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1.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285991, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234386

ABSTRACT

As findings on the epidemiological and genetic risk factors for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) continue to accrue, their joint power and significance for prospective clinical applications remains virtually unexplored. Severity of symptoms in individuals affected by COVID-19 spans a broad spectrum, reflective of heterogeneous host susceptibilities across the population. Here, we assessed the utility of epidemiological risk factors to predict disease severity prospectively, and interrogated genetic information (polygenic scores) to evaluate whether they can provide further insights into symptom heterogeneity. A standard model was trained to predict severe COVID-19 based on principal component analysis and logistic regression based on information from eight known medical risk factors for COVID-19 measured before 2018. In UK Biobank participants of European ancestry, the model achieved a relatively high performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ~90%). Polygenic scores for COVID-19 computed from summary statistics of the Covid19 Host Genetics Initiative displayed significant associations with COVID-19 in the UK Biobank (p-values as low as 3.96e-9, all with R2 under 1%), but were unable to robustly improve predictive performance of the non-genetic factors. However, error analysis of the non-genetic models suggested that affected individuals misclassified by the medical risk factors (predicted low risk but actual high risk) display a small but consistent increase in polygenic scores. Overall, the results indicate that simple models based on health-related epidemiological factors measured years before COVID-19 onset can achieve high predictive power. Associations between COVID-19 and genetic factors were statistically robust, but currently they have limited predictive power for translational settings. Despite that, the outcomes also suggest that severely affected cases with a medical history profile of low risk might be partly explained by polygenic factors, prompting development of boosted COVID-19 polygenic models based on new data and tools to aid risk-prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Risk Factors , Logistic Models , Multifactorial Inheritance/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genetic Predisposition to Disease
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9330, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234094

ABSTRACT

A growing of evidence has showed that patients with osteoarthritis (OA) had a higher coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection rate and a poorer prognosis after infected it. Additionally, scientists have also discovered that COVID-19 infection might cause pathological changes in the musculoskeletal system. However, its mechanism is still not fully elucidated. This study aims to further explore the sharing pathogenesis of patients with both OA and COVID-19 infection and find candidate drugs. Gene expression profiles of OA (GSE51588) and COVID-19 (GSE147507) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for both OA and COVID-19 were identified and several hub genes were extracted from them. Then gene and pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs were performed; protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, transcription factor (TF)-gene regulatory network, TF-miRNA regulatory network and gene-disease association network were constructed based on the DEGs and hub genes. Finally, we predicted several candidate molecular drugs related to hub genes using DSigDB database. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was applied to evaluate the accuracy of hub genes in the diagnosis of both OA and COVID-19. In total, 83 overlapping DEGs were identified and selected for subsequent analyses. CXCR4, EGR2, ENO1, FASN, GATA6, HIST1H3H, HIST1H4H, HIST1H4I, HIST1H4K, MTHFD2, PDK1, TUBA4A, TUBB1 and TUBB3 were screened out as hub genes, and some showed preferable values as diagnostic markers for both OA and COVID-19. Several candidate molecular drugs, which are related to the hug genes, were identified. These sharing pathways and hub genes may provide new ideas for further mechanistic studies and guide more individual-based effective treatments for OA patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteoarthritis , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Computational Biology , Osteoarthritis/genetics , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Profiling
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233360

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease in which focal lesions in arteries promote the build-up of lipoproteins and cholesterol they are transporting. The development of atheroma (atherogenesis) narrows blood vessels, reduces the blood supply and leads to cardiovascular diseases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death, which has been especially boosted since the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a variety of contributors to atherosclerosis, including lifestyle factors and genetic predisposition. Antioxidant diets and recreational exercises act as atheroprotectors and can retard atherogenesis. The search for molecular markers of atherogenesis and atheroprotection for predictive, preventive and personalized medicine appears to be the most promising direction for the study of atherosclerosis. In this work, we have analyzed 1068 human genes associated with atherogenesis, atherosclerosis and atheroprotection. The hub genes regulating these processes have been found to be the most ancient. In silico analysis of all 5112 SNPs in their promoters has revealed 330 candidate SNP markers, which statistically significantly change the affinity of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) for these promoters. These molecular markers have made us confident that natural selection acts against underexpression of the hub genes for atherogenesis, atherosclerosis and atheroprotection. At the same time, upregulation of the one for atheroprotection promotes human health.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , TATA-Box Binding Protein/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Pandemics , COVID-19/genetics , Atherosclerosis/genetics , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , TATA Box
4.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0281159, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232983

