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1.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 72: 286-297, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606955

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is caused by mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene, which impair the thymic negative selection of self-reactive T-cells and underlie the development of autoimmunity that targets multiple endocrine and non-endocrine tissues. Beyond autoimmunity, APECED features heightened susceptibility to certain specific infections, which is mediated by anti-cytokine autoantibodies and/or T-cell driven autoimmune tissue injury. These include the 'signature' APECED infection chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), but also life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, bronchiectasis-associated bacterial pneumonia, and sepsis by encapsulated bacteria. Here we discuss the expanding understanding of the immunological mechanisms that contribute to infection susceptibility in this prototypic syndrome of impaired central tolerance, which provide the foundation for devising improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for affected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transcription Factors/genetics , Animals , Autoimmunity , Bronchiectasis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Candidiasis, Cutaneous/genetics , Clonal Selection, Antigen-Mediated/genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Immune Tolerance/genetics , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune/genetics
2.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 72: 230-238, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603901

ABSTRACT

The study of monogenic autoimmune diseases has provided key insights into molecular mechanisms involved in development of autoimmunity and immune tolerance. It has also become clear that such inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) frequently present clinically not only with autoimmune diseases, but also frequently have increased susceptibility to infection. The genes associated with monogenic autoimmunity influence diverse functional pathways, and the resulting immune dysregulation also impacts the complex and coordinated immune response to pathogens, for example type I interferon and cytokine signaling, the complement pathway and proper differentiation of the immune response. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted how monogenic autoimmunity can increase risk for serious infection with the discovery of severe disease in patients with pre-existing antibodies to Type I IFNs. This review discusses recent insight into the relationship between monogenic autoimmunity and infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Communicable Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Communicable Diseases/genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism
3.
Int J Mol Med ; 49(2)2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594678

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) is mainly dependent on the underlying mechanisms that mediate the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) into the host cells of the various human tissues/organs. Recent studies have indicated a higher order of complexity of the mechanisms of infectivity, given that there is a wide­repertoire of possible cell entry mediators that appear to co­localise in a cell­ and tissue­specific manner. The present study provides an overview of the 'canonical' SARS­CoV­2 mediators, namely angiotensin converting enzyme 2, transmembrane protease serine 2 and 4, and neuropilin­1, expanding on the involvement of novel candidates, including glucose­regulated protein 78, basigin, kidney injury molecule­1, metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2, ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (also termed tumour necrosis factor­α convertase) and Toll­like receptor 4. Furthermore, emerging data indicate that changes in microRNA (miRNA/miR) expression levels in patients with COVID­19 are suggestive of further complexity in the regulation of these viral mediators. An in silico analysis revealed 160 candidate miRNAs with potential strong binding capacity in the aforementioned genes. Future studies should concentrate on elucidating the association between the cellular tropism of the SARS­CoV­2 cell entry mediators and the mechanisms through which they might affect the clinical outcome. Finally, the clinical utility as a biomarker or therapeutic target of miRNAs in the context of COVID­19 warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , /metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Neuropilin-1/genetics , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Viral Tropism
4.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 86(7): 800-817, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594970

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a new human respiratory disease that has killed nearly 3 million people in a year since the start of the pandemic, is a global public health challenge. Its infectious agent, SARS-CoV-2, differs from other coronaviruses in a number of structural features that make this virus more pathogenic and transmissible. In this review, we discuss some important characteristics of the main SARS-CoV-2 surface antigen, the spike (S) protein, such as (i) ability of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) to switch between the "standing-up" position (open pre-fusion conformation) for receptor binding and the "lying-down" position (closed pre-fusion conformation) for immune system evasion; (ii) advantage of a high binding affinity of the RBD open conformation to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for efficient cell entry; and (iii) S protein preliminary activation by the intracellular furin-like proteases for facilitation of the virus spreading across different cell types. We describe interactions between the S protein and cellular receptors, co-receptors, and antagonists, as well as a hypothetical mechanism of the homotrimeric spike structure destabilization that triggers the fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane at physiological pH and mediates the viral nucleocapsid entry into the cytoplasm. The transition of the S protein pre-fusion conformation to the post-fusion one on the surface of virions after their treatment with some reagents, such as ß-propiolactone, is essential, especially in relation to the vaccine production. We also compare the COVID-19 pathogenesis with that of severe outbreaks of "avian" influenza caused by the A/H5 and A/H7 highly pathogenic viruses and discuss the structural similarities between the SARS-CoV-2 S protein and hemagglutinins of those highly pathogenic strains. Finally, we touch on the prospective and currently used COVID-19 antiviral and anti-pathogenetic therapeutics, as well as recently approved conventional and innovative COVID-19 vaccines and their molecular and immunological features.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Influenza A virus/chemistry , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/metabolism , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
Mol Cells ; 44(12): 861-878, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592997

