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1.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(11): 73, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Headache is a common symptom of COVID-19 with emerging literature being published on the subject. Although it may seem unspecific, scientific evidence has allowed a better definition of this headache type, revealing relevant associations with other COVID-19 symptoms and prognoses. We therefore sought to highlight the most remarkable findings concerning headache secondary to COVID-19, specifically focusing on epidemiology, characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The real prevalence of headache as a symptom of COVID-19 is still unclear ranging from 10 to 70%. Headache mainly has a tension-type-like phenotype, although 25% of individuals present with migraine-like features that also occur in patients without personal migraine history. This finding suggests that a likely pathophysiological mechanism is the activation of the trigeminovascular system. SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism can occur by trans-synaptic invasion through the olfactory route from the nasal cavity, leading to anosmia which has been associated with headache. SARS-CoV-2 protein has been found not only in olfactory mucosa and bulbs but also in trigeminal branches and the trigeminal ganglion, supporting this hypothesis. However, other mechanisms such as brain vessels inflammation due to SARS-CoV-2 damage to the endothelium or systemic inflammation in the context of cytokine storm cannot be ruled out. Interestingly, headache has been associated with lower COVID-19 mortality. No specific treatment for COVID-19 headache is available at present. Studies show that investigating COVID-19 headache represents an opportunity not only to better understand COVID-19 in general but also to advance in the knowledge of both secondary and primary headaches. Future research is therefore warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Headache/therapy , Humans , Inflammation , Migraine Disorders/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tension-Type Headache/physiopathology , Trigeminal Ganglion/physiopathology , Trigeminal Ganglion/virology , Trigeminal Nerve/physiopathology , Trigeminal Nerve/virology , Viral Tropism
3.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(11): 1755-1765, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526737

ABSTRACT

Despite evidence of multiorgan tropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), direct viral kidney invasion has been difficult to demonstrate. The question of whether SARS-CoV2 can directly infect the kidney is relevant to the understanding of pathogenesis of AKI and collapsing glomerulopathy in patients with COVID-19. Methodologies to document SARS-CoV-2 infection that have been used include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. In our review of studies to date, we found that SARS-CoV-2 in the kidneys of patients with COVID-19 was detected in 18 of 94 (19%) by immunohistochemistry, 71 of 144 (49%) by RT-PCR, and 11 of 84 (13%) by in situ hybridization. In a smaller number of patients with COVID-19 examined by immunofluorescence, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 10 of 13 (77%). In total, in kidneys from 102 of 235 patients (43%), the presence of SARS-CoV-2 was suggested by at least one of the methods used. Despite these positive findings, caution is needed because many other studies have been negative for SARS-CoV-2 and it should be noted that when detected, it was only in kidneys obtained at autopsy. There is a clear need for studies from kidney biopsies, including those performed at early stages of the COVID-19-associated kidney disease. Development of tests to detect kidney viral infection in urine samples would be more practical as a noninvasive way to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 infection during the evolution of COVID-19-associated kidney disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Kidney Diseases/virology , Kidney/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Testing , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Kidney Diseases/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
4.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(4): 1665-1674, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526879