ABSTRACT

In this study, we explored the genomic architecture and phylogenomic relationship of BA.2.75, a subvariant of Omicron SARS-CoV-2. A set of 1468 whole-genome sequences of BA.2.75, submitted by 28 countries worldwide were retrieved from GISAID and used for finding genomic mutations. Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis of BA.2.75 was performed by using 2948 whole-genome sequences of all sub-variants of Omicron along with the Delta variant of SAS-CoV-2. We detected 1885 mutations, which were further grouped into 1025 missense mutations, 740 silent mutations, 72 mutations in non-coding regions, 16 in-frame deletions, 02 in-frame insertions, 8 frameshift deletions, 8 frameshift insertions and 14 stop-gained variants. Additionally, we also found 11 characteristic mutations having a prevalence of 81-99% and were not observed in any of the previously reported variant of SARS-CoV-2. Out of these mutations K147E, W152R, F157L, E210V, V213G, G339H were found in the NTD, and G446S & N460K in the RBD region of the Spike protein, whereas S403L and T11A were present in the NSP3, and E protein respectively. The phylogenetic relationship of this variant revealed that BA.2.75 is descended from the Omicron sub-variant BA.5. This evolutionary relationship suggests that the surge of BA.5 infections can reduce the severity of the infections accredited to BA.2.75. These findings would also improve our knowledge and understanding that how genetic similarities in different variants of SARS-CoV-2 can prime the immune system to fight off the infection caused by one subvariant, after defeating the other.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genomics
5.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1135859, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232788

ABSTRACT

Background: Sepsis is a dysfunctional host response to infection. The syndrome leads to millions of deaths annually (19.7% of all deaths in 2017) and is the cause of most deaths from severe Covid infections. High throughput sequencing or 'omics' experiments in molecular and clinical sepsis research have been widely utilized to identify new diagnostics and therapies. Transcriptomics, quantifying gene expression, has dominated these studies, due to the efficiency of measuring gene expression in tissues and the technical accuracy of technologies like RNA-Seq. Objective: Most of these studies seek to uncover novel mechanistic insights into sepsis pathogenesis and diagnostic gene signatures by identifying genes differentially expressed between two or more relevant conditions. However, little effort has been made, to date, to aggregate this knowledge from such studies. In this study we sought to build a compendium of previously described gene sets that combines knowledge gained from sepsis-associated studies. This would enable the identification of genes most associated with sepsis pathogenesis, and the description of the molecular pathways commonly associated with sepsis. Methods: PubMed was searched for studies using transcriptomics to characterize acute infection/sepsis and severe sepsis (i.e., sepsis combined with organ failure). Several studies were identified that used transcriptomics to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes, predictive/prognostic signatures, and underlying molecular responses and pathways. The molecules included in each gene set were collected, in addition to the relevant study metadata (e.g., patient groups used for comparison, sample collection time point, tissue type, etc.). Results: After performing extensive literature curation of 74 sepsis-related publications involving transcriptomics, 103 unique gene sets (comprising 20,899 unique genes) from thousands of patients were collated together with associated metadata. Frequently described genes included in gene sets as well as the molecular mechanisms they were involved in were identified. These mechanisms included neutrophil degranulation, generation of second messenger molecules, IL-4 and -13 signaling, and IL-10 signaling among many others. The database, which we named SeptiSearch, is made available in a web application created using the Shiny framework in R, (available at https://septisearch.ca). Conclusions: SeptiSearch provides members of the sepsis community the bioinformatic tools needed to leverage and explore the gene sets contained in the database. This will allow the gene sets to be further scrutinized and analyzed for their enrichment in user-submitted gene expression data and used for validation of in-house gene sets/signatures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Sepsis/genetics , Computational Biology , Databases, Factual , Gene Expression Profiling
6.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 10(1)2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) is a known biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of interstitial lung diseases. However, the role of serum KL-6 and the mucin 1 (MUC1) variant (rs4072037) in COVID-19 outcomes remains to be elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the relationships among serum KL-6 levels, critical outcomes and the MUC1 variant in Japanese patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a multicentre retrospective study using data from the Japan COVID-19 Task Force collected from February 2020 to November 2021, including 2226 patients with COVID-19 whose serum KL-6 levels were measured. An optimal serum KL-6 level cut-off to predict critical outcomes was determined and used for multivariable logistic regression analysis. Furthermore, the relationship among the allele dosage of the MUC1 variant, calculated from single nucleotide polymorphism typing data of genome-wide association studies using the imputation method, serum KL-6 levels and COVID-19 critical outcomes was evaluated. RESULTS: Serum KL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 with critical outcomes (511±442 U/mL) than those without (279±204 U/mL) (p<0.001). Serum KL-6 levels ≥304 U/mL independently predicted critical outcomes (adjusted OR (aOR) 3.47, 95% CI 2.44 to 4.95). Moreover, multivariable logistic regression analysis with age and sex indicated that the MUC1 variant was independently associated with increased serum KL-6 levels (aOR 0.24, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.32) but not significantly associated with critical outcomes (aOR 1.11, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.54). CONCLUSION: Serum KL-6 levels predicted critical outcomes in Japanese patients with COVID-19 and were associated with the MUC1 variant. Therefore, serum KL-6 level is a potentially useful biomarker of critical COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucin-1 , Humans , Mucin-1/genetics , Retrospective Studies , East Asian People , Genome-Wide Association Study , COVID-19/genetics , Biomarkers
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 13(1): 189, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232070

