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1.
Br J Surg ; 108(12): 1448-1464, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the impact of pulmonary complications on death after surgery both before and during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: This was a patient-level, comparative analysis of two, international prospective cohort studies: one before the pandemic (January-October 2019) and the second during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (local emergence of COVID-19 up to 19 April 2020). Both included patients undergoing elective resection of an intra-abdominal cancer with curative intent across five surgical oncology disciplines. Patient selection and rates of 30-day postoperative pulmonary complications were compared. The primary outcome was 30-day postoperative mortality. Mediation analysis using a natural-effects model was used to estimate the proportion of deaths during the pandemic attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: This study included 7402 patients from 50 countries; 3031 (40.9 per cent) underwent surgery before and 4371 (59.1 per cent) during the pandemic. Overall, 4.3 per cent (187 of 4371) developed postoperative SARS-CoV-2 in the pandemic cohort. The pulmonary complication rate was similar (7.1 per cent (216 of 3031) versus 6.3 per cent (274 of 4371); P = 0.158) but the mortality rate was significantly higher (0.7 per cent (20 of 3031) versus 2.0 per cent (87 of 4371); P < 0.001) among patients who had surgery during the pandemic. The adjusted odds of death were higher during than before the pandemic (odds ratio (OR) 2.72, 95 per cent c.i. 1.58 to 4.67; P < 0.001). In mediation analysis, 54.8 per cent of excess postoperative deaths during the pandemic were estimated to be attributable to SARS-CoV-2 (OR 1.73, 1.40 to 2.13; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although providers may have selected patients with a lower risk profile for surgery during the pandemic, this did not mitigate the likelihood of death through SARS-CoV-2 infection. Care providers must act urgently to protect surgical patients from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


This study compared death rates in patients who developed pulmonary complications of surgery before and during the pandemic in two large, international studies. Patients who underwent surgery during the pandemic tended to be younger and fitter. Overall, 4.3 per cent were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection after surgery in the pandemic cohort. Deaths within 30 days after surgery tripled during the first wave of the pandemic (from 0.7 to 2.0 per cent), whereas the rate of pulmonary complications remained the similar (7.1 to 6.3 per cent). Over half of these excess deaths (54.8 per cent) were estimated to be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Elective Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Abdominal Neoplasms/surgery , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
2.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(6): 285-288, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238469

ABSTRACT

As the global coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to cause higher mortality and hospitalization rates among older adults, strategies such as frailty screening have been suggested for resource allocation and clinical management. Frailty is a physiologic condition characterized by a decreased reserve to stressors and is associated with disability, hospitalization, and death. Measuring frailty can be a useful tool to determine the risk and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in the acute setting, and to provide higher quality of care for vulnerable individuals in the outpatient setting. A literature review was conducted to examine current research regarding frailty and COVID-19. Frailty can inform holistic care of COVID-19 patients, and further investigation is needed to elucidate how measuring frailty should guide treatment and prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Frailty/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Mass Screening , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Res Notes ; 16(1): 96, 2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237008

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 has caused tremendous damage to U.S. public health, but COVID vaccines can effectively reduce the risk of COVID-19 infections and related mortality. Our study aimed to quantify the association between proximity to a community healthcare facility and COVID-19 related mortality after COVID vaccines became publicly available and explore how this association varied across racial and ethnic groups. RESULTS: Residents living farther from a facility had higher COVID-19-related mortality across U.S. counties. This increased mortality incidence associated with longer distances was particularly pronounced in counties with higher proportions of Black and Hispanic populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Ethnicity , Health Status Disparities , Hispanic or Latino , United States/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Community Health Centers , Black or African American
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235715

