Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 626
Filter
1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(4): 392-398, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibody was evaluated among employees of a Veterans Affairs healthcare system to assess potential risk factors for transmission and infection. METHODS: All employees were invited to participate in a questionnaire and serological survey to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as part of a facility-wide quality improvement and infection prevention initiative regardless of clinical or nonclinical duties. The initiative was conducted from June 8 to July 8, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 2,900 employees, 51% participated in the study, revealing a positive SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of 4.9% (72 of 1,476; 95% CI, 3.8%-6.1%). There were no statistically significant differences in the presence of antibody based on gender, age, frontline worker status, job title, performance of aerosol-generating procedures, or exposure to known patients with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) within the hospital. Employees who reported exposure to a known COVID-19 case outside work had a significantly higher seroprevalence at 14.8% (23 of 155) compared to those who did not 3.7% (48 of 1,296; OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 2.67-7.68; P < .0001). Notably, 29% of seropositive employees reported no history of symptoms for SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among employees was not significantly different among those who provided direct patient care and those who did not, suggesting that facility-wide infection control measures were effective. Employees who reported direct personal contact with COVID-19-positive persons outside work were more likely to have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Employee exposure to SARS-CoV-2 outside work may introduce infection into hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(2): 869-874, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated COVID-19 risk and burden among people with HIV (PWH) in a US city with high rates of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 transmissions and examined the interrelationship between psychosocial factors and COVID-19 risk and burden. SETTING: Participants were drawn from an existing consent to contact database of PWH. Database candidates were PWH, adults older than 18 years, people who had received HIV care at the University of Miami HIV clinics, people who spoke English or Spanish, and people who had agreed to be contacted for future research. METHODS: An adapted version of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/Women's Interagency HIV Study Combined Cohort Study COVID-19 survey was telephonically administered, requiring 15-30 minutes. RESULTS: Psychological stress was a predictor of COVID-19 burden (financial and social burden) and COVID-19 risk (health factors associated with an increased risk of severe health outcomes due to infection with COVID-19). Having a history of traumatic events was associated with increased COVID-19 risk, and stress was associated with increased COVID-19 burden and COVID-19 risk. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, results suggest that the intersection of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics may be most profound among those who have experienced traumatic events; and traumatic events may be associated with heightened vigilance regarding illness and infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Cost of Illness , Depression/complications , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , Stress, Psychological/complications
8.
IUBMB Life ; 74(1): 62-73, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850068

ABSTRACT

Airborne pollution has become a leading cause of global death in industrialized cities and the exposure to environmental pollutants has been demonstrated to have adverse effects on human health. Among the pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is one of the most toxic and although its exposure has been more commonly correlated with respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal (GI) complications have also been reported as a consequence to PM exposure. Due to its composition, PM is able to exert on intestinal mucosa both direct damaging effects, (by reaching it either via direct ingestion of contaminated food and water or indirect inhalation and consequent macrophagic mucociliary clearance) and indirect ones via generation of systemic inflammation. The relationship between respiratory and GI conditions is well described by the lung-gut axis and more recently, has become even clearer during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, when respiratory symptoms were associated with gastrointestinal conditions. This review aims at pointing out the mechanisms and the models used to evaluate PM induced GI tract damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/injuries , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Inhalation , Administration, Oral , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/injuries , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Masks , Microplastics/toxicity , Models, Biological , Mucociliary Clearance/physiology , Nutrition Policy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Particulate Matter/administration & dosage , Respiratory System/injuries , Respiratory System/physiopathology
9.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3147-3154, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826047