ABSTRACT

The human genome contains many retroviral elements called human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), resulting from the integration of retroviruses throughout evolution. HERVs once were considered inactive junk because they are not replication-competent, primarily localized in the heterochromatin, and silenced by methylation. But HERVs are now clearly shown to actively regulate gene expression in various physiological and pathological conditions such as developmental processes, immune regulation, cancers, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders. Recent studies report that HERVs are activated in patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection. In this review, we describe internal and external factors that influence HERV activities. We also present evidence showing the gene regulatory activity of HERV LTRs (long terminal repeats) in model organisms such as mice, rats, zebrafish, and invertebrate models of worms and flies. Finally, we discuss several molecular and cellular pathways involving various transcription factors and receptors, through which HERVs affect downstream cellular and physiological events such as epigenetic modifications, calcium influx, protein phosphorylation, and cytokine release. Understanding how HERVs participate in various physiological and pathological processes will help develop a strategy to generate effective therapeutic approaches targeting HERVs.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Models, Animal , Neoplasms/genetics , Terminal Repeat Sequences/genetics , Animals , Autoimmune Diseases/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Biomol Concepts ; 12(1): 156-163, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597910

ABSTRACT

Studies published earlier this year demonstrated the association of the solute carrier SLC6A20 gene with the risk and severity of COVID-19. The SLC6A20 protein product (Sodium-dependent Imino Transporter 1 (SIT1)) is involved in the transport of amino acids, including glycine. Here we summarized the results of recent studies demonstrating the interaction of SIT1 with the ACE2 receptor for SARS-CoV-2 as well as an observed association of SLC6A20 with the risk and traits of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently, it was also proposed that SLC6A20 represents the novel regulator of glycine levels and that glycine has beneficial effects against the proinflammatory cytokine secretion induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ivermectin, as a partial agonist of glycine-gated chloride channels, was also recently suggested to interfere with the COVID-19 cytokine storm by inducing the activation of glycine receptors. Furthermore, plasma glycine levels are found to be decreased in diabetic patients. Thus, further clinical trials are warranted to confirm the potential favorable effects of targeting the SIT1 transporter and glycine levels in the treatment of COVID-19, particularly for the severe case of disease associated with hyperglycemia, inflammation, and T2D. These findings suggest that SIT1 may potentially represent one of the missing pieces in the complex puzzle observed between these two pandemic diseases and the potential novel target for their efficient treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Glycine/blood , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Humans
7.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101067, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595326

ABSTRACT

N 6 -methylation of adenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal mRNA modification and is an important post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Here, we describe a protocol for methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-Seq) to detect and quantify m6A modifications in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. The protocol is optimized for low viral RNA levels and is readily adaptable for other applications. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Li et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Immunoprecipitation/methods , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Adenosine/analysis , Adenosine/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Genetic Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Methylation , RNA/chemistry , RNA/genetics , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
9.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(1): 77, 2021 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588812

ABSTRACT

The aim of this scoping review was to identify knowledge gaps and to describe the current state of the research on the association between TMPRSS2 and the essential beta coronaviruses (Beta-CoVs) infection and the molecular mechanisms for this association. We searched MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). We included 13 studies. Evidence shows an essential role of TMPRSS2 in Spike protein activation, entry, and spread into host cells. Co-expression of TMPRSS2 with cell surface receptors (ACE2 or DPP4) increased virus entry. This serine protease is involved in the formation of large syncytia between infected cells. TMPRSS2 cleaved the Spike protein of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and MERS-CoV, and increased virus propagation. Accumulating evidence suggests that TMPRSS2 is an essential protease for virus replication. We highlighted its critical molecular role in membrane fusion and the impact in viral mRNA replication, then promoting/driving pathogenesis and resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 428, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585884