ABSTRACT

Despite the high contagion and mortality rates that have accompanied the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, the clinical presentation of the syndrome varies greatly from one individual to another. Potential host factors that accompany greater risk from COVID-19 have been sought and schizophrenia (SCZ) patients seem to present more severe COVID-19 than control counterparts, with certain gene expression similarities between psychiatric and COVID-19 patients reported. We used summary statistics from the last SCZ, bipolar disorder (BD), and depression (DEP) meta-analyses available on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium webpage to calculate polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for a target sample of 11,977 COVID-19 cases and 5943 subjects with unknown COVID-19 status. Linkage disequilibrium score (LDSC) regression analysis was performed when positive associations were obtained from the PRS analysis. The SCZ PRS was a significant predictor in the case/control, symptomatic/asymptomatic, and hospitalization/no hospitalization analyses in the total and female samples; and of symptomatic/asymptomatic status in men. No significant associations were found for the BD or DEP PRS or in the LDSC regression analysis. SNP-based genetic risk for SCZ, but not for BD or DEP, may be associated with higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity, especially among women; however, predictive accuracy barely exceeded chance level. We believe that the inclusion of sexual loci and rare variations in the analysis of genomic overlap between SCZ and COVID-19 will help to elucidate the genetic commonalities between these conditions.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , COVID-19 , Schizophrenia , Male , Humans , Female , Schizophrenia/genetics , Schizophrenia/metabolism , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bipolar Disorder/metabolism , Multifactorial Inheritance , Genome-Wide Association Study
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231792

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into a global pandemic, with an alarming infectivity and mortality rate. Studies have examined genetic effects on SARS-CoV-2 disease susceptibility and severity within Eurasian populations. These studies identified contrasting effects on the severity of disease between African populations. Genetic factors can explain some of the diversity observed within SARS-CoV-2 disease susceptibility and severity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the SARS-CoV-2 receptor genes have demonstrated detrimental and protective effects across ethnic groups. For example, the TT genotype of rs2285666 (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)) is associated with the severity of SARS-CoV-2 disease, which is found at higher frequency within Asian individuals compared to African and European individuals. In this study, we examined four SARS-CoV-2 receptors, ACE2, Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), Neuropilin-1 (NRP1), and Basigin (CD147). A total of 42 SNPs located within the four receptors were reviewed: ACE2 (12), TMPRSS2 (10), BSG (CD147) (5), and NRP1 (15). These SNPs may be determining factors for the decreased disease severity observed within African individuals. Furthermore, we highlight the absence of genetic studies within the African population and emphasize the importance of further research. This review provides a comprehensive summary of specific variants within the SARS-CoV-2 receptor genes, which can offer a better understanding of the pathology of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and identify novel potential therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Ethnicity
10.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28847, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240737

