Information on the impact that booster or additional doses of COVID-19 vaccines have on preventing hospitalizations during Omicron predominance is limited. Data from the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)† were analyzed to compare COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates among adults aged ≥18 years during B.1.617.2 (Delta; July 1-December 18, 2021) and Omicron (December 19, 2021-January 31, 2022) variant predominance, overall and by race/ethnicity and vaccination status. During the Omicron-predominant period, weekly COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates (hospitalizations per 100,000 adults) peaked at 38.4, compared with 15.5 during Delta predominance. Hospitalizations rates increased among all adults irrespective of vaccination status (unvaccinated, primary series only, or primary series plus a booster or additional dose). Hospitalization rates during peak Omicron circulation (January 2022) among unvaccinated adults remained 12 times the rates among vaccinated adults who received booster or additional doses and four times the rates among adults who received a primary series, but no booster or additional dose. The rate among adults who received a primary series, but no booster or additional dose, was three times the rate among adults who received a booster or additional dose. During the Omicron-predominant period, peak hospitalization rates among non-Hispanic Black (Black) adults were nearly four times the rate of non-Hispanic White (White) adults and was the highest rate observed among any racial and ethnic group during the pandemic. Compared with the Delta-predominant period, the proportion of unvaccinated hospitalized Black adults increased during the Omicron-predominant period. All adults should stay up to date (1) with COVID-19 vaccination to reduce their risk for COVID-19-associated hospitalization. Implementing strategies that result in the equitable receipt of COVID-19 vaccinations, through building vaccine confidence, raising awareness of the benefits of vaccination, and removing barriers to vaccination access among persons with disproportionately higher hospitalizations rates from COVID-19, including Black adults, is an urgent public health priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/ethnology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , United States/epidemiology
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3721, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735274

ABSTRACT

It is unclear if changes in public behaviours, developments in COVID-19 treatments, improved patient care, and directed policy initiatives have altered outcomes for minority ethnic groups in the second pandemic wave. This was a prospective analysis of patients aged ≥ 16 years having an emergency admission with SARS-CoV-2 infection between 01/09/2020 and 17/02/2021 to acute NHS hospitals in east London. Multivariable survival analysis was used to assess associations between ethnicity and mortality accounting for predefined risk factors. Age-standardised rates of hospital admission relative to the local population were compared between ethnic groups. Of 5533 patients, the ethnic distribution was White (n = 1805, 32.6%), Asian/Asian British (n = 1983, 35.8%), Black/Black British (n = 634, 11.4%), Mixed/Other (n = 433, 7.8%), and unknown (n = 678, 12.2%). Excluding 678 patients with missing data, 4855 were included in multivariable analysis. Relative to the White population, Asian and Black populations experienced 4.1 times (3.77-4.39) and 2.1 times (1.88-2.33) higher rates of age-standardised hospital admission. After adjustment for various patient risk factors including age, sex, and socioeconomic deprivation, Asian patients were at significantly higher risk of death within 30 days (HR 1.47 [1.24-1.73]). No association with increased risk of death in hospitalised patients was observed for Black or Mixed/Other ethnicity. Asian and Black ethnic groups continue to experience poor outcomes following COVID-19. Despite higher-than-expected rates of hospital admission, Black and Asian patients also experienced similar or greater risk of death in hospital since the start of the pandemic, implying a higher overall risk of COVID-19 associated death in these communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , London , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e221754, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733813

ABSTRACT

Importance: The increased hospital mortality rates from non-SARS-CoV-2 causes during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are incompletely characterized. Objective: To describe changes in mortality rates after hospitalization for non-SARS-CoV-2 conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic and how mortality varies by characteristics of the admission and hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study from January 2019 through September 2021 using 100% of national Medicare claims, including 4626 US hospitals. Participants included 8 448 758 individuals with non-COVID-19 medical admissions with fee-for-service Medicare insurance. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcome was mortality in the 30 days after admission with adjusted odds generated from a 3-level (admission, hospital, and county) logistic regression model that included diagnosis, demographic variables, comorbidities, hospital characteristics, and hospital prevalence of SARS-CoV-2. Results: There were 8 448 758 non-SARS-CoV-2 medical admissions in 2019 and from April 2020 to September 2021 (mean [SD] age, 73.66 [12.88] years; 52.82% women; 821 569 [11.87%] Black, 438 453 [6.34%] Hispanic, 5 351 956 [77.35%] White, and 307 218 [4.44%] categorized as other). Mortality in the 30 days after admission increased from 9.43% in 2019 to 11.48% from April 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021 (odds ratio [OR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.19-1.21) in multilevel logistic regression analyses including admission and hospital characteristics. The increase in mortality was maintained throughout the first 18 months of the pandemic and varied by race and ethnicity (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.23-1.30 for Black enrollees; OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.23-1.27 for Hispanic enrollees; and OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.17-1.19 for White enrollees); Medicaid eligibility (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.24-1.27 for Medicaid eligible vs OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.16-1.18 for noneligible); and hospital quality score, measured on a scale of 1 to 5 stars with 1 being the worst and 5 being the best (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.22-1.31 for 1 star vs OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08-1.15 for 5 stars). Greater hospital prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was associated with greater increases in odds of death from the prepandemic period to the pandemic period; for example, comparing mortality in October through December 2020 with October through December 2019, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI, 1.39-1.49) for hospitals in the top quartile of SARS-CoV-2 admissions vs an OR of 1.19 (95% CI, 1.16-1.22) for admissions to hospitals in the lowest quartile. This association was mostly limited to admissions with high-severity diagnoses. Conclusions and Relevance: The prolonged elevation in mortality rates after hospital admission in 2020 and 2021 for non-SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses contrasts with reports of improvement in hospital mortality during 2020 for SARS-CoV-2. The results of this cohort study suggest that, with the continued impact of SARS-CoV-2, it is important to implement interventions to improve access to high-quality hospital care for those with non-SARS-CoV-2 diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/trends , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Insurance Claim Review , Male , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e220984, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729076