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the structural and group-specific factors explaining the excess death rates experienced by the Hispanic population in New York City during the peak years of the coronavirus pandemic. Neighborhood-level analysis of Census data allows an exploration of the relation between Hispanic COVID-19 deaths and spatial concentration, conceived in this study as a proxy for structural racism. This analysis also provides a more detailed exploration of the role of gender in understanding the effects of spatial segregation among different Hispanic subgroups, as gender has emerged as a significant variable in explaining the structural and social effects of COVID-19. Our results show a positive correlation between COVID-19 death rates and the share of Hispanic neighborhood residents. However, for men, this correlation cannot be explained by the characteristics of the neighborhood, as it is for women. In sum, we find: (a) differences in mortality risks between Hispanic men and women; (b) that weathering effects increase mortality risks the longer Hispanic immigrant groups reside in the U.S.; (c) that Hispanic males experience greater contagion and mortality risks associated with the workplace; and (d) we find evidence corroborating the importance of access to health insurance and citizenship status in reducing mortality risks. The findings propose revisiting the Hispanic health paradox with the use of structural racism and gendered frameworks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrants and Immigrants , Systemic Racism , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/mortality , Hispanic or Latino , New York City/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Sex Factors
5.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(1): 58-64, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2322597

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background In Brazil the factors involved in the risk of death in patients with COVID-19 have not been well established. Objective To analyze whether elevations of high-sensitivity troponin I (hTnI) levels influence the mortality of patients with COVID-19. Methods Clinical and laboratory characteristics of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were collected upon hospital admission. Univariate and binary logistic regression analyzes were performed to assess the factors that influence mortality. P-value<0.05 was considered significant. Results This study analyzed192 patients who received hospital admission between March 16 and June 2, 2020 and who were discharged or died by July 2, 2020. The mean age was 70±15 years, 80 (41.7%) of whom were women. In comparison to those who were discharged, the 54 (28.1%) who died were older (79±12 vs 66±15years; P=0.004), and with a higher Charlson´s index (5±2 vs 3±2; P=0.027). More patients, aged≥60years (P <0.0001), Charlson´s index>1 (P=0.004), lung injury>50% in chest computed tomography (P=0.011), with previous coronary artery disease (P=0.037), hypertension (P=0.033), stroke (P=0.008), heart failure (P=0.002), lymphocytopenia (P=0.024), high D-dimer (P=0.024), high INR (P=0.003), hTnI (P<0.0001), high creatinine (P<0.0001), invasive mechanical ventilation (P<0.0001), renal replacement therapy (P<0.0001), vasoactive amine (P<0.0001), and transfer to the ICU (P=0.001), died when compared to those who were discharged. In logistic regression analysis, elevated hTnI levels (OR=9.504; 95% CI=1.281-70.528; P=0.028) upon admission, and the need for mechanical ventilation during hospitalization (OR=46.691; 95% CI=2.360-923.706; P=0.012) increased the chance of in-hospital mortality. Conclusion This study suggests that in COVID-19 disease, myocardial injury upon hospital admission is a harbinger of poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Troponin I/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Myocarditis/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/complications
8.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(3): 319-323, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2318554

ABSTRACT

Abstract COVID-19, caused by the coronavirus family SARS-CoV-2 and declared a pandemic in March 2020, continues to spread. Its enormous and unprecedented impact on our society has evidenced the huge social inequity of our modern society, in which the most vulnerable individuals have been pushed into even worse socioeconomic situations, struggling to survive. As the pandemic continues, we witness the huge suffering of the most marginalized populations around the globe, even in developed, high-income latitudes, such as North America and Europe. That is even worse in low-income regions, such as Brazil, where the public healthcare infrastructure had already been struggling before the pandemic. Cities with even more evident social inequity have been impacted the most, leaving the most socioeconomically disadvantaged ones, such as slum residents and black people, continuously inflating the statistics of COVID-19 sufferers. Poverty, marginalization, and inequity have been well-known risk factors for morbidity and mortality from other diseases. However, COVID-19 has deepened our society's wound. It is up to us to heal it up. If we really care for the others and want to survive as a species, we must fight social inequity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Social Determinants of Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Social Vulnerability , Socioeconomic Factors , Risk Factors , Social Marginalization , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2311098, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316762