ABSTRACT

Recently emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variants are generally less pathogenic than previous strains. However, elucidating the molecular basis for pulmonary immune response alterations is challenging owing to the virus's heterogeneous distribution within complex tissue structure. Here, we revealed the spatial transcriptomic profiles of pulmonary microstructures at the SARS-CoV-2 infection site in the nine cynomolgus macaques upon inoculation with the Delta and Omicron variants. Delta- and Omicron-infected lungs had upregulation of genes involved in inflammation, cytokine response, complement, cell damage, proliferation, and differentiation pathways. Depending on the tissue microstructures (alveoli, bronchioles, and blood vessels), there were differences in the types of significantly upregulated genes in each pathway. Notably, a limited number of genes involved in cytokine and cell damage response were differentially expressed between bronchioles of the Delta- and Omicron-infection groups. These results indicated that despite a significant antigenic shift in SARS-CoV-2, the host immune response mechanisms induced by the variants were relatively consistent, with limited transcriptional alterations observed only in large airways. This study may aid in understanding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and developing a clinical strategy for addressing immune dysregulation by identifying potential transcriptional biomarkers within pulmonary microstructures during infection with emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcriptome , COVID-19/genetics , Pulmonary Alveoli , Cytokines/genetics , Macaca
11.
Kidney360 ; 4(5): 687-699, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239599

ABSTRACT

Collapsing Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) has been reported relatively frequently in African American (AA) patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and it is associated almost always with Apolipoprotein L gen 1 (APOL1) high-risk variants. We reviewed the published literature from April 2020 to November 2022 searching for non-African American (non-AA) patients with FSGS associated with COVID-19 (eight White patients, six Hispanic patients, three Asian patients, one Indian patient, and one Asian Indian patient). The following histologic patterns were found: collapsing (n=11), not otherwise specified (n=5), tip (n=2), and perihilar (n=1). Fifteen of the 19 patients had AKI. The APOL1 genotype was reported in only six of the 19 non-AA patients. Three of them (two Hispanic patients and one White patient) with collapsing FSGS had high-risk APOL1 variants. The other three patients (two White patients and one Hispanic patient with the collapsing variant, tip variant, and not otherwise specified) had low-risk APOL1 variants. Among 53 African American patients with collapsing FSGS associated with COVID-19, 48 had high-risk APOL1 variants and five had low-risk APOL1 variants. We conclude that in non-AA patients, FSGS is a rare complication of COVID-19. FSGS associated with COVID-19 can occur rarely with low-risk APOL1 variants in non-AA and AA patients. Non-AA patients reported to be associated with high-risk APOL1 variants possibly reflect inaccuracy of self-reported race with AA admixture because of unknown ancestry. Given the importance of APOL1 in the pathogenesis of FSGS associated with viral infection and to avoid racial bias, it seems appropriate that APOL1 testing be considered in patients with FSGS associated with COVID-19, regardless of self-reported race.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/genetics , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/pathology , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genotype
12.
Hum Genomics ; 17(1): 50, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of molecular biomarkers for COVID-19 remains unconclusive. The application of a molecular biomarker in combination with clinical ones that could help classifying aggressive patients in first steps of the disease could help clinician and sanitary system a better management of the disease. Here we characterize the role of ACE2, AR, MX1, ERG, ETV5 and TMPRSS2 for trying a better classification of COVID-19 through knowledge of the disease mechanisms. METHODS: A total of 329 blood samples were genotyped in ACE2, MX1 and TMPRSS2. RNA analyses were also performed from 258 available samples using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for genes: ERG, ETV5, AR, MX1, ACE2, and TMPRSS2. Moreover, in silico analysis variant effect predictor, ClinVar, IPA, DAVID, GTEx, STRING and miRDB database was also performed. Clinical and demographic data were recruited from all participants following WHO classification criteria. RESULTS: We confirm the use of ferritin (p < 0.001), D-dimer (p < 0.010), CRP (p < 0.001) and LDH (p < 0.001) as markers for distinguishing mild and severe cohorts. Expression studies showed that MX1 and AR are significantly higher expressed in mild vs severe patients (p < 0.05). ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are involved in the same molecular process of membrane fusion (p = 4.4 × 10-3), acting as proteases (p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the key role of TMPSRSS2, we reported for the first time that higher expression levels of AR are related with a decreased risk of severe COVID-19 disease in females. Moreover, functional analysis demonstrates that ACE2, MX1 and TMPRSS2 are relevant markers in this disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Genetic Markers , Databases, Factual , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Myxovirus Resistance Proteins
13.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 11(3)2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239021