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease with a high rate of progression to critical illness. However, the predictors of mortality in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are not yet well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with ICU mortality in our hospital. Materials and methods: In this single-centered retrospective study, we enrolled 86 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU of Dokuz Eylül University Hospital (Izmir, Turkey) between 18 March 2020 and 31 October 2020. Data on demographic information, preexisting comorbidities, treatments, the laboratory findings at ICU admission, and clinical outcomes were collected. The chest computerized tomography (CT) of the patients were evaluated specifically for COVID-19 and CT score was calculated. Data of the survivors and nonsurvivors were compared with survival analysis to identify risk factors of mortality in the ICU. Results: The mean age of the patients was 71.1 ± 14.1 years. The patients were predominantly male. The most common comorbidity in patients was hypertension. ICU mortality was 62.8%. Being over 60 years old, CT score > 15, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score ≥ 15, having dementia, treatment without favipiravir, base excess in blood gas analysis ≤ ­2.0, WBC > 10,000/mm3, D-dimer > 1.6 µg/mL, troponin > 24 ng/L, Na ≥ 145 mmol/L were considered to link with ICU mortality according to Kaplan­Meier curves (log-rank test, p < 0.05). The APACHE II score (HR: 1.055, 95% CI: 1.021­1.090) and chest CT score (HR: 2.411, 95% CI:1.193­4.875) were associated with ICU mortality in the cox proportional-hazard regression model adjusted for age, dementia, favipiravir treatment and troponin. Howewer, no difference was found between survivors and nonsurvivors in terms of intubation timing. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients have a high ICU admission and mortality rate. Studies in the ICU are also crucial in this respect. In our study, we investigated the ICU mortality risk factors of COVID-19 patients. We determined a predictive mortality model consisting of APACHE II score and chest CT score. It was thought that this feasible and practical model would assist in making clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/methods , Hospital Mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(44): e309, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed maternal and neonatal outcomes of critically ill pregnant and puerperal patients in the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Records of pregnant and puerperal women with polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 virus who were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March 2020 to August 2021 were investigated. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, pharmacotherapy, and neonatal outcomes were analyzed. These outcomes were compared between patients that were discharged from ICU and patients who died in ICU. RESULTS: Nineteen women were included in this study. Additional oxygen was required in all cases (100%). Eight patients (42%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients that were mechanically ventilated have died. Increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) was seen in all patients (100%). D-dimer values increased in 15 patients (78.9%); interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased in 16 cases (84.2%). Sixteen patients used antiviral drugs. Eleven patients were discharged from the ICU and eight patients have died due to complications of COVID-19 showing an ICU mortality rate of 42.1%. Mean number of hospitalized days in ICU was significantly lower in patients that were discharged (P = 0.037). Seventeen patients underwent cesarean-section (C/S) (89.4%). Mean birth week was significantly lower in patients who died in ICU (P = 0.024). Eleven preterm (57.8%) and eight term deliveries (42.1%) occurred. CONCLUSION: High mortality rate was detected among critically ill pregnant/parturient patients followed in the ICU. Main predictors of mortality were the need of invasive mechanical ventilation and higher number of days hospitalized in ICU. Rate of C/S operations and preterm delivery were high. Pleasingly, the rate of neonatal death was low and no neonatal COVID-19 occurred.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Puerperal Disorders/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Cesarean Section , Combined Modality Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
6.
Artif Organs ; 45(12): 1466-1476, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe cases requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Together with supportive therapies (ventilation in particular), the suppression of the pro-inflammatory state has been a hypothesized target. Pharmacological therapies with corticosteroids and interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antagonists have reduced mortality. The use of extracorporeal cytokine removal, also known as hemoperfusion (HP), could be a promising non-pharmacological approach to decrease the pro-inflammatory state in COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of PubMed and EMBASE databases in order to summarize the evidence regarding HP therapy in COVID-19. We included original studies and case series enrolling at least five patients. RESULTS: We included 11 articles and describe the characteristics of the populations studied from both clinical and biological perspectives. The methodological quality of the included studies was generally low. Only two studies had a control group, one of which included 101 patients in total. The remaining studies had a range between 10 and 50 patients included. There was large variability in the HP techniques implemented and in clinical and biological outcomes reported. Most studies described decreasing levels of IL-6 after HP treatment. CONCLUSION: Our review does not support strong conclusions regarding the role of HP in COVID-19. Considering the very low level of clinical evidence detected, starting HP therapies in COVID-19 patients does not seem supported outside of clinical trials. Prospective randomized data are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines/blood , Hemoperfusion , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hemoperfusion/adverse effects , Hemoperfusion/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Lab Med ; 52(5): 493-498, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the role of midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We included 110 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Biochemical biomarkers, including MR-proADM, were measured at admission. The association of plasma MR-proADM levels with COVID-19 severity, defined as a requirement for mechanical ventilation or in-hospital mortality, was evaluated. RESULTS: Patients showed increased levels of MR-proADM. In addition, MR-proADM was higher in patients who died during hospitalization than in patients who survived (median, 2.59 nmol/L; interquartile range, 2.3-2.95 vs median, 0.82 nmol/L; interquartile range, 0.57-1.03; P <.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed good accuracy of MR-proADM for predicting mortality. A MR-proADM value of 1.73 nmol/L was established as the best cutoff value, with 90% sensitivity and 95% specificity (P <.0001). CONCLUSION: We found that MR-proADM could represent a prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Protein Precursors/blood , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/mortality , Hypertension/virology , Interleukin-6/blood , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/mortality , Lung Diseases/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Triage/methods
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(46): 1613-1616, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524681