ABSTRACT

Importance: Prior research has established that Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black residents in the US experienced substantially higher COVID-19 mortality rates in 2020 than non-Hispanic White residents owing to structural racism. In 2021, these disparities decreased. Objective: To assess to what extent national decreases in racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 mortality between the initial pandemic wave and subsequent Omicron wave reflect reductions in mortality vs other factors, such as the pandemic's changing geography. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for COVID-19 deaths from March 1, 2020, through February 28, 2022, among adults aged 25 years and older residing in the US. Deaths were examined by race and ethnicity across metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, and the national decrease in racial and ethnic disparities between initial and Omicron waves was decomposed. Data were analyzed from June 2021 through March 2023. Exposures: Metropolitan vs nonmetropolitan areas and race and ethnicity. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age-standardized death rates. Results: There were death certificates for 977 018 US adults aged 25 years and older (mean [SD] age, 73.6 [14.6] years; 435 943 female [44.6%]; 156 948 Hispanic [16.1%], 140 513 non-Hispanic Black [14.4%], and 629 578 non-Hispanic White [64.4%]) that included a mention of COVID-19. The proportion of COVID-19 deaths among adults residing in nonmetropolitan areas increased from 5944 of 110 526 deaths (5.4%) during the initial wave to a peak of 40 360 of 172 515 deaths (23.4%) during the Delta wave; the proportion was 45 183 of 210 554 deaths (21.5%) during the Omicron wave. The national disparity in age-standardized COVID-19 death rates per 100 000 person-years for non-Hispanic Black compared with non-Hispanic White adults decreased from 339 to 45 deaths from the initial to Omicron wave, or by 293 deaths. After standardizing for age and racial and ethnic differences by metropolitan vs nonmetropolitan residence, increases in death rates among non-Hispanic White adults explained 120 deaths/100 000 person-years of the decrease (40.7%); 58 deaths/100 000 person-years in the decrease (19.6%) were explained by shifts in mortality to nonmetropolitan areas, where a disproportionate share of non-Hispanic White adults reside. The remaining 116 deaths/100 000 person-years in the decrease (39.6%) were explained by decreases in death rates in non-Hispanic Black adults. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that most of the national decrease in racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 mortality between the initial and Omicron waves was explained by increased mortality among non-Hispanic White adults and changes in the geographic spread of the pandemic. These findings suggest that despite media reports of a decline in disparities, there is a continued need to prioritize racial health equity in the pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Black People/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , White/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , Health Equity , Systemic Racism/ethnology
12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(3): 433-439, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate absolute and relative risks for seasonal influenza outcomes in patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). To contextualise recent findings on corresponding COVID-19 risks. METHODS: Using Swedish nationwide registers for this cohort study, we followed 116 989 patients with IJD and matched population comparators across four influenza seasons (2015-2019). We quantified absolute risks of hospitalisation and death due to influenza, and compared IJD to comparators via Cox regression. We identified 71 556 patients with IJD on active treatment with conventional synthetic DMARDs and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs)/targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (tsDMARDs) at the start of each influenza season, estimated risks for the same outcomes and compared these risks across DMARDs via Cox regression. RESULTS: Per season, average risks for hospitalisation listing influenza were 0.25% in IJD and 0.1% in the general population, corresponding to a crude HR of 2.38 (95% CI 2.21 to 2.56) that decreased to 1.44 (95% CI 1.33 to 1.56) following adjustments for comorbidities. For death listing influenza, the corresponding numbers were 0.015% and 0.006% (HR=2.63, 95% CI 1.93 to 3.58, and HR=1.46, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.01). Absolute risks for influenza outcomes were half (hospitalisation) and one-tenth (death) of those for COVID-19, but relative estimates comparing IJD to the general population were similar. CONCLUSIONS: In absolute terms, COVID-19 in IJD outnumbers that of average seasonal influenza, but IJD entails a 50%-100% increase in risk for hospitalisation and death for both types of infections, which is largely dependent on associated comorbidities. Overall, bDMARDs/tsDMARDs do not seem to confer additional risk for hospitalisation or death related to seasonal influenza.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/mortality , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seasons , Sweden/epidemiology
13.
Demography ; 60(2): 343-349, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313455