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that type 1 diabetes was associated with increased COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. However, their causal relationship is still unclear. Herein, we performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate the causal effect of type 1 diabetes on COVID-19 infection and prognosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The summary statistics of type 1 diabetes were obtained from two published genome-wide association studies of European population, one as a discovery sample including 15 573 cases and 158 408 controls, and the other data as a replication sample consisting of 5913 cases and 8828 controls. We first performed a two-sample MR analysis to evaluate the causal effect of type 1 diabetes on COVID-19 infection and prognosis. Then, reverse MR analysis was conducted to determine whether reverse causality exists. RESULTS: MR analysis results showed that the genetically predicted type 1 diabetes was associated with higher risk of severe COVID-19 (OR=1.073, 95% CI: 1.034 to 1.114, pFDR=1.15×10-3) and COVID-19 death (OR=1.075, 95% CI: 1.033 to 1.119, pFDR=1.15×10-3). Analysis of replication dataset showed similar results, namely a positive association between type 1 diabetes and severe COVID-19 (OR=1.055, 95% CI: 1.029 to 1.081, pFDR=1.59×10-4), and a positively correlated association with COVID-19 death (OR=1.053, 95% CI: 1.026 to 1.081, pFDR=3.50×10-4). No causal association was observed between type 1 diabetes and COVID-19 positive, hospitalized COVID-19, the time to the end of COVID-19 symptoms in the colchicine treatment group and placebo treatment group. Reverse MR analysis showed no reverse causality. CONCLUSIONS: Type 1 diabetes had a causal effect on severe COVID-19 and death after COVID-19 infection. Further mechanistic studies are needed to explore the relationship between type 1 diabetes and COVID-19 infection and prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Mendelian Randomization Analysis
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 14: 1162936, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238773

ABSTRACT

Background: Emerging evidence suggested that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were more prone to acute skeletal muscle loss and suffer sequelae, including weakness, arthromyalgia, depression and anxiety. Meanwhile, it was observed that sarcopenia (SP) was associated with susceptibility, hospitalization and severity of COVID-19. However, it is not known whether there is causal relationship between COVID-19 and SP-related traits. Mendelian randomization (MR) was a valid method for inferring causality. Methods: Data was extracted from the COVID-19 Host Genetic Initiative and the UK Biobank without sample overlapping. The MR analysis was performed with inverse variance weighted, weighted median, MR-Egger, RAPS and CAUSE, MR-APSS. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with MR-Egger intercept test, Cochran's Q test, MR-PRESSO to eliminate pleiotropy. Results: There was insufficient result in the MR-APSS method to support a direct causal relationship after the Bonferroni correction. Most other MR results were also nominally consistent with the MR-APSS result. Conclusions: Our study first explored the causal relationship between COVID-19 and SP-related traits, but the result indicated that they may indirectly interact with each other. We highlighted that older people had better absorb enough nutrition and strengthen exercise to directly cope with SP during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Humans , Aged , Sarcopenia/epidemiology , Sarcopenia/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Pandemics , Muscle, Skeletal
15.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1152186, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238642

