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1.
J Clin Invest ; 131(21)2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596390
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(49)2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541317

ABSTRACT

The development of COVID-19 vaccines was an important breakthrough for ending the pandemic. However, people refusing to get vaccinated diminish the level of community protection afforded to others. In the United States, White evangelicals have proven to be a particularly difficult group to convince to get vaccinated. Here we investigate whether this group can be persuaded to get vaccinated. To do this, we leverage data from two survey experiments, one fielded prior to approval of COVID-19 vaccines (study 1) and one fielded after approval (study 2). In both experiments, respondents were randomly assigned to treatment messages to promote COVID-19 vaccination. In study 1, we find that a message that emphasizes community interest and reciprocity with an invocation of embarrassment for choosing not to vaccinate is the most effective at increasing uptake intentions, while values-consistent messaging appears to be ineffective. In contrast, in study 2 we observe that this message is no longer effective and that most messages produce little change in vaccine intent. This inconsistency may be explained by the characteristics of White evangelicals who remain unvaccinated vis à vis those who got vaccinated. These results demonstrate the importance of retesting messages over time, the apparent limitations of values-targeted messaging, and document the need to consider heterogeneity even within well-defined populations. This work also cautions against drawing broad conclusions from studies carried out at a single point in time during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Persuasive Communication , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , COVID-19/history , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , History, 21st Century , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Seasons , Text Messaging , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology , Vaccination/methods , /statistics & numerical data
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6009, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469968

ABSTRACT

By October 2021, 230 million SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses have been reported. Yet, a considerable proportion of cases remains undetected. Here, we propose GInPipe, a method that rapidly reconstructs SARS-CoV-2 incidence profiles solely from publicly available, time-stamped viral genomes. We validate GInPipe against simulated outbreaks and elaborate phylodynamic analyses. Using available sequence data, we reconstruct incidence histories for Denmark, Scotland, Switzerland, and Victoria (Australia) and demonstrate, how to use the method to investigate the effects of changing testing policies on case ascertainment. Specifically, we find that under-reporting was highest during summer 2020 in Europe, coinciding with more liberal testing policies at times of low testing capacities. Due to the increased use of real-time sequencing, it is envisaged that GInPipe can complement established surveillance tools to monitor the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In post-pandemic times, when diagnostic efforts are decreasing, GInPipe may facilitate the detection of hidden infection dynamics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/history , Europe/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Scotland , Switzerland , Victoria
4.
Virus Res ; 305: 198551, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440397

ABSTRACT

Samples from complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolated during the first wave (December 2019-July 2020) of the global COVID-19 pandemic from 21 countries (Asia, Europe, Middle East and America) around the world, were analyzed using the phylogenetic method with molecular clock dating. Results showed that the first cases of COVID-19 in the human population appeared in the period between July and November 2019 in China. The spread of the virus into other countries of the world began in the autumn of 2019. In mid-February 2020, the virus appeared in all the countries we analyzed. During this time, the global population of SARS-CoV-2 was characterized by low levels of the genetic polymorphism, making it difficult to accurately assess the pathways of infection. The rate of evolution of the coding region of the SARS-CoV-2 genome equal to 7.3 × 10-4 (5.95 × 10-4-8.68 × 10-4) nucleotide substitutions per site per year is comparable to those of other human RNA viruses (Measles morbillivirus, Rubella virus, Enterovirus C). SARS-CoV-2 was separated from its known close relative, the bat coronavirus RaTG13 of the genus Betacoronavirus, approximately 15-43 years ago (the end of the 20th century).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Asia/epidemiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Genomics/methods , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , North America/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , South America/epidemiology
5.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411082

ABSTRACT

Approximately 67% of U.S. households have pets. Limited data are available on SARS-CoV-2 in pets. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets during a COVID-19 household transmission investigation. Pets from households with ≥1 person with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were eligible for inclusion from April-May 2020. We enrolled 37 dogs and 19 cats from 34 households. All oropharyngeal, nasal, and rectal swabs tested negative by rRT-PCR; one dog's fur swabs (2%) tested positive by rRT-PCR at the first sampling. Among 47 pets with serological results, eight (17%) pets (four dogs, four cats) from 6/30 (20%) households had detectable SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. In households with a seropositive pet, the proportion of people with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 was greater (median 79%; range: 40-100%) compared to households with no seropositive pet (median 37%; range: 13-100%) (p = 0.01). Thirty-three pets with serologic results had frequent daily contact (≥1 h) with the index patient before the person's COVID-19 diagnosis. Of these 33 pets, 14 (42%) had decreased contact with the index patient after diagnosis and none were seropositive; of the 19 (58%) pets with continued contact, four (21%) were seropositive. Seropositive pets likely acquired infection after contact with people with COVID-19. People with COVID-19 should restrict contact with pets and other animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , Dogs , Family Characteristics , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pets/history , Phylogeny , Population Surveillance , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Utah/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
6.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411077

