Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 456
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cardiac abnormalities and their relationship to markers of myocardial injury and mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective and prospective observational study of inpatients referred for transthoracic echocardiography for suspected cardiac pathology due to COVID-19 within a London NHS Trust. Echocardiograms were performed to assess left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV) and pulmonary variables along with collection of patient demographics, comorbid conditions, blood biomarkers and outcomes. RESULT: In the predominant non-white (72%) population, RV dysfunction was the primary cardiac abnormality noted in 50% of patients, with RV fractional area change <35% being the most common marker of this RV dysfunction. By comparison, LV systolic dysfunction occurred in 18% of patients. RV dysfunction was associated with LV systolic dysfunction and the presence of a D-shaped LV throughout the cardiac cycle (marker of significant pulmonary artery hypertension). LV systolic dysfunction (p=0.002, HR 3.82, 95% CI 1.624 to 8.982), pulmonary valve acceleration time (p=0.024, HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.964 to 0.997)-marker of increased pulmonary vascular resistance, age (p=0.047, HR 1.027, 95% CI 1.000 to 1.055) and an episode of tachycardia measured from admission to time of echo (p=0.004, HR 6.183, 95% CI 1.772 to 21.575) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this predominantly non-white population hospitalised with COVID-19, the most common cardiac pathology was RV dysfunction which is associated with both LV systolic dysfunction and elevated pulmonary artery pressure. The latter two, not RV dysfunction, were associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Ethnic Groups , Heart Diseases/ethnology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Population Surveillance , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography, Doppler , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Quebec/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends
2.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517636

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
3.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1409-1419, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe monthly clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. DESIGN: Pooled cross-sectional study. SETTING: 99 counties in 14 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET). PATIENTS: U.S. adults (aged ≥18 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during 1 March to 31 December 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Monthly hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and in-hospital death rates per 100 000 persons in the population; monthly trends in weighted percentages of interventions, including ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use, among an age- and site-stratified random sample of hospitalized case patients. RESULTS: Among 116 743 hospitalized adults with COVID-19, the median age was 62 years, 50.7% were male, and 40.8% were non-Hispanic White. Monthly rates of hospitalization (105.3 per 100 000 persons), ICU admission (20.2 per 100 000 persons), and death (11.7 per 100 000 persons) peaked during December 2020. Rates of all 3 outcomes were highest among adults aged 65 years or older, males, and Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black persons. Among 18 508 sampled hospitalized adults, use of remdesivir and systemic corticosteroids increased from 1.7% and 18.9%, respectively, in March to 53.8% and 74.2%, respectively, in December. Frequency of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use decreased from March (37.8%, 27.8%, and 22.7%, respectively) to December (20.5%, 12.3%, and 12.8%, respectively); use of noninvasive respiratory support increased from March to December. LIMITATION: COVID-NET covers approximately 10% of the U.S. population; findings may not be generalizable to the entire country. CONCLUSION: Rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, and death were highest in December 2020, corresponding with the third peak of the U.S. pandemic. The frequency of intensive interventions for management of hospitalized patients decreased over time. These data provide a longitudinal assessment of clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 before widespread implementation of COVID-19 vaccines. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Young Adult
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134147, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508585