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Although social determinants of health (SDOH) are important factors in health inequities, they have not been explicitly associated with COVID-19 mortality rates across racial and ethnic groups and rural, suburban, and urban contexts. OBJECTIVES: To explore the spatial and racial disparities in county-level COVID-19 mortality rates during the first year of the pandemic. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study analyzed data for all US counties in 50 states and the District of Columbia for the first full year of the COVID-19 pandemic (January 22, 2020, to February 28, 2021). Counties with a high concentration of a single racial and ethnic population and a high level of COVID-19 mortality rate were identified as concentrated longitudinal-impact counties. The SDOH that may be associated with mortality rate across these counties and in urban, suburban, and rural contexts were examined. The 3 largest racial and ethnic groups in the US were selected: Black or African American, Hispanic or Latinx, and non-Hispanic White populations. EXPOSURES: County-level characteristics and community health factors (eg, income inequality, uninsured rate, primary care physicians, preventable hospital stays, severe housing problems rate, and access to broadband internet) associated with COVID-19 mortality. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Data on county-level COVID-19 mortality rates (deaths per 100 000 population) reported by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were analyzed. Four indexes were used to measure multiple dimensions of SDOH: socioeconomic advantage index, limited mobility index, urban core opportunity index, and mixed immigrant cohesion and accessibility index. Spatial regression models were used to examine the associations between SDOH and county-level COVID-19 mortality rate. RESULTS: Of the 3142 counties included in the study, 531 were identified as concentrated longitudinal-impact counties. Of these counties, 347 (11.0%) had a large Black or African American population compared with other counties, 198 (6.3%) had a large Hispanic or Latinx population compared with other counties, and 33 (1.1%) had a large non-Hispanic White population compared with other counties. A total of 489 254 COVID-19-related deaths were reported. Most concentrated longitudinal-impact counties with a large Black or African American population compared with other counties were spread across urban, suburban, and rural areas and experienced numerous disadvantages, including higher income inequality (297 of 347 [85.6%]) and more preventable hospital stays (281 of 347 [81.0%]). Most concentrated longitudinal-impact counties with a large Hispanic or Latinx population compared with other counties were located in urban areas (114 of 198 [57.6%]), and 130 (65.7%) of these counties had a high percentage of people who lacked health insurance. Most concentrated longitudinal-impact counties with a large non-Hispanic White population compared with other counties were in rural areas (23 of 33 [69.7%]), included a large group of older adults (26 of 33 [78.8%]), and had limited access to quality health care (24 of 33 [72.7%]). In urban areas, the mixed immigrant cohesion and accessibility index was inversely associated with COVID-19 mortality (coefficient [SE], -23.38 [6.06]; P < .001), indicating that mortality rates in urban areas were associated with immigrant communities with traditional family structures, multiple accessibility stressors, and housing overcrowding. Higher COVID-19 mortality rates were also associated with preventable hospital stays in rural areas (coefficient [SE], 0.008 [0.002]; P < .001) and higher socioeconomic status vulnerability in suburban areas (coefficient [SE], -21.60 [3.55]; P < .001). Across all community types, places with limited internet access had higher mortality rates, especially in urban areas (coefficient [SE], 5.83 [0.81]; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This cross-sectional study found an association between different SDOH measures and COVID-19 mortality that varied across racial and ethnic groups and community types. Future research is needed that explores the different dimensions and regional patterns of SDOH to address health inequity and guide policies and programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Spatial Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Humans , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health
17.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 649-654, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying occupational risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among health care workers (HCWs) can improve HCW and patient safety. OBJECTIVE: To quantify demographic, occupational, and community risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs in a large health care system. DESIGN: A logistic regression model was fitted to data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in April to June 2020, linking risk factors for occupational and community exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. SETTING: A large academic health care system in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS: Employees and medical staff members elected to participate in SARS-CoV-2 serology testing offered to all HCWs as part of a quality initiative and completed a survey on exposure to COVID-19 and use of personal protective equipment. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic risk factors for COVID-19, residential ZIP code incidence of COVID-19, occupational exposure to HCWs or patients who tested positive on polymerase chain reaction test, and use of personal protective equipment as potential risk factors for infection. The outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. RESULTS: Adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was estimated to be 3.8% (95% CI, 3.4% to 4.3%) (positive, n = 582) among the 10 275 HCWs (35% of the Emory Healthcare workforce) who participated in the survey. Community contact with a person known or suspected to have COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.9 [CI, 1.4 to 2.6]; 77 positive persons [10.3%]) and community COVID-19 incidence (aOR, 1.5 [CI, 1.0 to 2.2]) increased the odds of infection. Black individuals were at high risk (aOR, 2.1 [CI, 1.7 to 2.6]; 238 positive persons [8.3%]). LIMITATIONS: Participation rates were modest and key workplace exposures, including job and infection prevention practices, changed rapidly in the early phases of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Demographic and community risk factors, including contact with a COVID-19-positive person and Black race, are more strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCWs than is exposure in the workplace. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Emory COVID-19 Response Collaborative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/ethnology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264547, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between COVID-19 patient's clinical characteristics and disease manifestation remains incompletely understood. The impact of ethnicity on mortality of patients with COVID-19 infection is poorly addressed in the literature. Emerging evidence suggests that many risk factors are related to symptoms severity and mortality risk, emphasizing the necessity of fulfilling this knowledge gap that may help reducing mortality from COVID-19 infections through tackling the risk factors. AIMS: To explore epidemiological and demographic characteristics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from different ethnic origins living in the UAE, compare them to findings reported across the globe and determine the impact of these characteristics and ethnicity on mortality during hospitalization. METHODS: A single center, retrospective chart review study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients was conducted in a large COVID-19 referral hospital in UAE. The following outcomes were assessed: patients' clinical characteristics, disease symptoms and severity, and association of ethnicity and other risk factors on 30-day in hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 3296 patients were recruited in this study with an average age of 44.3±13.4 years old. Preliminary data analysis indicated that 78.3% (n = 2582) of cases were considered mild. Average duration of hospital stay was 6.0±7.3 days and 4.3% (n = 143) were admitted to ICU. The most frequently reported symptoms were cough (32.6%, n = 1075) and fever (22.2%, n = 731). The 30-day mortality rate during hospitalization was 2.7% (n = 90). Many risk factors were associated with mortality during hospitalization including: age, respiratory rate (RR), creatinine, and C-reactive protein, oxygen saturation (SaO2), hemoglobin, hematocrit, ferritin, creatinine, C-reactive protein, anemia, COPD, Chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, Vitamin-D Deficiency, and ethnic origin (p <0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that higher mortality rates during hospitalization was associated with anemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease, and Middle Eastern origin (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that most COVID-19 cases were mild and morality rate was low compared to worldwide reported mortality. Mortality rate during hospitalization was higher in patients from Middle East origin with preexisting comorbidities especially anemia, COPD, and chronic kidney disease. Due to the relatively small number of mortality cases, other identified risk factors from univariate analysis such as age, respiratory rate, and Vitamin-D (VitD) deficiency should also be taken into consideration. It is crucial to stratify patients on admission based on these risk factors to help decide intensity and type of treatment which, possibly, will reduce the risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
20.
Am J Public Health ; 112(3): 408-416, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706319

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To evaluate the occurrence of HIV and COVID-19 infections in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, through July 2020 and identify ecological correlates driving racial disparities in infection incidence. Methods. For each zip code tabulation area, we created citywide comparison Z-score measures of COVID-19 cases, new cases of HIV, and the difference between the scores. Choropleth maps were used to identify areas that were similar or dissimilar in terms of disease patterning, and weighted linear regression models helped identify independent ecological predictors of these patterns. Results. Relative to COVID-19, HIV represented a greater burden in Center City Philadelphia, whereas COVID-19 was more apparent in Northeast Philadelphia. Areas with a greater proportion of Black or African American residents were overrepresented in terms of both diseases. Conclusions. Although race is a shared nominal upstream factor that conveys increased risk for both infections, an understanding of separate structural, demographic, and economic risk factors that drive the overrepresentation of COVID-19 cases in racial/ethnic communities across Philadelphia is critical. Public Health Implications. Difference-based measures are useful in identifying areas that are underrepresented or overrepresented with respect to disease occurrence and may be able to elucidate effective or ineffective mitigation strategies. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(3):408-416. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306538).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/ethnology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis , Young Adult
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