ABSTRACT

Brazil was considered one of the emerging epicenters of the coronavirus pandemic in 2021, experiencing over 3000 daily deaths caused by the virus at the peak of the second wave. In total, the country had more than 20.8 million confirmed cases of COVID-19, including over 582,764 fatalities. A set of emerging variants arose in the country, some of them posing new challenges for COVID-19 control. The goal of this study was to describe mutational events across samples from Brazilian SARS-CoV-2 sequences publicly obtainable on Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data-EpiCoV (GISAID-EpiCoV) platform and to generate indexes of new mutations by each genome. A total of 16,953 SARS-CoV-2 genomes were obtained, which were not proportionally representative of the five Brazilian geographical regions. A comparative sequence analysis was conducted to identify common mutations located at 42 positions of the genome (38 were in coding regions, whereas two were in 5' and two in 3' UTR). Moreover, 11 were synonymous variants, 27 were missense variants, and more than 44.4% were located in the spike gene. Across the total of single nucleotide variations (SNVs) identified, 32 were found in genomes obtained from all five Brazilian regions. While a high genomic diversity has been reported in Europe given the large number of sequenced genomes, Africa has demonstrated high potential for new variants. In South America, Brazil, and Chile, rates have been similar to those found in South Africa and India, providing enough "space" for new mutations to arise. Genomic surveillance is the central key to identifying the emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil and has shown that the country is one of the "hotspots" in the generation of new variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/history , Evolution, Molecular , Genotype , History, 21st Century , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Mutation Rate , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Public Health Surveillance
7.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 105081, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401709

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has harshly impacted Italy since its arrival in February 2020. In particular, provinces in Italy's Central and Northern macroregions have dealt with disproportionately greater case prevalence and mortality rates than those in the South. In this paper, we compare the morbidity and mortality dynamics of 16th and 17th century Plague outbreaks with those of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic across Italian regions. We also include data on infectious respiratory diseases which are presently endemic to Italy in order to analyze the regional differences between epidemic and endemic disease. A Growth Curve Analysis allowed for the estimation of time-related intercepts and slopes across the 16th and 17th centuries. Those statistical parameters were later incorporated as criterion variables in multiple General Linear Models. These statistical examinations determined that the Northern macroregion had a higher intercept than the Southern macroregion. This indicated that provinces located in Northern Italy had historically experienced higher plague mortalities than Southern polities. The analyses also revealed that this geographical differential in morbidity and mortality persists to this day, as the Northern macroregion has experienced a substantially higher COVID-19 mortality than the Southern macroregion. These results are consistent with previously published analyses. The only other stable and significant predictor of epidemic disease mortality was foreign urban potential, a measure of the degree of interconnectedness between 16th and 17th century Italian cities. Foreign urban potential was negatively associated with plague slope and positively associated with plague intercept, COVID-19 mortality, GDP per capita, and immigration per capita. Its substantial contribution in predicting both past and present outcomes provides a temporal continuity not seen in any other measure tested here. Overall, this study provides compelling evidence that temporally stable geographical factors, impacting both historical and current foreign pathogen spread above and beyond other hypothesized predictors, underlie the disproportionate impact COVID-19 has had throughout Central and Northern Italian provinces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases/history , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Plague/epidemiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/mortality , Cities , Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data , Geography , Gross Domestic Product , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Plague/history , Plague/mortality , Prevalence , Survival Analysis
8.
Virus Res ; 305: 198553, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386720

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is seriously threatening human health all over the world. A comprehensive understanding of the genetic mechanisms driving the rapid evolution of its pathogen (SARS-CoV-2) is the key to controlling this pandemic. In this study, by comparing the entire genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 isolates from Asia, Europe and America, and analyzing their phylogenetic histories, we found a lineage derived from a recombination event that likely occurred before March 2020. More importantly, the recombinant offspring has become the dominant strain responsible for more than one-third of the global cases in the pandemic. These results indicated that the recombination might have played a key role in the pandemic of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Homologous Recombination , Mosaicism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Americas/epidemiology , Asia/epidemiology , Base Sequence , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Genomics/methods , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
9.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1105-1133, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381356