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minority groups, and race and ethnicity have been associated with disease severity. However, the association of socioeconomic determinants with racial disparities in COVID-19 outcomes remains unclear. Objective: To evaluate the association of race and ethnicity with COVID-19 outcomes and to examine the association between race, ethnicity, COVID-19 outcomes, and socioeconomic determinants. Data Sources: A systematic search of PubMed, medRxiv, bioRxiv, Embase, and the World Health Organization COVID-19 databases was performed for studies published from January 1, 2020, to January 6, 2021. Study Selection: Studies that reported data on associations between race and ethnicity and COVID-19 positivity, disease severity, and socioeconomic status were included and screened by 2 independent reviewers. Studies that did not have a satisfactory quality score were excluded. Overall, less than 1% (0.47%) of initially identified studies met selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Associations were assessed using adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs), combined prevalence, and metaregression. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main measures were RRs, ORs, and combined prevalence values. Results: A total of 4 318 929 patients from 68 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, 370 933 patients (8.6%) were African American, 9082 (0.2%) were American Indian or Alaska Native, 101 793 (2.4%) were Asian American, 851 392 identified as Hispanic/Latino (19.7%), 7417 (0.2%) were Pacific Islander, 1 037 996 (24.0%) were White, and 269 040 (6.2%) identified as multiracial and another race or ethnicity. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, African American individuals (RR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.38-9.07; P = .008) and Hispanic individuals (RR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.28-17.20; P = .02) were the most likely to test positive for COVID-19. Asian American individuals had the highest risk of intensive care unit admission (RR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.60-2.34, P < .001). The area deprivation index was positively correlated with mortality rates in Asian American and Hispanic individuals (P < .001). Decreased access to clinical care was positively correlated with COVID-19 positivity in Hispanic individuals (P < .001) and African American individuals (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, members of racial and ethnic minority groups had higher risks of COVID-19 positivity and disease severity. Furthermore, socioeconomic determinants were strongly associated with COVID-19 outcomes in racial and ethnic minority populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Social Class , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continental Population Groups/ethnology , Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology
7.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1507-1512, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493989

ABSTRACT

The harsh realities of racial inequities related to COVID-19 and civil unrest following police killings of unarmed Black men and women in the United States in 2020 heightened awareness of racial injustices around the world. Racism is deeply embedded in academic medicine, yet the nobility of medicine and nursing has helped health care professionals distance themselves from racism. Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC), like many U.S. academic medical centers, affirmed its commitment to racial equity in summer 2020. A Racial Equity Task Force was charged with identifying barriers to achieving racial equity at the medical center and medical school and recommending key actions to rectify long-standing racial inequities. The task force, composed of students, staff, and faculty, produced more than 60 recommendations, and its work brought to light critical areas that need to be addressed in academic medicine broadly. To dismantle structural racism, academic medicine must: (1) confront medicine's racist past, which has embedded racial inequities in the U.S. health care system; (2) develop and require health care professionals to possess core competencies in the health impacts of structural racism; (3) recognize race as a sociocultural and political construct, and commit to debiologizing its use; (4) invest in benefits and resources for health care workers in lower-paid roles, in which racial and ethnic minorities are often overrepresented; and (5) commit to antiracism at all levels, including changing institutional policies, starting at the executive leadership level with a vision, metrics, and accountability.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/ethics , COVID-19/ethnology , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Racism/ethnology , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , African Americans/ethnology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care/ethics , Female , Health Personnel/ethics , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Schools, Medical/ethics , United States/epidemiology
8.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1546-1552, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493981

ABSTRACT

Racially and ethnically diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged communities have historically been disproportionately affected by disasters and public health emergencies in the United States. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Minority Health established the National Consensus Panel on Emergency Preparedness and Cultural Diversity to provide guidance to agencies and organizations on developing effective strategies to advance emergency preparedness and eliminate disparities among racially and ethnically diverse communities during these crises. Adopting the National Consensus Panel recommendations, the Johns Hopkins Medicine Office of Diversity, Inclusion, and Health Equity; Language Services; and academic-community partnerships used existing health equity resources and expertise to develop an operational framework to support the organization's COVID-19 response and to provide a framework of health equity initiatives for other academic medical centers. This operational framework addressed policies to support health equity patient care and clinical operations, accessible COVID-19 communication, and staff and community support and engagement, which also supported the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health and Health Care. Johns Hopkins Medicine identified expanded recommendations for addressing institutional policy making and capacity building, including unconscious bias training for resource allocation teams and staff training in accurate race, ethnicity, and language data collection, that should be considered in future updates to the National Consensus Panel's recommendations.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/organization & administration , COVID-19/ethnology , Disasters/prevention & control , Health Equity/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Consensus , Cultural Diversity , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Government Programs/organization & administration , Government Programs/standards , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Policy Making , Public Health/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Social Participation , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(11): 2300-2313, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493670