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced hyper-inflammation links to the acute lung injury and COVID-19 severity. Identifying the primary mediators that initiate the uncontrolled hypercytokinemia is essential for treatments. Mast cells (MCs) are strategically located at the mucosa and beneficially or detrimentally regulate immune inflammations. In this study, we showed that SARS-CoV-2-triggered MC degranulation initiated alveolar epithelial inflammation and lung injury. SARS-CoV-2 challenge induced MC degranulation in ACE-2 humanized mice and rhesus macaques, and a rapid MC degranulation could be recapitulated with Spike-RBD binding to ACE2 in cells; MC degranulation altered various signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells, particularly, the induction of pro-inflammatory factors and consequential disruption of tight junctions. Importantly, the administration of clinical MC stabilizers for blocking degranulation dampened SARS-CoV-2-induced production of pro-inflammatory factors and prevented lung injury. These findings uncover a novel mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 initiating lung inflammation, and suggest an off-label use of MC stabilizer as immunomodulators for COVID-19 treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Degranulation , Lung Injury/metabolism , Mast Cells/metabolism , Pulmonary Alveoli/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Lung Injury/genetics , Lung Injury/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 439, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585883

ABSTRACT

The development of animal models for COVID-19 is essential for basic research and drug/vaccine screening. Previously reported COVID-19 animal models need to be established under a high biosafety level condition for the utilization of live SARS-CoV-2, which greatly limits its application in routine research. Here, we generate a mouse model of COVID-19 under a general laboratory condition that captures multiple characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) observed in humans. Briefly, human ACE2-transgenic (hACE2) mice were intratracheally instilled with the formaldehyde-inactivated SARS-CoV-2, resulting in a rapid weight loss and detrimental changes in lung structure and function. The pulmonary pathologic changes were characterized by diffuse alveolar damage with pulmonary consolidation, hemorrhage, necrotic debris, and hyaline membrane formation. The production of fatal cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6) and the infiltration of activated neutrophils, inflammatory monocyte-macrophages, and T cells in the lung were also determined, suggesting the activation of an adaptive immune response. Therapeutic strategies, such as dexamethasone or passive antibody therapy, could effectively ameliorate the disease progression in this model. Therefore, the established mouse model for SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS in the current study may provide a robust tool for researchers in the standard open laboratory to investigate the pathological mechanisms or develop new therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 and ARDS.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lung/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23928, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585797