ABSTRACT

Surges in COVID-19 cases have stressed hospital systems, negatively affected health care and public health infrastructures, and degraded national critical functions (1,2). Resource limitations, such as available hospital space, staffing, and supplies led some facilities to adopt crisis standards of care, the most extreme operating condition for hospitals, in which the focus of medical decision-making shifted from achieving the best outcomes for individual patients to addressing the immediate care needs of larger groups of patients (3). When hospitals deviated from conventional standards of care, many preventive and elective procedures were suspended, leading to the progression of serious conditions among some persons who would have benefitted from earlier diagnosis and intervention (4). During March-May 2020, U.S. emergency department visits declined by 23% for heart attacks, 20% for strokes, and 10% for diabetic emergencies (5). The Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) COVID Task Force* examined the relationship between hospital strain and excess deaths during July 4, 2020-July 10, 2021, to assess the impact of COVID-19 surges on hospital system operations and potential effects on other critical infrastructure sectors and national critical functions. The study period included the months during which the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant became predominant in the United States.† The negative binomial regression model used to calculate estimated deaths predicted that, if intensive care unit (ICU) bed use nationwide reached 75% capacity an estimated 12,000 additional excess deaths would occur nationally over the next 2 weeks. As hospitals exceed 100% ICU bed capacity, 80,000 excess deaths would be expected in the following 2 weeks. This analysis indicates the importance of controlling case growth and subsequent hospitalizations before severe strain. State, local, tribal, and territorial leaders could evaluate ways to reduce strain on public health and health care infrastructures, including implementing interventions to reduce overall disease prevalence such as vaccination and other prevention strategies, as well as ways to expand or enhance capacity during times of high disease prevalence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Pandemics , Adult , Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
9.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(9): 2627-2638, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic. Despite the vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Center Trials to find all published literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies reporting the outcomes of interest were included. Across all studies, the overall sample size of COVID positive children was 1,247 and the median age of this population was 9.1 years old. Among COVID positive pediatric patients, there was an AKI incidence of 30.51%, with only 0.56% of these patients receiving KRT. The mortality was 2.55% among all COVID positive pediatric patients. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among COVID positive patients was 74.29%. CONCLUSION: AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients; however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
10.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43 Suppl 1: 137-141, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Eosinopenia has been observed during infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19. This study evaluated the role of eosinopenia as a diagnostic and prognostic indicator in COVID-19 infection. METHODS: Information on 429 patients with confirmed COVID-19, admitted to Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, India between 04 June 2020 to 15 August 2020, was retrospectively collected through electronic records and analysed. RESULTS: 79.25% of the patients included in the study had eosinopenia on admission. The median eosinophil count in COVID-19-positive patients was 0.015 × 109 /L, and in negative patients, it was 0.249 × 109 /L. Eighteen per cent of the positive patients presented with 0 eosinophil count. Eosinopenia for early diagnosis of COVID-19 had a sensitivity of 80.68% and specificity of 100% with an accuracy of 85.24. Role of eosinopenia in prognostication of COVID-19 was found to be insignificant. There was no statistically significant difference between the median eosinophil counts in survivors and nonsurvivors. Eosinophil trends during the course of disease were found to be similar between survivors and nonsurvivors. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinopenia on admission is a reliable and convenient early diagnostic marker for COVID-19 infection, helping in early identification, triaging and isolation of the patients till nucleic acid test results are available. Role of eosinopenia as a prognostic indicator is insignificant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Eosinophils , Leukocyte Count , Leukopenia/etiology , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Eosinophilia/blood , Eosinophilia/etiology , Humans , India , Leukopenia/blood , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Selection Bias , Sensitivity and Specificity , Survival Analysis
11.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(1): JC3, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518748

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Lopinavir-ritonavir in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial. Lancet. 2020;396:1345-52. 33031764.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 765330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518489