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had overwhelming global impacts with deleterious social, economic, and health consequences. To assess the COVID-19 death toll, researchers have estimated declines in 2020 life expectancy at birth (e0). When data are available only for COVID-19 deaths, but not for deaths from other causes, the risks of dying from COVID-19 are typically assumed to be independent of those from other causes. In this research note, we explore the soundness of this assumption using data from the United States and Brazil, the countries with the largest number of reported COVID-19 deaths. We use three methods: one estimates the difference between 2019 and 2020 life tables and therefore does not require the assumption of independence, and the other two assume independence to simulate scenarios in which COVID-19 mortality is added to 2019 death rates or is eliminated from 2020 rates. Our results reveal that COVID-19 is not independent of other causes of death. The assumption of independence can lead to either an overestimate (Brazil) or an underestimate (United States) of the decline in e0, depending on how the number of other reported causes of death changed in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/mortality , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Cause of Death/trends , Life Tables , Life Expectancy/trends
14.
JAMA ; 327(15): 1438, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309465
15.
JAMA ; 328(14): 1389, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309381
16.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 57: 102563, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304962

ABSTRACT

Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are at risk of developing many neuropsychiatric disorders, due to the effects of the disease on the brain and the psychosocial pressures of having the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of COVID-19, who underwent psychiatric consultations. The medical records of 892 patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 and the 89 among them who requested psychiatric consultations were analyzed retrospectively. After the psychiatric consultations, patients were most frequently diagnosed with delirium (38.2 %), adjustment disorder (27.0 %), depressive disorder (19.1 %) and anxiety disorder (11.2 %). Patients with delirium had longer hospital stays (p < 0.001), were transferred more frequently to intensive care units (p < 0.001), and had higher mortality rates during their hospital stays (p < 0.001), than all other patients. The need for oxygen (p < 0.001) and mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001) was also significantly higher in delirium patients, as well as in patients who received other psychiatric diagnoses. Neuropsychiatric disorders develop in patients receiving inpatient treatments in COVID-19 wards, and these disorders negatively affect the prognosis of COVID-19. Our findings suggest that the presence of neuropsychiatric disorders in in-patients with COVID-19 might be associated with the negative outcomes of the disease.


Subject(s)
Adjustment Disorders/etiology , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Delirium/etiology , Depressive Disorder/etiology , Adjustment Disorders/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Delirium/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
17.
JAMA ; 329(14): 1170-1182, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303367