ABSTRACT

Identification of transcriptional regulatory mechanisms and signaling networks involved in the response of host cells to infection by SARS-CoV-2 is a powerful approach that provides a systems biology view of gene expression programs involved in COVID-19 and may enable the identification of novel therapeutic targets and strategies to mitigate the impact of this disease. In this study, our goal was to identify a transcriptional regulatory network that is associated with gene expression changes between samples infected by SARS-CoV-2 and those that are infected by other respiratory viruses to narrow the results on those enriched or specific to SARS-CoV-2. We combined a series of recently developed computational tools to identify transcriptional regulatory mechanisms involved in the response of epithelial cells to infection by SARS-CoV-2, and particularly regulatory mechanisms that are specific to this virus when compared to other viruses. In addition, using network-guided analyses, we identified kinases associated with this network. The results identified pathways associated with regulation of inflammation (MAPK14) and immunity (BTK, MBX) that may contribute to exacerbate organ damage linked with complications of COVID-19. The regulatory network identified herein reflects a combination of known hits and novel candidate pathways supporting the novel computational pipeline presented herein to quickly narrow down promising avenues of investigation when facing an emerging and novel disease such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , A549 Cells , Cell Line , Epithelial Cells/chemistry , Epithelial Cells/cytology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Models, Biological , Systems Biology
13.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 528, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence shows that periodontal disease (PD) may increase the risk of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) complications. Here, we undertook a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study, and investigated for the first time the possible causal impact of PD on host susceptibility to COVID-19 and its severity. METHODS: Summary statistics of COVID-19 susceptibility and severity were retrieved from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative and used as outcomes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with PD in Genome-wide association study were included as exposure. Inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method was employed as the main approach to analyze the causal relationships between PD and COVID-19. Three additional methods were adopted, allowing the existence of horizontal pleiotropy, including MR-Egger regression, weighted median and weighted mode methods. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were also conducted for estimating the robustness of the identified associations. RESULTS: The MR estimates showed that PD was significantly associated with significantly higher susceptibility to COVID-19 using IVW (OR = 1.024, P = 0.017, 95% CI 1.004-1.045) and weighted median method (OR = 1.029, P = 0.024, 95% CI 1.003-1.055). Furthermore, it revealed that PD was significantly linked to COVID-19 severity based on the comparison of hospitalization versus population controls (IVW, OR = 1.025, P = 0.039, 95% CI 1.001-1.049; weighted median, OR = 1.030, P = 0.027, 95% CI 1.003-1.058). No such association was observed in the cohort of highly severe cases confirmed versus those not hospitalized due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence on the possible causality of PD accounting for the susceptibility and severity of COVID-19, highlighting the importance of oral/periodontal healthcare for general wellbeing during the pandemic and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Periodontal Diseases , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Periodontal Diseases/complications , Periodontal Diseases/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
14.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 146, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the end of 2019, the world witnessed the emergence and ravages of a viral infection induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Also known as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has been identified as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO) because of its severity. METHODS: The gene data of 51 samples were extracted from the GSE150316 and GSE147507 data set and then processed by means of the programming language R, through which the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that meet the standards were screened. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed on the selected DEGs to understand the functions and approaches of DEGs. The online tool STRING was employed to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs and, in turn, to identify hub genes. RESULTS: A total of 52 intersection genes were obtained through DEG identification. Through the GO analysis, we realized that the biological processes (BPs) that have the deepest impact on the human body after SARS-CoV-2 infection are various immune responses. By using STRING to construct a PPI network, 10 hub genes were identified, including IFIH1, DDX58, ISG15, EGR1, OASL, SAMD9, SAMD9L, XAF1, IFITM1, and TNFSF10. CONCLUSION: The results of this study will hopefully provide guidance for future studies on the pathophysiological mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Lung/pathology , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Ontology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Lung/virology , Neutrophil Activation/genetics , Neutrophil Activation/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome/genetics
15.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 152, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and its related anti-inflammatory treatment (steroids, immunomodulators) may induce the reactivation of latent bacterial, parasitic, and viral infections. According to our knowledge, no case of disseminated HHV-8-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS) after COVID-19 and its treatment has been described so far. Only one case of cutaneous KS concurrently with COVID-19 has been previously reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of disseminated KS in a 61-year-old immunocompetent Albanian man after hospitalization for COVID-19. METHODS FOR LITERATURE RESEARCH: We used PubMed as biomedical database for the literature research. We selected keyword combinations including "Kaposi sarcoma," "HHV-8," "immunocompetent," "COVID-19," "SARS-CoV-2," and "steroids." No time or language limitation was set. Titles and abstracts of selected articles were systematically screened. Articles were included in the examination if they were published under free access through the digital library of the University of Brescia (Italy), and provided full text. Articles were excluded if the topic was beyond the aim of our study. Finally, we selected 15 articles. RESULTS: We describe a case of KS in COVID-19 patient and postulate that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activity and steroid-induced immunodeficiency may play a major role in KS emergence. No published case of disseminated KS following COVID-19 in otherwise healthy individuals was found through the systematic literature review, despite the high incidence of COVID-19 in areas with medium-high prevalence of HHV-8 infection. This observation might be explained by the role of individual genetic susceptibility factors. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection and its treatment may lead to reactivation of several latent infections, including HHV-8 and its related clinical syndrome, Kaposi sarcoma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Databases, Chemical , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Language , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , Sarcoma, Kaposi/genetics
16.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 9(1): 199, 2021 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581995

ABSTRACT

Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE4) has been shown to associate with increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 mortality in some previous genetic studies, but information on the role of APOE4 on the underlying pathology and parallel clinical manifestations is scarce. Here we studied the genetic association between APOE and COVID-19 in Finnish biobank, autopsy and prospective clinical cohort datasets. In line with previous work, our data on 2611 cases showed that APOE4 carriership associates with severe COVID-19 in intensive care patients compared with non-infected population controls after matching for age, sex and cardiovascular disease status. Histopathological examination of brain autopsy material of 21 COVID-19 cases provided evidence that perivascular microhaemorrhages are more prevalent in APOE4 carriers. Finally, our analysis of post-COVID fatigue in a prospective clinical cohort of 156 subjects revealed that APOE4 carriership independently associates with higher mental fatigue compared to non-carriers at six months after initial illness. In conclusion, the present data on Finns suggests that APOE4 is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 and post-COVID mental fatigue and provides the first indication that some of this effect could be mediated via increased cerebrovascular damage. Further studies in larger cohorts and animal models are warranted.