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against COVID-19 provide immunity to deter severe morbidities associated with the infection. However, it does not prevent infection altogether in all exposed individuals. Furthermore, emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 impose a threat concerning the competency of the vaccines in combating the infection. This study aims to determine the variability in adverse events and the extent of breakthrough infections in the Indian population. A retrospective study was conducted using a pre-validated questionnaire encompassing social, demographic, general health, the status of SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccination, associated adverse events, and breakthrough infections in the Indian population. Informed consent and ethical approval were obtained as per Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) guidelines. Participants, who provided the complete information, were Indian citizens, above 18 years, and if vaccinated, administered with either Covishield or Covaxin, were considered for the study. Data have been compiled in Microsoft Excel and analyzed for statistical differences using STATA 11. The responses from 2051 individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Among 2051, 1119 respondents were vaccinated and 932 respondents were non-vaccinated. Among 1119 vaccinated respondents, 7 were excluded because of missing data. Therefore, out of 1112 vaccinated, 413 experienced adverse events with a major fraction of younger individuals, age 18-40 years, getting affected (74.82%; 309/413). Furthermore, considerably more females than males encountered adverse consequences to vaccination (p < 0.05). Among vaccinated participants, breakthrough infections were observed in 7.91% (88/1112; 57.96% males and 42.04% females) with the older age group, 61 years and above (odds ratio, 3.25 [1.32-8.03]; p = 0.011), and males were found to be at higher risk. Further research is needed to find the age and sex-related factors in determining vaccine effectiveness and adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Young Adult
10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2612-2618, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetes conveys an increased risk of infectious diseases and related mortality. We investigated risk of ascertained SARS-CoV-2 infection in diabetes subjects from the Veneto Region, Northeastern Italy, as well as the risk of being admitted to hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), or mortality for COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diabetic subjects were identified by linkage of multiple health archives. The rest of the population served as reference. Information on ascertained infection by SARS-CoV-2, admission to hospital, admission to ICU and mortality in the period from February 21 to July 31, 2020 were retrieved from the regional registry of COVID-19. Subjects with ascertained diabetes were 269,830 (55.2% men; median age 72 years). Reference subjects were 4,681,239 (men 48.6%, median age 46 years). Ratios of age- and gender-standardized rates (RR) [95% CI] for ascertained infection, admission to hospital, admission to ICU and disease-related death in diabetic subjects were 1.31 [1.19-1.45], 2.11 [1.83-2.44], 2.45 [1.96-3.07], 1.87 [1.68-2.09], all p < 0.001. The highest RR of ascertained infection was observed in diabetic men aged 20-39 years: 1.90 [1.04-3.21]. The highest RR of ICU admission and death were observed in diabetic men aged 40-59 years: 3.47 [2.00-5.70] and 5.54 [2.23-12.1], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These data, observed in a large population of ∼5 million people of whom ∼250,000 with diabetes, show that diabetes not only conveys a poorer outcome in COVID-19 but also confers an increased risk of ascertained infection from SARS-CoV-2. Men of young or mature age have the highest relative risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Complications/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
11.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264752, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793508

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This highly contagious zoonotic corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) spread to most parts of the world (200 countries) and created a public health emergency. Due to its novel nature and indistinctness, different sources of information and suggestions were developed to guide the individuals about its transmission and prevent its infection. Responses to the active intervention efforts have posed some relevant questions on population understanding and attitudes toward COVID-19. The present study is aims to assess the COVID-19 related knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) in a heterogeneous Indian population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 501 respondents across India participated in a questionnaire-based online survey from April 2020 to May 2020. The questionnaire incorporated 56 questions about demographic characteristics and KAP dimensions. The mixed (quantitative and qualitative) methods were employed to evaluate KAP dimensions. Descriptive analysis was estimated as means, SD, and proportion. The bivariate (χ2), correlation, and regression analysis were utilized for the response analysis. In addition, qualitative analysis, including content and thematic analysis were done for open-ended questions. RESULT: High knowledge and positive attitude were reported in more than half of the study population, with a proportion of 58.6% and 62.1%, respectively. Education shows a significant difference in the knowledge and attitude dimensions. The good practice (50.5% of the total population) reported a significant difference in age and gender categories with the test of independence (χ2). Prevention (56.89%) in knowledge domain and risk (17.56%), information-seeking (45.51%), prevention (51.50%), and treatment-seeking (54.29%) in attitude domains recorded low proportion. KAP variables were found in association in Pearson correlation analysis. In logistic regression analysis, knowledge was the strongest predictor for the positive attitude, whereas attitude was reported as the best predictor for good practice outcome. CONCLUSION: The study presents a moderate level of covid related knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Indian population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264805, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793506

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Unlike previous pandemics, COVID-19 has sustained over a relatively longer period with cyclical infection waves and numerous variants. Public transport ridership has been hit particularly hard. To restore travellers' confidence it is critical to assess their risk determinants and trade-offs. METHODS: To this end, we survey train travellers in the Netherlands in order to: (i) quantify the impact of trip-specific, policy-based, and pandemic-related attributes on travellers' COVID-19 risk perceptions; and (ii) evaluate the trade-off between this risk perception and other travel attributes. Adopting the hierarchical information integration approach, in a two-stage stated preference experiment, respondents are asked to first rate how risky they perceive different travel situations to be, and then to choose between different travel options that include their own perceived risk rating as an attribute. Perceived risk ratings and choices between travel options are modelled using a linear regression and a mixed multinomial logit model, respectively. RESULTS: We find that on-board crowding and infection rates are the most important factors for risk perception. Amongst personal characteristics, the vulnerability of family and friends has the largest impact-nearly twice that of personal health risk. The bridging choice experiment reveals that while values of time have remained similar to pre-pandemic estimates, travellers are significantly more likely to choose routes with less COVID-19 risk (e.g., due to lower crowding). Respondents making longer trips by train value risk four times as much as their shorter trip counterparts. By combining the two models, we also report willingness to pay for mitigating factors: reduced crowding, mask mandates, and increased sanitization. CONCLUSION: Since we evaluate the impact of a large number of variables on route choice behaviour, we can use the estimated models to predict behaviour under detailed pandemic scenarios. Moreover, in addition to highlighting the importance of COVID-19 risk perceptions in public transport route choices, the results from this study provide valuable information regarding the mitigating impacts of various policies on perceived risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Choice Behavior/physiology , Perception/physiology , Transportation/methods , Travel/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors , Young Adult
13.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265686, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785192