ABSTRACT

Importance: Preclinical models suggest dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection may increase the relative activity of angiotensin II compared with angiotensin (1-7) and may be an important contributor to COVID-19 pathophysiology. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of RAS modulation using 2 investigational RAS agents, TXA-127 (synthetic angiotensin [1-7]) and TRV-027 (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor-biased ligand), that are hypothesized to potentiate the action of angiotensin (1-7) and mitigate the action of the angiotensin II. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two randomized clinical trials including adults hospitalized with acute COVID-19 and new-onset hypoxemia were conducted at 35 sites in the US between July 22, 2021, and April 20, 2022; last follow-up visit: July 26, 2022. Interventions: A 0.5-mg/kg intravenous infusion of TXA-127 once daily for 5 days or placebo. A 12-mg/h continuous intravenous infusion of TRV-027 for 5 days or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was oxygen-free days, an ordinal outcome that classifies a patient's status at day 28 based on mortality and duration of supplemental oxygen use; an adjusted odds ratio (OR) greater than 1.0 indicated superiority of the RAS agent vs placebo. A key secondary outcome was 28-day all-cause mortality. Safety outcomes included allergic reaction, new kidney replacement therapy, and hypotension. Results: Both trials met prespecified early stopping criteria for a low probability of efficacy. Of 343 patients in the TXA-127 trial (226 [65.9%] aged 31-64 years, 200 [58.3%] men, 225 [65.6%] White, and 274 [79.9%] not Hispanic), 170 received TXA-127 and 173 received placebo. Of 290 patients in the TRV-027 trial (199 [68.6%] aged 31-64 years, 168 [57.9%] men, 195 [67.2%] White, and 225 [77.6%] not Hispanic), 145 received TRV-027 and 145 received placebo. Compared with placebo, both TXA-127 (unadjusted mean difference, -2.3 [95% CrI, -4.8 to 0.2]; adjusted OR, 0.88 [95% CrI, 0.59 to 1.30]) and TRV-027 (unadjusted mean difference, -2.4 [95% CrI, -5.1 to 0.3]; adjusted OR, 0.74 [95% CrI, 0.48 to 1.13]) resulted in no difference in oxygen-free days. In the TXA-127 trial, 28-day all-cause mortality occurred in 22 of 163 patients (13.5%) in the TXA-127 group vs 22 of 166 patients (13.3%) in the placebo group (adjusted OR, 0.83 [95% CrI, 0.41 to 1.66]). In the TRV-027 trial, 28-day all-cause mortality occurred in 29 of 141 patients (20.6%) in the TRV-027 group vs 18 of 140 patients (12.9%) in the placebo group (adjusted OR, 1.52 [95% CrI, 0.75 to 3.08]). The frequency of the safety outcomes was similar with either TXA-127 or TRV-027 vs placebo. Conclusions and Relevance: In adults with severe COVID-19, RAS modulation (TXA-127 or TRV-027) did not improve oxygen-free days vs placebo. These results do not support the hypotheses that pharmacological interventions that selectively block the angiotensin II type 1 receptor or increase angiotensin (1-7) improve outcomes for patients with severe COVID-19. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04924660.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Renin-Angiotensin System , Vasodilator Agents , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensins/administration & dosage , Angiotensins/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/mortality , Infusions, Intravenous , Ligands , Oligopeptides/administration & dosage , Oligopeptides/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/administration & dosage , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/therapeutic use , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Br J Biomed Sci ; 79: 10098, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290472

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to investigate hemostatic changes in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and their relationship to disease severity and survival. Methods: This study included 284 patients with COVID-19 who attended the Security Forces Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia between October 2020 and March 2021, and retrospectively reviewed their demographic, radiological, and laboratory findings. The coagulation profile was assayed at the time of diagnosis for platelet counts using an automated hematology analyzer; Sysmex XN2000 while international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, factor VIII, ristocetin cofactor (RiCoF), and von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF-Ag) were measured by Stago kits on a Stago automated coagulation analyzer (STA Compact Max®). Results: In this study, 32.3% of the cases had severe disease, while 8.8% of the cases died. D-dimer, factor VIII, and RiCoF were the only independent predictors of disease severity, with factor VIII and RiCoF having significantly higher areas under the curve (AUCs) than D-dimer (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, age, aPTT, and factor VIII were associated with an increased risk of mortality in multivariate Cox regression analysis, with factor VIII having a higher AUC of 0.98 than aPTT with an optimal cut-off value of >314 IU/dl in predicting mortality. Cases with factor VIII levels >314 IU/dl, compared to those with factor VIII levels <314 IU/dl, were associated with a significantly shorter mean overall survival time (20.08 vs. 31.35 days, p < 0.001), a lower survival rate (30.3% vs. 99.2%, p < 0.001), and a 16.62-fold increased mortality risk. Conclusion: RiCoF is a novel predictor of disease severity in COVID-19, while factor VIII is confirmed as a predictor of severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients and is associated with lower overall survival and increased mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factors , COVID-19 , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Factor VIII/analysis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , von Willebrand Factor/analysis
19.
Acad Psychiatry ; 47(3): 251-257, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301108