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent of the current pandemic worldwide and its associated disease COVID-19. In this review, we have analyzed SARS-CoV-2 characteristics and those ones of other well-known RNA viruses viz. HIV, HCV and Influenza viruses, collecting their historical data, clinical manifestations and pathogenetic mechanisms. The aim of the work is obtaining useful insights and lessons for a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2. These pathogens present a distinct mode of transmission, as SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza viruses are airborne, whereas HIV and HCV are bloodborne. However, these viruses exhibit some potential similar clinical manifestations and pathogenetic mechanisms and their understanding may contribute to establishing preventive measures and new therapies against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/history , Pandemics/history , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Climate , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genome, Viral , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Mutation , RNA Viruses/pathogenicity , RNA Viruses/physiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/history , Reinfection/transmission , Reinfection/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/history , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Virus Replication
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(35)2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370747

ABSTRACT

Observational knowledge of the epidemic intensity, defined as the number of deaths divided by global population and epidemic duration, and of the rate of emergence of infectious disease outbreaks is necessary to test theory and models and to inform public health risk assessment by quantifying the probability of extreme pandemics such as COVID-19. Despite its significance, assembling and analyzing a comprehensive global historical record spanning a variety of diseases remains an unexplored task. A global dataset of historical epidemics from 1600 to present is here compiled and examined using novel statistical methods to estimate the yearly probability of occurrence of extreme epidemics. Historical observations covering four orders of magnitude of epidemic intensity follow a common probability distribution with a slowly decaying power-law tail (generalized Pareto distribution, asymptotic exponent = -0.71). The yearly number of epidemics varies ninefold and shows systematic trends. Yearly occurrence probabilities of extreme epidemics, Py, vary widely: Py of an event with the intensity of the "Spanish influenza" (1918 to 1920) varies between 0.27 and 1.9% from 1600 to present, while its mean recurrence time today is 400 y (95% CI: 332 to 489 y). The slow decay of probability with epidemic intensity implies that extreme epidemics are relatively likely, a property previously undetected due to short observational records and stationary analysis methods. Using recent estimates of the rate of increase in disease emergence from zoonotic reservoirs associated with environmental change, we estimate that the yearly probability of occurrence of extreme epidemics can increase up to threefold in the coming decades.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/history , Disease Outbreaks , Global Health , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Public Health Surveillance
11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e400-e406, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) varies by race and ethnicity. This study assessed whether disparities in MIS-C in the United States by race and ethnicity exceed known disparities in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence. METHODS: We compared the distribution of race and ethnicity among patients with MIS-C (<21 years of age, termed children) with onset March 2020 to February 2021 to that of children with COVID-19 and in the general population. Analysis was restricted to 369 counties with high completeness of race and ethnicity reporting for MIS-C and COVID-19. For each racial and ethnic group, observed numbers of patients with MIS-C were compared with expected numbers (observed/expected ratio) in children with COVID-19 and in the general population within these counties. RESULTS: Compared with children in the general population, MIS-C was more frequent among Hispanic (139% of expected) and non-Hispanic Black children (183%) and less frequent among non-Hispanic White (64%) and non-Hispanic Asian children (48%). Compared with children with COVID-19, MIS-C was more frequent in non-Hispanic Black children (207% of expected) and less frequent in non-Hispanic White children (68%); however, frequency was not different among Hispanic (102%) and non-Hispanic Asian (74%) children. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in MIS-C by race and ethnicity exist, even after controlling for COVID-19 disparities and geographic variations. The high proportion of MIS-C among Hispanic children and low proportion among non-Hispanic Asian children align with COVID-19 rates, while the high proportion among non-Hispanic Black children and low proportion among non-Hispanic White children are not explainable by COVID-19 rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Public Health Surveillance , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/history , United States/epidemiology , United States/ethnology , Young Adult
12.
Am J Public Health ; 111(7): 1267-1272, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350205

ABSTRACT

Both the 1918 influenza pandemic and the 2019‒2021 COVID-19 pandemic are among the most disastrous infectious disease emergences of modern times. In addition to similarities in their clinical, pathological, and epidemiological features, the two pandemics, separated by more than a century, were each met with essentially the same, or very similar, public health responses, and elicited research efforts to control them with vaccines, therapeutics, and other medical approaches. Both pandemics had lasting, if at times invisible, psychosocial effects related to loss and hardship. In considering these two deadly pandemics, we ask: what lessons have we learned over the span of a century, and how are we applying those lessons to the challenges of COVID-19?