ABSTRACT

Aims: Although the exact factors promoting disease progression in COVID-19 are not fully elucidated, unregulated activation of the complement system (CS) seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by SARS-CoV-2. In particular, the lectin pathway (LP) has been implicated in previous autopsy studies. The primary purpose of our study is to investigate the role of the CS in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with varying degrees of disease severity. Methods: In a single-center prospective observational study, 154 hospitalized patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. Serum samples on admission to the COVID-19 ward were collected for analysis of CS pathway activities and concentrations of LP proteins [mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolin-3 (FCN-3)] & C1 esterase inhibitor (C1IHN). The primary outcome was mechanical ventilation or in-hospital death. Results: The patients were predominately male and had multiple comorbidities. ICU admission was required in 16% of the patients and death (3%) or mechanical ventilation occurred in 23 patients (15%). There was no significant difference in LP activity, MBL and FCN-3 concentrations according to different peak disease severities. The median alternative pathway (AP) activity was significantly lower (65%, IQR 50-94) in patients with death/invasive ventilation compared to patients without (87%, IQR 68-102, p=0.026). An optimal threshold of <65.5% for AP activity was derived from a ROC curve resulting in increased odds for death or mechanical ventilation (OR 4,93; 95% CI 1.70-14.33, p=0.003) even after adjustment for confounding factors. Classical pathway (CP) activity was slightly lower in patients with more severe disease (median 101% for death/mechanical ventilation vs 109%, p=0.014). C1INH concentration correlated positively with length of stay, inflammatory markers and disease severity on admission but not during follow-up. Conclusion: Our results point to an overactivated AP in critically ill COVID-19 patients in vivo leading to complement consumption and consequently to a significantly reduced AP activity in vitro. The LP does not seem to play a role in the progression to severe COVID-19. Apart from its acute phase reaction the significance of C1INH in COVID-19 requires further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Complement System Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/immunology , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Lectins/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1409-1419, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe monthly clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. DESIGN: Pooled cross-sectional study. SETTING: 99 counties in 14 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET). PATIENTS: U.S. adults (aged ≥18 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during 1 March to 31 December 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Monthly hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and in-hospital death rates per 100 000 persons in the population; monthly trends in weighted percentages of interventions, including ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use, among an age- and site-stratified random sample of hospitalized case patients. RESULTS: Among 116 743 hospitalized adults with COVID-19, the median age was 62 years, 50.7% were male, and 40.8% were non-Hispanic White. Monthly rates of hospitalization (105.3 per 100 000 persons), ICU admission (20.2 per 100 000 persons), and death (11.7 per 100 000 persons) peaked during December 2020. Rates of all 3 outcomes were highest among adults aged 65 years or older, males, and Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black persons. Among 18 508 sampled hospitalized adults, use of remdesivir and systemic corticosteroids increased from 1.7% and 18.9%, respectively, in March to 53.8% and 74.2%, respectively, in December. Frequency of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use decreased from March (37.8%, 27.8%, and 22.7%, respectively) to December (20.5%, 12.3%, and 12.8%, respectively); use of noninvasive respiratory support increased from March to December. LIMITATION: COVID-NET covers approximately 10% of the U.S. population; findings may not be generalizable to the entire country. CONCLUSION: Rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, and death were highest in December 2020, corresponding with the third peak of the U.S. pandemic. The frequency of intensive interventions for management of hospitalized patients decreased over time. These data provide a longitudinal assessment of clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 before widespread implementation of COVID-19 vaccines. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Young Adult
15.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(11): e817-e825, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with learning disabilities are at substantially increased risk of COVID-19 mortality, but evidence on risks of COVID-19 mortality for disabled people more generally is limited. We aimed to use population-level data to estimate the association between self-reported disability and death involving COVID-19 during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in England. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of adults aged 30-100 years living in private households or communal establishments in England, using data from the Office for National Statistics Public Health Data Asset. Participants were present at the 2011 Census and alive on Jan 24, 2020. Participants reported being limited a lot in their daily activities, limited a little, or not limited at all, in response to a question from the 2011 Census. The outcome was death involving COVID-19, occurring between Jan 24, 2020, and Feb 28, 2021. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between disability and death involving COVID-19, sequentially adjusting for age, residence type (private household, care home, or other communal establishment), geographical characteristics (local authority district and population density), sociodemographic characteristics (ethnicity, highest qualification, Index of Multiple Deprivation decile, household characteristics [National Statistics Socio-economic Classification of the household reference person, tenure of household, household size, family status, household composition, and key worker in household], key worker type, individual and household exposure to disease, and individual and household proximity to others), and health status (pre-existing health conditions, body-mass index, and number of admissions to hospital and days spent in hospital over the previous 3 years). FINDINGS: 29 293 845 adults were included in the study (13 806 623 [47%] men, 15 487 222 [53%] women), of whom 3 038 772 (10%) reported being limited a little and 2 011 576 (7%) reported being limited a lot. During follow-up, 105 213 people died from causes involving COVID-19 in England, 61 416 (58%) of whom were disabled. Age-adjusted analyses showed higher mortality involving COVID-19 among disabled people who were limited a lot (HR 3·05 [95% CI 2·98-3·11] for men; 3·48 [3·41-3·56] for women) and disabled people who were limited a little (HR 1·88 [1·84-1·92] for men; 2·03 [1·98-2·08] for women) than among non-disabled people. Adjustment for residence type, geography, sociodemographics, and health conditions reduced but did not eliminate the associations between disability and death involving COVID-19 (HR 1·35 [1·32-1·38] for men who were limited a lot; 1·21 [1·18-1·23] for men who were limited a little; 1·55 [1·51-1·59] for women who were limited a lot; and 1·28 [1·25-1·31] for women who were limited a little). INTERPRETATION: Given the association between disability and mortality involving COVID-19, verification of these findings and consideration of recommendations for protective measures are now required. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Self Report
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134241, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508587