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The authors explored the experiences of psychiatry residents caring for patients during the COVID-19 pandemic on a medical unit. METHODS: From June 2020 through December 2020, structured, individual interviews were conducted with psychiatry residents deployed to internal medicine wards in a community hospital to provide medical care to COVID-19 patients for greater than or equal to 1 week. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analytical methods. RESULTS: Psychiatry residents (n = 16) were interviewed individually for approximately 45 min each. During the interviews, many residents described emotions of fear, anxiety, uncertainty, lack of preparedness, and difficulty coping with high patient mortality rates. Many of the residents expressed concerns regarding insufficient personal protective equipment, with the subsequent worries of their own viral exposure and transmission to loved ones. Multiple residents expressed feeling ill-equipped to care for COVID-19 patients, in some cases stating that utilizing their expertise in mental health would have better addressed the mental health needs of colleagues and patients' families. Participants also described the benefits of processing emotions during supportive group sessions with their program director. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic represents a public health crisis with potential negative impacts on patient care, professionalism, and physicians' well-being and safety. The psychiatry residents and fellows described the overwhelmingly negative impact on their training. The knowledge gained from this study will help establish the role of the psychiatrist not only in future crises but in healthcare as a whole.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitals, Community , Internship and Residency , Physicians , Psychiatry , Qualitative Research , Humans , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Inpatients , Physicians/psychology , Internal Medicine , Interviews as Topic , Fear , Anxiety , Uncertainty , Adaptation, Psychological , Personal Protective Equipment , Self-Help Groups , Safety , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Burnout, Professional , Hospital Administration
20.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Online) ; 16: 1-5, 2022'.
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2285525

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To analyze the association of inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers with mortality in geriatric patients with COVID-19. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 206 patients aged 60 years or older who were hospitalized with COVID-19 at an intensive care unit. The analyzed variables were age, sex, length of hospital stay, and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, procalcitonin, fibrinogen, ferritin, and d-dimer). We constructed a receiver operating characteristic curve and analyzed the area under the curve to evaluate the accuracy of biomarkers associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19. Results: Mean age was 72 (± 8) years. There were 101 deaths (49% of the total sample), which were significantly more frequent (p = 0.006) in the older age groups and were distributed as follows: 37.50% (60 ­ 69 years old); 50% (70 ­ 79 years old); 67.50% (80 ­ 89 years old); and 75% (over 90 years old). Mortality was associated with increased serum levels of procalcitonin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, and d-dimer, and decreased fibrinogen levels. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio occupied the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve 0.859) in this group. Conclusions: In this study, inflammatory biomarkers neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and d-dimer were associated with mortality in older patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at an intensive care unit, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio presented the best accuracy.


Objetivos: Analisar associação de biomarcadores inflamatórios e da coagulação com mortalidade em pacientes geriátricos com COVID-19. Metodologia: Estudo do tipo coorte retrospectiva de 206 pacientes com 60 anos de idade ou mais internados em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) com COVID-19. As variáveis analisadas foram idade, sexo, tempo de permanência hospitalar e biomarcadores inflamatórios, sendo esses proteína C reativa (PCR), relação neutrófilo-linfócitos (RNL), procalcitonina, fibrinogênio, ferritina e D-dímero. Empregou-se a curva ROC, com análise da área sob a curva (ACR), para avaliar a acurácia dos biomarcadores associados à mortalidade nos pacientes com COVID-19. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 72 (± 8) anos. Ocorreram 101 óbitos (49,02% da amostra total), significativamente mais frequente (p = 0,006) nas faixas etárias mais elevadas, distribuídos por faixa etária: 37,50% (60 ­ 69 anos); 50% (70 ­ 79 anos); 67,50% (80 ­ 89 anos); e 75% (nos maiores de 90 anos). A mortalidade foi associada a aumento dos níveis séricos dos biomarcadores procalcitonina, relação neutrófiloslinfócitos (RNL), proteína C reativa (PCR) e D-dímero, bem como diminuição dos níveis de fibrinogênio. A RNL ocupou a maior área sob a curva ROC (ACR 0,859) nesse grupo. Conclusões: Neste estudo, os biomarcadores inflamatórios RNL, procalcitonina, PCR e D-dímero foram associados com mortalidade em pacientes idosos portadores de COVID-19 internados em UTI, e a RNL foi a que apresentou a melhor acurácia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Hospital Mortality , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Cohort Studies , Ferritins/blood , Procalcitonin/blood
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