ABSTRACT

To measure disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) transfer among racially/ethnically marginalized groups before and after implementation of the California statewide shelter-in-place (SIP) policy, we conducted a retrospective cohort study within a health-care system in California. COVID-19 patients diagnosed from January 1, 2020, to August 31, 2020, were identified from electronic health records. We examined hospitalizations and ICU transfers by race/ethnicity and pandemic period using logistic regression. Among 16,520 people with COVID-19 (mean age = 46.6 (standard deviation, 18.4) years; 54.2% women), during the post-SIP period, patients were on average younger and a larger proportion were Hispanic. In adjusted models, odds of hospitalization were 20% lower post-SIP as compared with the SIP period, yet all non-White groups had higher odds (odds ratios = 1.6-2.1) than non-Hispanic White individuals, regardless of period. Among hospitalized patients, odds of ICU transfer were 33% lower post-SIP than during SIP. Hispanic and Asian patients had higher odds than non-Hispanics. Disparities in hospitalization persisted and ICU risk became more pronounced for Asian and Hispanic patients post-SIP. Policy-makers should consider ways to proactively address racial/ethnic inequities in risk when considering future population-level policy interventions for public health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , California/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
10.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1400-1409, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490612

ABSTRACT

Importance: People who have been infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 have reduced risk of subsequent infection, but the proportion of people in the US with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from infection or vaccination is uncertain. Objective: To estimate trends in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence related to infection and vaccination in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a repeated cross-sectional study conducted each month during July 2020 through May 2021, 17 blood collection organizations with blood donations from all 50 US states; Washington, DC; and Puerto Rico were organized into 66 study-specific regions, representing a catchment of 74% of the US population. For each study region, specimens from a median of approximately 2000 blood donors were selected and tested each month; a total of 1 594 363 specimens were initially selected and tested. The final date of blood donation collection was May 31, 2021. Exposure: Calendar time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of persons with detectable SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Seroprevalence was weighted for demographic differences between the blood donor sample and general population. Infection-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with spike antibodies. The seroprevalence estimates were compared with cumulative COVID-19 case report incidence rates. Results: Among 1 443 519 specimens included, 733 052 (50.8%) were from women, 174 842 (12.1%) were from persons aged 16 to 29 years, 292 258 (20.2%) were from persons aged 65 years and older, 36 654 (2.5%) were from non-Hispanic Black persons, and 88 773 (6.1%) were from Hispanic persons. The overall infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimate increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2%-3.8%) in July 2020 to 20.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-20.6%) in May 2021; the combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence estimate in May 2021 was 83.3% (95% CI, 82.9%-83.7%). By May 2021, 2.1 SARS-CoV-2 infections (95% CI, 2.0-2.1) per reported COVID-19 case were estimated to have occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on a sample of blood donations in the US from July 2020 through May 2021, vaccine- and infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased over time and varied by age, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. Despite weighting to adjust for demographic differences, these findings from a national sample of blood donors may not be representative of the entire US population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2130479, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482074