ABSTRACT

Importance: The influence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and sleep-related hypoxemia in SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and COVID-19 outcomes remains unknown. Controversy exists regarding whether to continue treatment for SDB with positive airway pressure given concern for aerosolization with limited data to inform professional society recommendations. Objective: To investigate the association of SDB (identified via polysomnogram) and sleep-related hypoxia with (1) SARS-CoV-2 positivity and (2) World Health Organization (WHO)-designated COVID-19 clinical outcomes while accounting for confounding including obesity, underlying cardiopulmonary disease, cancer, and smoking history. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study was conducted within the Cleveland Clinic Health System (Ohio and Florida) and included all patients who were tested for COVID-19 between March 8 and November 30, 2020, and who had an available sleep study record. Sleep indices and SARS-CoV-2 positivity were assessed with overlap propensity score weighting, and COVID-19 clinical outcomes were assessed using the institutional registry. Exposures: Sleep study-identified SDB (defined by frequency of apneas and hypopneas using the Apnea-Hypopnea Index [AHI]) and sleep-related hypoxemia (percentage of total sleep time at <90% oxygen saturation [TST <90]). Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 infection and WHO-designated COVID-19 clinical outcomes (hospitalization, use of supplemental oxygen, noninvasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death). Results: Of 350 710 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, 5402 (mean [SD] age, 56.4 [14.5] years; 3005 women [55.6%]) had a prior sleep study, of whom 1935 (35.8%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of the 5402 participants, 1696 were Black (31.4%), 3259 were White (60.3%), and 822 were of other race or ethnicity (15.2%). Patients who were positive vs negative for SARS-CoV-2 had a higher AHI score (median, 16.2 events/h [IQR, 6.1-39.5 events/h] vs 13.6 events/h [IQR, 5.5-33.6 events/h]; P < .001) and increased TST <90 (median, 1.8% sleep time [IQR, 0.10%-12.8% sleep time] vs 1.4% sleep time [IQR, 0.10%-10.8% sleep time]; P = .02). After overlap propensity score-weighted logistic regression, no SDB measures were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Median TST <90 was associated with the WHO-designated COVID-19 ordinal clinical outcome scale (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.74; P = .005). Time-to-event analyses showed sleep-related hypoxia associated with a 31% higher rate of hospitalization and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.57; P = .005). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study, SDB and sleep-related hypoxia were not associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 positivity; however, once patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2, sleep-related hypoxia was an associated risk factor for detrimental COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Hospitalization , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/complications , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Florida , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Ohio , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/pathology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/therapy
19.
ASN Neuro ; 13: 17590914211057635, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511685

ABSTRACT

Among the plethora of debilitating neurological disorders of COVID-19 syndrome in survivors, the scope of SARS-CoV-2-induced dysautonomia (DNS) is yet to be understood, though the implications are enormous. Herein, we present an inclusive mini-review of SARS-CoV-2-induced DNS and its associated complications. Although, the direct link between Covid-19 and DSN is still speculative, the hypothetical links are thought to be either a direct neuronal injury of the autonomic pathway or a para/post-infectious immune-induced mechanism. SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced stress may activate the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) leading to neuro-hormonal stimulation and activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines with further development of sympathetic storm. Sympathetic over-activation in Covid-19 is correlated with increase in capillary pulmonary leakage, alveolar damage, and development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 can spread through pulmonary mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors to medullary respiratory center in a retrograde manner resulting in sudden respiratory failure. Taken together, DSN in Covid-19 is developed due to sympathetic storm and inhibition of Parasympathetic nervous system-mediated anti-inflammatory effect with development of cytokine storm. Therefore, sympathetic and cytokine storms together with activation of Renin-Angiotensin-System are the chief final pathway involved in the development of DSN in Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Female , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Prospective Studies
20.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511654

ABSTRACT

The precise mechanisms of pathology in severe COVID-19 remains elusive. Current evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators are responsible for the manifestation of clinical symptoms that precedes a fatal response to infection. This review examines the nature of platelet activating factor and emphasizes the similarities between the physiological effects of platelet activating factor and the clinical complications of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/pathology
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