ABSTRACT

Background Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) has led to severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) worldwide. we have noted that many critically ill patients with COVID-19 present with typical sepsis-related clinical manifestations, including multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, coagulopathy, and septic shock. The molecular mechanisms that underlie COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to analyze potential molecular mechanisms and identify potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis using bioinformatics and a systems biology approach. Methods Three RNA-seq datasets (GSE171110, GSE76293 and GSE137342) from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were employed to detect mutual differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for the patients with the COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis for functional enrichment, pathway analysis, and candidate drugs analysis. Results We obtained 110 common DEGs among COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis. ARG1, FCGR1A, MPO, and TLR5 are the most influential hub genes. The infection and immune-related pathways and functions are the main pathways and molecular functions of these three diseases. FOXC1, YY1, GATA2, FOXL, STAT1 and STAT3 are important TFs for COVID-19. mir-335-5p, miR-335-5p and hsa-mir-26a-5p were associated with COVID-19. Finally, the hub genes retrieved from the DSigDB database indicate multiple drug molecules and drug-targets interaction. Conclusion We performed a functional analysis under ontology terms and pathway analysis and found some common associations among COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis. Transcription factors-genes interaction, protein-drug interactions, and DEGs-miRNAs coregulatory network with common DEGs were also identified on the datasets. We believe that the candidate drugs obtained in this study may contribute to the effective treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Humans , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/genetics
16.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28863, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238042

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 has not only caused millions of deaths worldwide, but it has also led to economic recession and the collapse of public health systems. The vaccines and antivirals developed in response to the pandemic have improved the situation markedly; however, the pandemic is still not under control with recurring surges. Thus, it is still necessary to develop therapeutic agents. In our previous studies, we designed and synthesized a series of novel 2-anilinoquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives, and demonstrated inhibitory activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and MERS-CoV in vitro. We then conducted in vivo studies using modified compounds that are suitable for oral administration. These compounds demonstrated no toxicity in rats and inhibited viral entry. Here, we investigated the in vivo efficacy of these drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. Three candidate drugs, 7-chloro-2-((3,5-dichlorophenyl)amino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (1), N-(7-chloro-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)-N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)acetamide (2), and N-(7-chloro-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)-N-(3,5-difluorophenyl)acetamide (3) were administered orally to hACE2 transgenic mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg. All three drugs improved survival rate and reduced the viral load in the lungs. These results show that the derivatives possess in vivo antiviral efficacy similar to that of molnupiravir, which is currently being used to treat COVID-19. Overall, our data suggest that 2-anilinoquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives are promising as potential oral antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Rats , Acetamides , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Transgenic , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Quinazolines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3385, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237826

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, generates multiple protein-coding, subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) from a longer genomic RNA, all bearing identical termini with poorly understood roles in regulating viral gene expression. Insulin and interferon-gamma, two host-derived, stress-related agents, and virus spike protein, induce binding of glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS1), within an unconventional, tetra-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex, to the sgRNA 3'-end thereby enhancing sgRNA expression. We identify an EPRS1-binding sarbecoviral pan-end activating RNA (SPEAR) element in the 3'-end of viral RNAs driving agonist-induction. Translation of another co-terminal 3'-end feature, ORF10, is necessary for SPEAR-mediated induction, independent of Orf10 protein expression. The SPEAR element enhances viral programmed ribosomal frameshifting, thereby expanding its functionality. By co-opting noncanonical activities of a family of essential host proteins, the virus establishes a post-transcriptional regulon stimulating global viral RNA translation. A SPEAR-targeting strategy markedly reduces SARS-CoV-2 titer, suggesting a pan-sarbecoviral therapeutic modality.


Subject(s)
RNA, Viral , Regulon , SARS-CoV-2 , Subgenomic RNA , Humans , COVID-19/genetics , Regulon/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Subgenomic RNA/genetics
18.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1192134, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237402

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is the second leading cause of death after COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we coupled multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) technique with CRISPR-Cas12a-based biosensing system to design a novel detection platform for tuberculosis diagnosis, termed MTB-MCDA-CRISPR. MTB-MCDA-CRISPR pre-amplified the specific sdaA gene of MTB by MCDA, and the MCDA results were then decoded by CRISPR-Cas12a-based detection, resulting in simple visual fluorescent signal readouts. A set of standard MCDA primers, an engineered CP1 primer, a quenched fluorescent ssDNA reporter, and a gRNA were designed targeting the sdaA gene of MTB. The optimal temperature for MCDA pre-amplification is 67°C. The whole experiment process can be completed within one hour, including sputum rapid genomic DNA extraction (15 minutes), MCDA reaction (40 minutes), and CRISPR-Cas12a-gRNA biosensing process (5 minutes). The limit of detection (LoD) of the MTB-MCDA-CRISPR assay is 40 fg per reaction. The MTB-MCDA-CRISPR assay does not cross reaction with non-tuberculosis mycobacterium (NTM) strains and other species, validating its specificity. The clinical performance of MTB-MCDA-CRISPR assay was higher than that of the sputum smear microscopy test and comparable to that of Xpert method. In summary, the MTB-MCDA-CRISPR assay is a promising and effective tool for tuberculosis infection diagnosis, surveillance and prevention, especially for point-of-care (POC) test and field deployment in source-limited regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity , COVID-19/genetics , Tuberculosis/microbiology
19.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(6): 322-331, 2023 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To identify a diagnostic blood transcriptomic signature that distinguishes multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) from Kawasaki disease (KD), bacterial infections, and viral infections. METHODS: Children presenting with MIS-C to participating hospitals in the United Kingdom and the European Union between April 2020 and April 2021 were prospectively recruited. Whole-blood RNA Sequencing was performed, contrasting the transcriptomes of children with MIS-C (n = 38) to those from children with KD (n = 136), definite bacterial (DB; n = 188) and viral infections (DV; n = 138). Genes significantly differentially expressed (SDE) between MIS-C and comparator groups were identified. Feature selection was used to identify genes that optimally distinguish MIS-C from other diseases, which were subsequently translated into RT-qPCR assays and evaluated in an independent validation set comprising MIS-C (n = 37), KD (n = 19), DB (n = 56), DV (n = 43), and COVID-19 (n = 39). RESULTS: In the discovery set, 5696 genes were SDE between MIS-C and combined comparator disease groups. Five genes were identified as potential MIS-C diagnostic biomarkers (HSPBAP1, VPS37C, TGFB1, MX2, and TRBV11-2), achieving an AUC of 96.8% (95% CI: 94.6%-98.9%) in the discovery set, and were translated into RT-qPCR assays. The RT-qPCR 5-gene signature achieved an AUC of 93.2% (95% CI: 88.3%-97.7%) in the independent validation set when distinguishing MIS-C from KD, DB, and DV. CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C can be distinguished from KD, DB, and DV groups using a 5-gene blood RNA expression signature. The small number of genes in the signature and good performance in both discovery and validation sets should enable the development of a diagnostic test for MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Child , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/genetics , Hospitals , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , COVID-19 Testing
20.
RNA Biol ; 20(1): 272-280, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236945

ABSTRACT

RNA interference (RNAi) offers an efficient way to repress genes of interest, and it is widely used in research settings. Clinical applications emerged more recently, with 5 approved siRNAs (the RNA guides of the RNAi effector complex) against human diseases. The development of siRNAs against the SARS-CoV-2 virus could therefore provide the basis of novel COVID-19 treatments, while being easily adaptable to future variants or to other, unrelated viruses. Because the biochemistry of RNAi is very precisely described, it is now possible to design siRNAs with high predicted activity and specificity using only computational tools. While previous siRNA design algorithms tended to rely on simplistic strategies (raising fully complementary siRNAs against targets of interest), our approach uses the most up-to-date mechanistic description of RNAi to allow mismatches at tolerable positions and to force them at beneficial positions, while optimizing siRNA duplex asymmetry. Our pipeline proposes 8 siRNAs against SARS-CoV-2, and ex vivo assessment confirms the high antiviral activity of 6 out of 8 siRNAs, also achieving excellent variant coverage (with several 3-siRNA combinations recognizing each correctly-sequenced variant as of September2022). Our approach is easily generalizable to other viruses as long as avariant genome database is available. With siRNA delivery procedures being currently improved, RNAi could therefore become an efficient and versatile antiviral therapeutic strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , RNA Interference , Viruses/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
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