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and gustatory disorders are prominent symptoms of acute COVID-19. Although both senses recover in many patients within weeks to months, persistency has been described in up to 60%. However up to now most reports on the course of chemosensitive disorders after COVID-19 are not based on psychophysical testing but only on subjective patients' ratings. In this study we assessed both olfaction and gustation using psychophysical tests eight months after COVID-19. Validated psychophysical testing revealed hyposmia in 18% and hypogeusia in even 32% of 303 included patients. This shows that olfactory and especially gustatory disorders have to be seen as important chronic symptoms post-COVID-19. The high prevalence of gustatory dysfunction indicates that gustatory function does not recover or might even deteriorate in the months following the acute infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Taste , COVID-19/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Threshold
14.
Elife ; 112022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761118

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to rage around the world. At the same time, despite strong public health measures and high vaccination rates in some countries, a post-COVID-19 syndrome has emerged which lacks a clear definition, prevalence, or etiology. However, fatigue, dyspnea, brain fog, and lack of smell and/or taste are often characteristic of patients with this syndrome. These are evident more than a month after infection, and are labeled as Post-Acute Sequelae of CoV-2 (PASC) or commonly referred to as long-COVID. Metabolic dysfunction (i.e., obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus) is a predisposing risk factor for severe acute COVID-19, and there is emerging evidence that this factor plus a chronic inflammatory state may predispose to PASC. In this article, we explore the potential pathogenic metabolic mechanisms that could underly both severe acute COVID-19 and PASC, and then consider how these might be targeted for future therapeutic approaches.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Disease Susceptibility , Energy Metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Disease Management , Glucose/metabolism , Glucose Intolerance , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Islets of Langerhans/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760640

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis is still an important medical and social problem. In recent years, great strides have been made in the fight against M. tuberculosis, especially in the Russian Federation. However, the emergence of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) has led to the long-term isolation of the population on the one hand and to the relevance of using personal protective equipment on the other. Our knowledge regarding SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation and tissue destruction is rapidly expanding, while our understanding of the pathology of human pulmonary tuberculosis gained through more the 100 years of research is still limited. This paper reviews the main molecular and cellular differences and similarities caused by M. tuberculosis and SARS-CoV-2 infections, as well as their critical immunological and pathomorphological features. Immune suppression caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus may result in certain difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Furthermore, long-term lymphopenia, hyperinflammation, lung tissue injury and imbalance in CD4+ T cell subsets associated with COVID-19 could propagate M. tuberculosis infection and disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Inflammation/microbiology , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Lymphopenia/microbiology , Lymphopenia/virology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Indoor Air ; 32(3): e13012, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752577

ABSTRACT

In this study, the risk of infection from SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant of passengers sharing a car cabin with an infected subject for a 30-min journey is estimated through an integrated approach combining a recently developed predictive emission-to-risk approach and a validated CFD numerical model numerically solved using the open-source OpenFOAM software. Different scenarios were investigated to evaluate the effect of the infected subject position within the car cabin, the airflow rate of the HVAC system, the HVAC ventilation mode, and the expiratory activity (breathing vs. speaking). The numerical simulations here performed reveal that the risk of infection is strongly influenced by several key parameters: As an example, under the same ventilation mode and emitting scenario, the risk of infection ranges from zero to roughly 50% as a function of the HVAC flow rate. The results obtained also demonstrate that (i) simplified zero-dimensional approaches limit proper evaluation of the risk in such confined spaces, conversely, (ii) CFD approaches are needed to investigate the complex fluid dynamics in similar indoor environments, and, thus, (iii) the risk of infection in indoor environments characterized by fixed seats can be in principle controlled by properly designing the flow patterns of the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Automobiles , COVID-19/etiology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Hydrodynamics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264785, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745317