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/history , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/pathology , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza, Human/history , Public Health/history
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1660-1668, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343597

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a major challenge worldwide. However, the epidemic potential of common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological and co-infection characteristics of common HCoVs in individuals with influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). This retrospective, observational, multicentre study used data collected from patients admitted to nine sentinel hospitals with ILI and SARI from January 2015 through December 2020 in Shanghai, China. We prospectively tested patients for a total of 22 respiratory pathogens using multi-real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of the 4541 patients tested, 40.37% (1833/4541) tested positive for respiratory pathogens and 3.59% (163/4541) tested positive for common HCoVs. HCoV infection was more common in the non-endemic season for respiratory pathogens (odds ratio: 2.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.64-3.31). HCoV-OC43 (41.72%, 68/163) was the most common type of HCoV detected. The co-infection rate was 31.29% (51/163) among 163 HCoV-positive cases, with HCoV-229E (53.13%, 17/32), the HCoV type that was most frequently associated with co-infection. Respiratory pathogens responsible for co-infections with HCoVs included parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, influenza A virus, and adenovirus. Furthermore, we identified one patient co-infected with HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-NL63/HKU1. The prevalence of common HCoVs remains low in ILI/SARI cases, in Shanghai. However, the seasonal pattern of HCoVs may be opposite to that of other respiratory pathogens. Moreover, HCoVs are likely to co-exist with specific respiratory pathogens. The potential role of co-infections with HCoVs and other pathogenic microorganisms in infection and pathogenesis of ILI and SARI warrants further study.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/history , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/history , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Public Health Surveillance , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seasons
15.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 869-874, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1341555

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este artículo describe el inicio de las preocupaciones sanitarias vinculadas a las epidemias ocurridas durante el siglo XX en La Pampa, provincia argentina. Las epidemias, como las de la viruela, fueron un estímulo para estas políticas que frecuentemente tuvieron origen en Buenos Aires, la capital del país. El contagio de muchas epidemias dependía de carencias de infraestructura: agua, desagüe y desecho adecuado de basuras, de la ausencia de un número suficiente de trabajadores de salud, de la presencia de vectores transmisores de enfermedades como los mosquitos y, en última instancia, de la pobreza. La experiencia histórica descrita en este texto resalta la importancia de analizar el impacto del SARS-CoV-2 más allá de las grandes ciudades.


Abstract This article describes the emergence of health concerns relating to the epidemics that occurred during the twentieth century in La Pampa, a province in Argentina. Epidemics such as smallpox drove such policies, which frequently originated in Buenos Aires, the country's capital. The spread of many epidemics was due to shortages: water, sewage and adequate refuse disposal, an insufficient number of health care workers, the presence of disease transmission vectors such as mosquitos, and, ultimately, poverty. The historical experience described in this text highlights the importance of analyzing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 beyond the big cities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , History, 20th Century , Smallpox/history , Epidemics/history , COVID-19/history , Argentina/epidemiology , Poverty/history , Sewage , Water Supply/history , Smallpox/prevention & control , Smallpox/epidemiology , Indians, South American/history , Indians, South American/statistics & numerical data , Refuse Disposal/history , Vaccination/history , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Cities/history , Cities/epidemiology , Health Personnel/history , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Disease Eradication/history , Disease Eradication/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy/history , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Insect Vectors , Military Personnel/history
16.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 28(3): 879-883, jul.-set. 2021.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1341554

ABSTRACT

Resumen El desarrollo de la pandemia de la covid-19 ha motivado un renovado interés por la gripe de 1918-1919 para buscar elementos que facilitaran la comprensión de la experiencia presente, pero también como oportunidad para reevaluar la grave crisis sanitaria del siglo XX a la luz de lo que estamos viviendo. En este contexto y con ese objetivo se inserta esta reflexión histórica sobre estos dos fenómenos pandémicos, que muestra los paralelismos existentes y la necesidad de una toma de conciencia de que nuestro modelo de sociedad está en crisis y se requiere una transformación profunda.