ABSTRACT

Importance: Racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Objectives: To evaluate whether rates of severe COVID-19, defined as hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or in-hospital death, are higher among racial and ethnic minority groups compared with non-Hispanic White persons. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 99 counties within 14 US states participating in the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network. Participants were persons of all ages hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 1, 2020, to February 28, 2021. Exposures: Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalization, defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 test within 14 days prior to or during hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cumulative age-adjusted rates (per 100 000 population) of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death by race and ethnicity. Rate ratios (RR) were calculated for each racial and ethnic group compared with White persons. Results: Among 153 692 patients with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, 143 342 (93.3%) with information on race and ethnicity were included in the analysis. Of these, 105 421 (73.5%) were 50 years or older, 72 159 (50.3%) were male, 28 762 (20.1%) were Hispanic or Latino, 2056 (1.4%) were non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native, 7737 (5.4%) were non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander, 40 806 (28.5%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 63 981 (44.6%) were White. Compared with White persons, American Indian or Alaska Native, Latino, Black, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons were more likely to have higher cumulative age-adjusted rates of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death as follows: American Indian or Alaska Native (hospitalization: RR, 3.70; 95% CI, 3.54-3.87; ICU admission: RR, 6.49; 95% CI, 6.01-7.01; death: RR, 7.19; 95% CI, 6.47-7.99); Latino (hospitalization: RR, 3.06; 95% CI, 3.01-3.10; ICU admission: RR, 4.20; 95% CI, 4.08-4.33; death: RR, 3.85; 95% CI, 3.68-4.01); Black (hospitalization: RR, 2.85; 95% CI, 2.81-2.89; ICU admission: RR, 3.17; 95% CI, 3.09-3.26; death: RR, 2.58; 95% CI, 2.48-2.69); and Asian or Pacific Islander (hospitalization: RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; ICU admission: RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.83-1.98; death: RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.55-1.74). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional analysis, American Indian or Alaska Native, Latino, Black, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons were more likely than White persons to have a COVID-19-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, or in-hospital death during the first year of the US COVID-19 pandemic. Equitable access to COVID-19 preventive measures, including vaccination, is needed to minimize the gap in racial and ethnic disparities of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little evidence exists on the differential health effects of COVID-19 on disadvantaged population groups. Here we characterise the differential risk of hospitalisation and death in São Paulo state, Brazil, and show how vulnerability to COVID-19 is shaped by socioeconomic inequalities. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using hospitalised severe acute respiratory infections notified from March to August 2020 in the Sistema de Monitoramento Inteligente de São Paulo database. We examined the risk of hospitalisation and death by race and socioeconomic status using multiple data sets for individual-level and spatiotemporal analyses. We explained these inequalities according to differences in daily mobility from mobile phone data, teleworking behaviour and comorbidities. RESULTS: Throughout the study period, patients living in the 40% poorest areas were more likely to die when compared with patients living in the 5% wealthiest areas (OR: 1.60, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.74) and were more likely to be hospitalised between April and July 2020 (OR: 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12). Black and Pardo individuals were more likely to be hospitalised when compared with White individuals (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 1.37 to 1.46; OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.28, respectively), and were more likely to die (OR: 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19; 1.07, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.10, respectively) between April and July 2020. Once hospitalised, patients treated in public hospitals were more likely to die than patients in private hospitals (OR: 1.40%, 95% CI 1.34% to 1.46%). Black individuals and those with low education attainment were more likely to have one or more comorbidities, respectively (OR: 1.29, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.39; 1.36, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.45). CONCLUSIONS: Low-income and Black and Pardo communities are more likely to die with COVID-19. This is associated with differential access to quality healthcare, ability to self-isolate and the higher prevalence of comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral , Poverty Areas , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Socioeconomic Factors
15.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258243, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468166