Subject(s)
Apolipoprotein E4/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cerebral Hemorrhage/genetics , Mental Fatigue/genetics , Patient Acuity , Adult , Aged , Autopsy , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Cerebral Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Finland/epidemiology , Genetic Association Studies/methods , Heterozygote , Humans , Male , Mental Fatigue/diagnosis , Mental Fatigue/epidemiology , Microvessels/pathology , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 751778, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581343

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged and spread worldwide. The Delta (B.1.617.2) variant was first reported in India in October 2020 and was classified as a "variant of concern (VOC)" by the WHO on 11 May, 2021. Compared to the wild-type strain, several studies have shown that the Delta variant is more transmissible and has higher viral loads in infected samples. COVID-19 patients infected with the Delta variant have a higher risk of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mortality. The Delta variant is becoming the dominant strain in many countries around the world. This review summarizes and analyses the biological characteristics of key amino acid mutations, the epidemic characteristics, and the immune escape of the Delta variant. We hope to provide scientific reference for the monitoring and prevention measures of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant and the development strategy of a second-generation vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Epidemics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mass Vaccination
18.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580999

ABSTRACT

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disorder characterized by dysregulation of the alternate pathway. The diagnosis of aHUS is one of exclusion, which complicates its early detection and corresponding intervention to mitigate its high rate of mortality and associated morbidity. Heterozygous mutations in complement regulatory proteins linked to aHUS are not always phenotypically active, and may require a particular trigger for the disease to manifest. This list of triggers continues to expand as more data is aggregated, particularly centered around COVID-19 and pediatric vaccinations. Novel genetic mutations continue to be identified though advancements in technology as well as greater access to cohorts of interest, as in diacylglycerol kinase epsilon (DGKE). DGKE mutations associated with aHUS are the first non-complement regulatory proteins associated with the disease, drastically changing the established framework. Additional markers that are less understood, but continue to be acknowledged, include the unique autoantibodies to complement factor H and complement factor I which are pathogenic drivers in aHUS. Interventional therapeutics have undergone the most advancements, as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties are modified as needed in addition to their as biosimilar counterparts. As data continues to be gathered in this field, future advancements will optimally decrease the mortality and morbidity of this disease in children.


Subject(s)
Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/genetics , Complement Factor H/genetics , Complement Factor I/genetics , Diacylglycerol Kinase/genetics , Mutation , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/drug therapy , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Complement Factor H/immunology , Complement Factor I/immunology , Diacylglycerol Kinase/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580688

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggered the pandemic Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), causing millions of deaths. The elderly and those already living with comorbidity are likely to die after SARS-CoV-2 infection. People suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) have a higher risk of becoming infected, because they cannot easily follow health roles. Additionally, those suffering from dementia have a 40% higher risk of dying from COVID-19. Herein, we collected from Gene Expression Omnibus repository the brain samples of AD patients who died of COVID-19 (AD+COVID-19), AD without COVID-19 (AD), COVID-19 without AD (COVID-19) and control individuals. We inspected the transcriptomic and interactomic profiles by comparing the COVID-19 cohort against the control cohort and the AD cohort against the AD+COVID-19 cohort. SARS-CoV-2 in patients without AD mainly activated processes related to immune response and cell cycle. Conversely, 21 key nodes in the interactome are deregulated in AD. Interestingly, some of them are linked to beta-amyloid production and clearance. Thus, we inspected their role, along with their interactors, using the gene ontologies of the biological process that reveals their contribution in brain organization, immune response, oxidative stress and viral replication. We conclude that SARS-CoV-2 worsens the AD condition by increasing neurotoxicity, due to higher levels of beta-amyloid, inflammation and oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/virology , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Brain/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity/trends , Databases, Factual , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transcriptome/genetics
20.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(5): 1-9, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575633

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecules that are essential for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry can provide insights into viral infection and dissemination. Recently, it has been identified from several studies that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and transmembrane serine protease 2 are the main entry molecules for the SARS-CoV-2, which produced the pandemic of Covid-19. However, additional evidence showed several other viral receptors and cellular proteases that are also important in facilitating viral entry and transmission in the target cells. In this review, we summarized the types of SARS-CoV-2 entry molecules and discussed their crucial roles for virus binding, protein priming and fusion to the cellular membrane important for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Internalization
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