Abstract The rise of the covid-19 pandemic has led to renewed interest in the 1918-1919 influenza in search of aspects that might help us understand the current situation, but also as an opportunity to re-evaluate the serious twentieth-century health crisis in light of what we are experiencing now. In this context and with that goal, this historical reflection shows the parallels that exist and the need for a realization that our model of society is undergoing a crisis and requires profound transformation.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Influenza, Human/history , Pandemics/history , COVID-19/history , Influenza Vaccines/history , Hygiene/history , Denial, Psychological , World War I , Economics , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/history , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/epidemiology , Military Personnel/history
17.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 87(12): 710-711, 2020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341780
18.
Rev. baiana enferm ; 35: e38740, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1328353

ABSTRACT

Objetivo analisar as publicações de usuários do Twitter direcionadas à campanha de valorização da Enfermagem, impulsionadas pelos termos #LuteComoUmaEnfermeira e #EnfermagemEuValorizo. Método pesquisa quantitativa, fundamentada nos métodos digitais. A busca foi realizada utilizando as hashtags #LuteComoUmaEnfermeira e #EnfermagemEuValorizo para extração de tweets. Foram selecionados para análise 2.613 tweets. Resultados 22,5% das publicações localizam-se na região Sudeste do país e 9,3% na região Nordeste. Houve mais de 18 mil interações (curtidas e compartilhamentos), sendo que os autores das postagens atingem um público estimado de cerca 7 milhões de pessoas. O conteúdo das postagens versava principalmente sobre a regulamentação da jornada de trabalho, Equipamentos de Proteção Individual, combate ao COVID-19, defesa da força de trabalho majoritariamente feminina e luta por direitos. Conclusão a realização da campanha virtual teve visibilidade importante no território nacional e apresentou grande visibilidade à profissão em número e alcance na Internet.


Objetivo analizar las publicaciones de los usuarios de Twitter dirigidas a la campaña de valoración de la Enfermería, impulsada por los términos #LuteComoUmaEnfermeira y #EnfermagemEuValorizo. Método investigación cuantitativa, basada en métodos digitales. La búsqueda se llevó a cabo utilizando los hashtags #LuteComoUmaEnfermeira y #EnfermagemEuValorizo para la extracción de tweets. Resultados el 22,5% de las publicaciones se localizan en la región Sudeste del país y el 9,3% en la región Nordeste. Hubo más de 18.000 interacciones (curtidas y compartidas), y los autores de los mensajes llegaron a un público estimado de unos 7 millones de personas. El contenido de los puestos se refería principalmente a la regulación de los horarios de trabajo, el equipo de protección personal, la lucha contra el COVID-19, la defensa de la fuerza de trabajo mayoritariamente femenina y la lucha por los derechos. Conclusión la realización de la campaña virtual tuvo una importante visibilidad en el territorio nacional y presentó una gran visibilidad a la profesión en número y alcance en Internet.


Objective analyze the publications of Twitter users directed to the campaign of valuation of Nursing, driven by the terms #LuteComoUmaEnfermeira and #EnfermagemEuValorizo. Method quantitative research, based on digital methods. The search was realized using the hashtags #LuteComoUmaEnfermeira and #EnfermagemEuValorizo for tweets extraction. 2,613 tweets were selected for analysis. Results 22.5% of publications are located in the Brazilian Southeast region and 9.3% in the Northeast region. There were more than 18,000 interactions (likes and shares), and the authors of the posts reach an estimated audience of about 7 million people). The content of the posts mainly related to the regulation of working hours, Personal Protective Equipment, the fight against COVID-19, the defense of the majority female workforce and the fight for rights. Conclusion the realization of the virtual campaign had important visibility in the national territory and presented great visibility to the profession in number and reach on the Internet.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Data Mining , Social Media , COVID-19/history , Nurse Practitioners , Nursing Informatics
19.
Am J Public Health ; 111(S2): S149-S155, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328022

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To test whether distortions in the age structure of mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic in Michigan tracked the severity of the pandemic. Methods. We calculated monthly excess deaths during the period of 1918 to 1920 by using monthly data on all-cause deaths for the period of 1912 to 1920 in Michigan. Next, we measured distortions in the age distribution of deaths by using the Kuiper goodness-of-fit test statistic comparing the monthly distribution of deaths by age in 1918 to 1920 with the baseline distribution for the corresponding month for 1912 to 1917. Results. Monthly distortions in the age distribution of deaths were correlated with excess deaths for the period of 1918 to 1920 in Michigan (r = 0.83; P < .001). Conclusions. Distortions in the age distribution of deaths tracked variations in the severity of the 1918 influenza pandemic. Public Health Implications. It may be possible to track the severity of pandemic activity with age-at-death data by identifying distortions in the age distribution of deaths. Public health authorities should explore the application of this approach to tracking the COVID-19 pandemic in the absence of complete data coverage or accurate cause-of-death data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/history , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/history , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing/history , Cause of Death , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/mortality , Michigan , Seasons
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