ABSTRACT

Millions of Americans have been infected with COVID-19 and communities of color have been disproportionately burdened. We investigated the relationship between demographic characteristics and COVID-19 positivity, and comorbidities and severe COVID-19 illness (use of mechanical ventilation and length of stay) within a racial/ethnic minority population. Patients tested for COVID-19 between March 2020 and January 2021 (N = 14171) were 49.9% (n = 7072) female; 50.1% (n = 7104) non-Hispanic Black; 33.2% (n = 4698) Hispanic; and 23.6% (n = 3348) aged 65+. Overall COVID-19 positivity was 16.1% (n = 2286). Compared to females, males were 1.1 times more likely to test positive (p = 0.014). Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic persons were 1.4 (p = 0.003) and 2.4 (p<0.001) times more likely, respectively, to test positive. Compared to persons ages 18-24, the odds of testing positive were statistically significantly higher for every age group except 25-34, and those aged 65+ were 2.8 times more likely to test positive (p<0.001). Adjusted for race, sex, and age, COVID-positive patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were 1.9 times more likely to require a ventilator compared to those without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p = 0.001). Length of stay was not statistically significantly associated with any of the comorbidity variables. Our findings emphasize the importance of documenting COVID-19 disparities in marginalized populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Health Status Disparities , Length of Stay , Respiration, Artificial , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/virology , Chicago , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
16.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 7043, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464161

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has devastated communities throughout the world and has required rapid paradigm changes in the manner in which health care is administered. Previous health models and practices have been modified and changed at a rapid pace. This commentary provides the experiences of a regional Victorian Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisation in a COVID-19 vaccination program led and managed by Aboriginal Health Practitioners.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Community Health Services , Health Services, Indigenous , Physician's Role , Vaccination , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Humans , Oceanic Ancestry Group , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Victoria/epidemiology
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(37): 1267-1273, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456567

ABSTRACT

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander populations have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 (1-3). Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian populations vary in language; cultural practices; and social, economic, and environmental experiences,† which can affect health outcomes (4).§ However, data from these populations are often aggregated in analyses. Although data aggregation is often used as an approach to increase sample size and statistical power when analyzing data from smaller population groups, it can limit the understanding of disparities among diverse Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian subpopulations¶ (4-7). To assess disparities in COVID-19 outcomes among Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian populations, a disaggregated, descriptive analysis, informed by recommendations from these communities,** was performed using race data from 21,005 COVID-19 cases and 449 COVID-19-associated deaths reported to the Hawaii State Department of Health (HDOH) during March 1, 2020-February 28, 2021.†† In Hawaii, COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 population were 1,477 and 32, respectively during this period. In analyses with race categories that were not mutually exclusive, including persons of one race alone or in combination with one or more races, Pacific Islander persons, who account for 5% of Hawaii's population, represented 22% of COVID-19 cases and deaths (COVID-19 incidence of 7,070 and mortality rate of 150). Native Hawaiian persons experienced an incidence of 1,181 and a mortality rate of 15. Among subcategories of Asian populations, the highest incidences were experienced by Filipino persons (1,247) and Vietnamese persons (1,200). Disaggregating Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian race data can aid in identifying racial disparities among specific subpopulations and highlights the importance of partnering with communities to develop culturally responsive outreach teams§§ and tailored public health interventions and vaccination campaigns to more effectively address health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , COVID-19/mortality , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Hawaii/epidemiology , Humans
18.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E91, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456476

ABSTRACT

Marshallese and Latino communities in Benton and Washington counties, Arkansas, were disproportionately affected by COVID-19. We evaluated the effectiveness of a comprehensive community-based intervention to reduce COVID-19 disparities in these communities. We examined all laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in the 2 counties reported from April 6, 2020, through December 28, 2020. A 2-sample serial t test for rate change was used to evaluate changes in case rates before and after implementation of the intervention. After implementation, the proportions of cases among Marshallese and Latino residents declined substantially and began to align more closely with the proportions of these 2 populations in the 2 counties. Infection rates remained lower throughout the evaluation period, and weekly incidence also approximated Marshallese and Latino population proportions. Leveraging community partnerships and tailoring activities to specific communities can successfully reduce disparities in incidence among populations at high-risk for COVID-19 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Based Participatory Research , Health Status Disparities , Hispanic Americans , Oceanic Ancestry Group , Arkansas/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Community-Based Participatory Research/organization & administration , Hispanic Americans/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Oceanic Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data
19.
South Med J ; 114(10): 649-656, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449312

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Although disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevalence are known, knowledge of the recent surge of COVID-19 in Texas and factors affecting fatality rates is limited. Understanding the health disparities associated with COVID-19 can help healthcare professionals determine the populations that are most in need of COVID-19 preventive care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess COVID-19-related case and mortality rates. METHODS: Our cross-sectional analysis used Texas Department of State Health Services COVID-19 case surveillance counts. Case, hospitalization, and mortality counts were obtained from March to July 2020. RESULTS: From March to July 2020, there were 420,397 COVID-19-related cases and 6954 deaths in Texas. There were 3277 new cases and 104 deaths in March, and 261,876 new cases and 3660 deaths in July. The number of new COVID-19 cases was the highest from March to April (relative risk 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.76-1.78). Although the death rate in June was a 30% increase over the rate in May, death rates nearly tripled by the end of July, for a total of 3660 deaths. Of the 3958 deaths, demographic data were available for 753 deaths. Of these, 440 were male, 16 Asian, 95 Black, 221 Hispanic, 325 White, and 96 were "Other" or "Unknown." Males were associated with a slightly higher chance of acquiring COVID-19 than females (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.09-1.14) and nearly a 29% higher chance of dying of COVID-19 compared with females (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.49). Bivariate analysis revealed that the probability of acquiring COVID-19 was 12% higher in older adults compared with individuals younger than 65 years old (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.08-1.16), and older adults had an 18.8 times higher risk of death when compared with the rate of younger individuals (OR 18.79, 95% CI 15.93-22.15). Hispanics and Blacks were 70% and 48%, respectively, more likely to contract COVID-19 than Whites. All races had lower significant chance of death when compared with Whites. At the end of July, there was a total of 430,485 Texas COVID-19 cases and 6387 fatalities (8.8% of all cases and 4% of all deaths in the United States.). Case fatality ratios were the highest in older adults. As we continued to observe data, in contrast to previous study time points, we found that Asians and Hispanics had no significant difference in COVID mortality rates and were comparable in terms of mortality odds and death case ratios when compared with Whites. CONCLUSIONS: This time period represents the highest COVID-19 surge time in Texas. Although our data consist of a short time period of population-level data in an ongoing pandemic and are limited by information reported to the Texas Department of State Health Services, older age, male sex, Hispanics, and Blacks are currently associated with higher infection rates, whereas older age, male sex, and Whites are associated with higher mortality rates. Clinicians and decision makers should be aware of the COVID-19 health disparities and risk factors for mortality to better promote targeted interventions and allocate resources accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Risk Factors , State Government , Texas/epidemiology
20.
J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele is more prevalent among African Americans compared with other races and ethnicities and has previously been associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis through excessive ACE1 activity. ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) may counteract this mechanism, but their association with COVID-19 outcomes has not been specifically tested in the African American population.METHODSWe identified 6218 patients who were admitted into Mount Sinai hospitals with COVID-19 between February 24 and May 31, 2020, in New York City. We evaluated whether the outpatient and in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB is associated with COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in an African American compared with non-African American population.RESULTSOf the 6218 patients with COVID-19, 1138 (18.3%) were ACE-I/ARB users. In a multivariate logistic regression model, ACE-I/ARB use was independently associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality in the entire population (OR, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.505-0.850; P = 0.001), African American population (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.249-0.779; P = 0.005), and non-African American population (OR, 0.748, 95% CI, 0.553-1.012, P = 0.06). In the African American population, in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB was associated with improved mortality (OR, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.188-0.766; P = 0.006), whereas outpatient use was not (OR, 0.889; 95% CI, 0.375-2.158; P = 0.812). When analyzing each medication class separately, ARB in-hospital use was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in the African American population (OR, 0.196; 95% CI, 0.074-0.516; P = 0.001), whereas ACE-I use was not associated with impact on mortality in any population.CONCLUSIONIn-hospital use of ARB was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality among COVID-19-positive African American patients.FUNDINGNone.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...