ABSTRACT

The variability of clinical course and prognosis of COVID-19 highlights the necessity of patient sub-group risk stratification based on clinical data. In this study, clinical data from a cohort of Indian COVID-19 hospitalized patients is used to develop risk stratification and mortality prediction models. We analyzed a set of 70 clinical parameters including physiological and hematological for developing machine learning models to identify biomarkers. We also compared the Indian and Wuhan cohort, and analyzed the role of steroids. A bootstrap averaged ensemble of Bayesian networks was also learned to construct an explainable model for discovering actionable influences on mortality and days to outcome. We discovered blood parameters, diabetes, co-morbidity and SpO2 levels as important risk stratification features, whereas mortality prediction is dependent only on blood parameters. XGboost and logistic regression model yielded the best performance on risk stratification and mortality prediction, respectively (AUC score 0.83, AUC score 0.92). Blood coagulation parameters (ferritin, D-Dimer and INR), immune and inflammation parameters IL6, LDH and Neutrophil (%) are common features for both risk and mortality prediction. Compared with Wuhan patients, Indian patients with extreme blood parameters indicated higher survival rate. Analyses of medications suggest that a higher proportion of survivors and mild patients who were administered steroids had extreme neutrophil and lymphocyte percentages. The ensemble averaged Bayesian network structure revealed serum ferritin to be the most important predictor for mortality and Vitamin D to influence severity independent of days to outcome. The findings are important for effective triage during strains on healthcare infrastructure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264964, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745314

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We performed a longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 seroepidemiological study in healthcare personnel of the two largest tertiary COVID-19 referral hospitals in Mexico City. METHODS: All healthcare personnel, including staff physicians, physicians in training, nurses, laboratory technicians, researchers, students, housekeeping, maintenance, security, and administrative staff were invited to voluntarily participate, after written informed consent. Participants answered a computer-assisted self-administered interview and donated blood samples for antibody testing every three weeks from October 2020 to June 2021. RESULTS: A total of 883 participants (out of 3639 registered employees) contributed with at least one blood sample. The median age was 36 years (interquartile range: 28-46) and 70% were women. The most common occupations were nurse (28%), physician (24%), and administrative staff (22%). Two hundred and ninety participants (32.8%) had a positive-test result in any of the visits, yielding an overall adjusted prevalence of 33.5% for the whole study-period. Two hundred and thirty-five positive tests were identified at the baseline visit (prevalent cases), the remaining 55 positive tests were incident cases. Prevalent cases showed associations with both occupational (institution 2 vs. 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54-3.25; laboratory technician vs. physician: aOR = 4.38, 95% CI: 1.75-10.93) and community (municipality of residence Xochimilco vs. Tlalpan: aOR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.09-3.79) risk-factors. The incidence rate was 3.0 cases per 100 person-months. Incident cases were associated with community-acquired risk, due to contact with suspect/confirmed COVID-19 cases (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.21-5.00). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that between October 2020 and June 2021, healthcare workers of the two largest tertiary COVID-19 referral centers in Mexico City had similar level of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 than the general population. Most variables associated with exposure in this setting pointed toward community rather than occupational risk. Our observations are consistent with successful occupational medicine programs for SARS-CoV-2 infection control in the participating institutions but suggest the need to strengthen mitigation strategies in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
Biochem J ; 479(5): 609-628, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730329

ABSTRACT

Two years after the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, our understanding of COVID-19 disease pathogenesis is still incomplete. Despite unprecedented global collaborative scientific efforts and rapid vaccine development, an uneven vaccine roll-out and the emergence of novel variants of concern such as omicron underscore the critical importance of identifying the mechanisms that contribute to this disease. Overt inflammation and cell death have been proposed to be central drivers of severe pathology in COVID-19 patients and their pathways and molecular components therefore present promising targets for host-directed therapeutics. In our review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role and impact of diverse programmed cell death (PCD) pathways on COVID-19 disease. We dissect the complex connection of cell death and inflammatory signaling at the cellular and molecular level and identify a number of critical questions that remain to be addressed. We provide rationale for targeting of cell death as potential COVID-19 treatment and provide an overview of current therapeutics that could potentially enter clinical trials in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Antiviral Agents , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammasomes/physiology , Interferons/metabolism , Necroptosis/physiology , Neutrophils/pathology , Neutrophils/virology , Pyroptosis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
20.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(2): 206-211, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A multicentric, cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Coronavirus disease 2019 in medical students and residents from four universities and affiliated hospitals in Brazil. METHODS: A survey about contamination risk and symptoms was sent to all participants through email and WhatsApp. Prevalence was measured by the self-report of positive polymerase chain reaction or serological test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed, and odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. RESULTS: Prevalence of infection by Sars-CoV-2 was 14.9% (151/1011). The disease was more prevalent in residents and interns than in undergraduate students. Contact with an infected relative outside the hospital or with colleagues without using personal protective equipment was associated with higher contamination. Contact with patients without wearing goggles and higher weekly frequency of contact were the two factors independently associated with the infection by Coronavirus disease 2019 in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students, interns, and residents have a higher prevalence of Coronavirus disease 2019 than the general population, in which the last two groups are significantly at higher risk. Contacting patients at a higher weekly frequency increases the risk for infection. The use of goggles should be reinforced when contacting patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Students, Medical , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL