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1.
Immunity ; 54(11): 2632-2649.e6, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549842

ABSTRACT

The incidence and severity of sepsis is higher among individuals of African versus European ancestry. We found that genetic risk variants (RVs) in the trypanolytic factor apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1), present only in individuals of African ancestry, were associated with increased sepsis incidence and severity. Serum APOL1 levels correlated with sepsis and COVID-19 severity, and single-cell sequencing in human kidneys revealed high expression of APOL1 in endothelial cells. Analysis of mice with endothelial-specific expression of RV APOL1 and in vitro studies demonstrated that RV APOL1 interfered with mitophagy, leading to cytosolic release of mitochondrial DNA and activation of the inflammasome (NLRP3) and the cytosolic nucleotide sensing pathways (STING). Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of NLRP3 and STING protected mice from RV APOL1-induced permeability defects and proinflammatory endothelial changes in sepsis. Our studies identify the inflammasome and STING pathways as potential targets to reduce APOL1-associated health disparities in sepsis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
African Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Sepsis/genetics , African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Animals , Apolipoprotein L1/blood , COVID-19/pathology , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics , European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/pathology , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Mitophagy/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Risk Factors , Sepsis/pathology , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 101(3): 115476, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544965

ABSTRACT

Among critically ill COVID-19 patients, bacterial coinfections may occur, and timely appropriate therapy may be limited with culture-based microbiology due to turnaround time and diagnostic yield challenges (e.g. antibiotic pre-exposure). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of BioFire® FilmArray® Pneumonia Panel in detecting bacteria and clinical management among critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Seven studies with 558 patients were included. Antibiotic use before respiratory sampling occurred in 28-79% of cases. The panel incidence of detections was 33% (95% CI 0.25 to 0.41, I2=32%) while culture yielded 18% (95% CI 0.02 to 0.45; I2=93%). The panel was associated with approximately a 1 and 2 day decrease in turnaround for identification and common resistance targets, respectively. The panel may be an important tool for clinicians to improve antimicrobial use in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/complications , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Critical Illness , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6714-6721, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe COVID-19 are more likely to develop adverse outcomes with a huge medical burden. We aimed to investigate whether a shorter symptom onset to admission time (SOAT) could improve outcomes of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A single-center retrospective study combined with a meta-analysis was performed. The meta-analysis identified studies published between 1 December 2019 and 15 April 2020. Additionally, clinical data of COVID-19 patients diagnosed between January 20 and February 20, 2020, at the First Affiliated Hospital of the University of Science and Technology of China were retrospectively analyzed. SOAT and severity of illness in patients with COVID-19 were used as effect measures. The random-effects model was used to analyze the heterogeneity across studies. Propensity score matching was applied to adjust for confounding factors in the retrospective study. Categorical data were compared using Fisher's exact test. We compared the differences in laboratory characteristic varied times using a two-way nonparametric, Scheirer-Ray-Hare test. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis, we found that patients with adverse outcomes had a longer SOAT (I2 = 39%, mean difference 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.47-1.30). After adjusting for confounding factors, such as age, complications, and treatment options, the retrospective analysis results also showed that severe patients had longer SOAT (mean difference 1.13 [1.00, 1.27], p = 0.046). Besides, most biochemical marker levels improved as the hospitalization time lengthened without the effect of disease severity or associated treatment (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Shortening the SOAT may help reduce the possibility of mild patients with COVID-19 progressing to severe illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6703-6713, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544323

ABSTRACT

Scores to identify patients at high risk of progression of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may become instrumental for clinical decision-making and patient management. We used patient data from the multicentre Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2-Infected Patients (LEOSS) and applied variable selection to develop a simplified scoring system to identify patients at increased risk of critical illness or death. A total of 1946 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were included in the initial analysis and assigned to derivation and validation cohorts (n = 1297 and n = 649, respectively). Stability selection from over 100 baseline predictors for the combined endpoint of progression to the critical phase or COVID-19-related death enabled the development of a simplified score consisting of five predictors: C-reactive protein (CRP), age, clinical disease phase (uncomplicated vs. complicated), serum urea, and D-dimer (abbreviated as CAPS-D score). This score yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.85) in the validation cohort for predicting the combined endpoint within 7 days of diagnosis and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77-0.85) during full follow-up. We used an additional prospective cohort of 682 patients, diagnosed largely after the "first wave" of the pandemic to validate the predictive accuracy of the score and observed similar results (AUC for the event within 7 days: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.78-0.87]; for full follow-up: 0.82 [95% CI: 0.78-0.86]). An easily applicable score to calculate the risk of COVID-19 progression to critical illness or death was thus established and validated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Urea/blood , Young Adult
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6634-6640, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544315

ABSTRACT

Although the underlying disease is associated with a severe course in adults and laboratory abnormalities have been widely reported, there are not sufficient data on the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children with pre-existing comorbid conditions and on laboratory findings. We aimed to describe the independent risk factors for estimating the severity of the COVID-19 in children. All children between 1 month and 18 years old who were hospitalized during the period of March 11-December 31, 2020, resulting from COVID-19 were included in the study. Patients were categorized into mild (group 1) and moderate + severe/critically (group 2) severity based on the criteria. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and laboratory variables between the two groups were compared. A total of 292 children confirmed to have COVID-19 infection were included in the study. The most common associated diseases were obesity (5.1%) and asthma bronchiale (4.1%). We observed that disease progressed more severely in patients with underlying diseases, especially obesity and asthma bronchiale (for patients with obesity odds ratio [OR] 9.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.92-43.28, p = 0.005 and for patients with asthma bronchiale OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.04-16.80, p = 0.044). In group 2 patients, presence of lymphopenia and hypoalbuminemia, and also an elevation in serum levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and uric acid were detected and these results were statistically significant (p values; p < 0.001, p = 0.046, p = 0.006, p = 0.045, p < 0.001, respectively). The strongest predictor of moderate-severe COVID-19 infections in the children was uric acid, with an odds ratio of 1.6 (95% CI 1.14-2.13, p = 0.005) and lymphocytes with an odds ratio of 0.7 (95% CI 0.55-0.88, p = 0.003). Although children are less susceptible to COVID-19, the pre-existing comorbid condition can predispose to severe disease. In addition, lymphopenia and high uric acid are indicators that COVID-19 infection may progress more severely.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6822-6827, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544313

ABSTRACT

Information gathered so far from published studies attest the existence of a complex relationship between tobacco smoking and the severity of COVID-19. We investigated the association between smoking habits and the severity of COVID-19 in patients hospitalized in university-affiliated hospitals in Lyon, France. Baseline sociodemographic, clinical and biological characteristics of adult COVID-19 hospitalized patients presenting from the community were prospectively collected and analyzed. Tobacco exposure was documented at admission. Characteristics of patients hospitalized in medical wards to those admitted or transferred to intensive care units (ICUs) were compared using Mann-Whitney and Χ2 or Fisher's exact test. A composite endpoint including admission or transfer to ICU or death was created as a proxy for severe outcome. Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to identify variables independently associated with a severe outcome. Of the 645 patients with documented information on smoking habits, 62.6% were never-smokers, 32.1% ex-smokers, and 5.3% active smokers. Past tobacco use was independently associated with an increased risk of severe outcome (aOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.12-2.63), whereas a nonsignificant protective trend was found for active smoking. The results suggest that past smoking is associated with enhanced risk of progressing toward severe COVID-19 disease in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Smoking/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , France , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6619-6627, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544307

ABSTRACT

Both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza viruses cause similar clinical presentations. It is essential to assess severely ill patients presenting with a viral syndrome for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. We aimed to compare clinical and biochemical features between pneumonia patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and H1N1. Sixty patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and 61 patients diagnosed with influenza pneumonia were hospitalized between October 2020-January 2021 and October 2017-December 2019, respectively. All the clinical data and laboratory results, chest computed tomography scans, intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. The median age was 65 (range 32-96) years for patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis and 58 (range 18-83) years for patients with influenza (p = 0.002). The comorbidity index was significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 (p = 0.010). Diabetes mellitus and hypertension were statistically significantly more common in patients with COVID-19 (p = 0.019, p = 0.008, respectively). The distribution of severe disease and mortality was not significantly different among patients with COVID-19 than influenza patients (p = 0.096, p = 0.049).). In comparison with inflammation markers; C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly higher in influenza patients than patients with COVID-19 (p = 0.033). The presence of sputum was predictive for influenza (odds ratio [OR] 0.342 [95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1.130-0.899]). CRP and platelet were also predictive for COVID-19 (OR 4.764 [95% CI, 1.003-1.012] and OR 0.991 [95% CI 0.984-0.998], respectively. We conclude that sputum symptoms by itself are much more detected in influenza patients. Besides that, lower CRP and higher PLT count would be discriminative for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/therapy , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Radiography, Thoracic , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6557-6565, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544300

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Atazanavir/Ritonavir/Dolutegravir/Hydroxychloroquine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir/Hydroxychloroquine treatment regimens in COVID-19 patients based on clinical and laboratory parameters. We prospectively evaluated the clinical and laboratory outcomes of 62 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients during a 10-day treatment plan. Patients were randomly assigned to either KH (receiving Lopinavir/Ritonavir [Kaletra] plus Hydroxychloroquine) or ADH (receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir, Dolutegravir, and Hydroxychloroquine) groups. During this period, clinical and laboratory parameters and outcomes such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission or mortality rate were recorded. Compared to the KH group, after the treatment period, patients in the ADH group had higher activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) (12, [95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.97, 17.06), p = <0.01), international normalized ratio (INR) (0.17, [95% CI: 0.07, 0.27), p = <0.01) and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) (-14.29, (95% CI: -26.87, -1.71), p = 0.03) and potassium (-0.53, (95% CI: -1.03, -0.03), p = 0.04) values. Moreover, a higher number of patients in the KH group needed invasive ventilation (6 (20%) vs. 1 (3.1%), p = 0.05) and antibiotic administration (27 (90%) vs. 21(65.6), p = 0.02) during hospitalization while patients in the ADH group needed more corticosteroid administration (9 (28.1%) vs. 2 (6.7%), p = 0.03). There was no difference in mortality rate, ICU admission rate, and hospitalization period between the study groups. Our results suggest that the Atazanavir/Dolutegravir treatment regimen may result in a less severe disease course compared to the Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment regimen and can be considered as an alternative treatment option beside standard care. However, to confirm our results, larger-scale studies are recommended.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atazanavir Sulfate/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Oxazines/therapeutic use , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Atazanavir Sulfate/administration & dosage , COVID-19/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/administration & dosage , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Oxazines/administration & dosage , Piperazines/administration & dosage , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6525-6534, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544299

ABSTRACT

By analyzing newly collected SARS-CoV-2 genomes and comparing them with our previous study about SARS-CoV-2 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) before June 2020, we found that the SNV clustering had changed remarkably since June 2020. Apart from that the group of SNVs became dominant, which is represented by two nonsynonymous mutations A23403G (S:D614G) and C14408T (ORF1ab:P4715L), a few emerging groups of SNVs were recognized with sharply increased monthly incidence ratios of up to 70% in November 2020. Further investigation revealed sets of SNVs specific to patients' ages and/or gender, or strongly associated with mortality. Our logistic regression model explored features contributing to mortality status, including three critical SNVs, G25088T(S:V1176F), T27484C (ORF7a:L31L), and T25A (upstream of ORF1ab), ages above 40 years old, and the male gender. The protein structure analysis indicated that the emerging subgroups of nonsynonymous SNVs and the mortality-related ones were located on the protein surface area. The clashes in protein structure introduced by these mutations might in turn affect the viral pathogenesis through the alteration of protein conformation, leading to a difference in transmission and virulence. Particularly, we explored the fact that nonsynonymous SNVs tended to occur in intrinsic disordered regions of Spike and ORF1ab to significantly increase hydrophobicity, suggesting a potential role in the change of protein folding related to immune evasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Genome, Viral/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Polyproteins/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virulence/genetics , Young Adult
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6519-6524, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544297

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, which has ravaged our world for more than a year, still shapes our agenda with a scale of intensity that fluctuates over time. In our study, we aimed to determine the correlation between serum migration inhibitory factor (MIF) level and disease severity in COVID-19 with different prognoses. Between 15 October 2020 and 20 January 2021, 110 patients over the age of 18 who were diagnosed with COVID-19 and 40 volunteer healthcare personnel were included in our study. MIF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the comparison of serum MIF values in the patient and control group, it was observed that the MIF level was significantly higher in patients with both moderate and severe COVID-19 levels compared to the control group (p = 0.001, 0.001). In the comparison of serum MIF values of moderate to severe COVID-19 patients, it was observed that MIF level was higher in severe patients (p = 0.001). In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis performed to differentiate between severe and moderate COVID-19 patients with MIF levels, the area under the curve was observed as 0.78. When the cutoff value of the MIF level was taken as 4.455 ng/ml, the sensitivity was 83% and the specificity was 62%. Failure to adequately balance the pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesized in COVID-19 with anti-inflammatory effect is the most important reason for the aggravation of the disease course. Playing a role in pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis, MIF can provide important information about the disease prognosis in the early period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Intramolecular Oxidoreductases/blood , Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors/blood , Macrophages/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Disease Progression , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Macrophage Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 254-260, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542928

ABSTRACT

Post COVID-19 sequelae are a constellation of symptoms often reported after recovering from COVID-19. There is a need to better understand the clinical spectrum and long-term course of this clinical entity. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and risk factors of post COVID-19 sequelae in the North Indian population. This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare centre in Northern India between October 2020 and February 2021. Patients aged >18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited after at least two weeks of diagnosis, and details were captured. A total of 1234 patients were recruited and followed up for a median duration of 91 days (IQR: 45-181 days). Among them, 495 (40.1%) had persistent symptoms post-discharge or recovery. In 223 (18.1%) patients, the symptoms resolved within four weeks; 150 (12.1%) patients had symptoms till 12 weeks, and 122 (9.9%) patients had symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis/symptom-onset of COVID-19. Most common symptoms included myalgia (10.9%), fatigue (5.5%), shortness of breath (6.1%), cough (2.1%), insomnia (1.4%), mood disturbances (0.48%) and anxiety (0.6%). Patients who were hospitalized were more likely to report fatigue as a feature of long COVID. Hypothyroidism (OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.2-7.6, p-value < 0.001) and hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, p-value 0.012) were identified as risk factors for long COVID sequelae. In conclusion, long COVID symptoms were common (22%), and 9.9% had the post COVID-19 syndrome. Myalgias, fatigue and dyspnoea were common symptoms. Patients with hypothyroidism and hypoxia during acute illness were at higher risk of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6653-6659, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530185

ABSTRACT

Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the pentraxin 3 (PTX3) gene polymorphisms rs2305619 (281A/G) and rs1840680 (1449A/G) and the development of MAS in patients with COVID-19. The study included a total of 94 patients aged 18-45 who were diagnosed as having COVID-19 between June and December 2020. PTX3 281A/G and 1449A/G polymorphism frequencies were evaluated. PTX3 281A/G allele and genotype frequencies did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium in the MAS or non-MAS group (χ2 : 0.049, df: 2, p = 0.976, χ2 : 0.430, df: 2, p = 0.806). PTX3 1449A/G allele and genotype frequencies deviated significantly from HW equilibrium in the non-MAS group (χ2 : 6.794, df: 2, p = 0.033) but not in the MAS group (χ2 : 2.256, df: 2, p = 0.324). The AG genotype was significantly more frequent in the non-MAS group, while the AA genotype was significantly more frequent in the MAS group (χ2 : 11.099, df: 2, p= 0.004). Analysis of the PTX3 1449A/G polymorphism showed that individuals with the GG genotype had higher serum PTX3 levels than those with the AA and AG genotypes (p = 0.001 for both). Analysis of the PTX3 1449A/G polymorphism in patients with COVID-19 showed that those with the AG genotype were relatively more protected from MAS compared with individuals with the AA genotype. In addition, lower serum PTX3 levels are observed in patients carrying the A allele.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Serum Amyloid P-Component/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Alleles , COVID-19/pathology , Disease Progression , Female , Genotype , Humans , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/etiology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6566-6574, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530179

ABSTRACT

Post recovery manifestations have become another concern in patients who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Numerous reports have shown that COVID-19 has a variety of long-term effects on almost all systems including respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neurological, psychiatric, and dermatological systems. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of the post-COVID syndrome among COVID-19 survivors and to determine the factors associated with persistent symptoms. This prospective study enrolled in patients with COVID-19 followed in hospital or outpatient clinics in Ankara City Hospital. We performed a special questionnaire to inquire about the presence of persistent symptoms beyond 12 weeks from the first diagnosis. Demographic data, comorbid diseases, characteristics of acute COVID-19, presence of persistent symptoms by systems, and knowledge about outpatient clinic visits after recovery were assessed. Of a total of 1007 participants, 39.0% had at least one comorbidity, and 47.5% had persistent symptoms. Fatigue/easy fatigability, myalgia, and loss of weight were the most frequent persistent symptoms (overall 29.3%) followed by respiratory symptoms (25.4%). A total of 235 participants had visited outpatient clinics due to several reasons during the post-COVID-19 period, and 17 of them were hospitalized. Severe acute COVID-19, hospitalization, and presence of comorbidity were independent factors for the development of persistent symptoms. Fully understanding the spectrum of the post-COVID syndrome is essential for appropriate management of all its long-term effects. Our study once again underlined the fact that the prevalence of post-COVID syndrome is higher than expected and concerns many systems, and a multidisciplinary follow-up should be provided to COVID-19 survivors in the post recovery period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Weight Loss , Young Adult
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748417, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528820

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Myocardial injury associates significantly and independently with mortality in COVID-19 patients. However, the pathogenesis of myocardial injury in COVID-19 remains unclear, and cardiac involvement by SARS-CoV-2 presents a major challenge worldwide. Objective: This histological and immunohistochemical study sought to clarify the pathogenesis and propose a mechanism with pathways involved in COVID-19 myocardial injury. Methods and Results: Postmortem minimally invasive autopsies were performed in six patients who died from COVID-19, and the myocardium samples were compared to a control group (n=11). Histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue staining. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed using monoclonal antibodies against targets: caspase-1, caspase-9, gasdermin-d, ICAM-1, IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, CD163, TNF-α, TGF-ß, MMP-9, type 1 and type 3 collagen. The samples were also assessed for apoptotic cells by TUNEL. Histological analysis showed severe pericardiocyte interstitial edema and higher mast cells counts per high-power field in all COVID-19 myocardium samples. The IHC analysis showed increased expression of caspase-1, ICAM-1, IL-1ß, IL-6, MMP-9, TNF-α, and other markers in the hearts of COVID-19 patients. Expression of caspase-9 did not differ from the controls, while gasdermin-d expression was less. The TUNEL assay was positive in all the COVID-19 samples supporting endothelial apoptosis. Conclusions: The pathogenesis of COVID-19 myocardial injury does not seem to relate to primary myocardiocyte involvement but to local inflammation with associated interstitial edema. We found heightened TGF-ß and interstitial collagen expression in COVID-affected hearts, a potential harbinger of chronic myocardial fibrosis. These results suggest a need for continued clinical surveillance of patients for myocardial dysfunction and arrythmias after recovery from the acute phase of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Heart Injuries/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Apoptosis , Biopsy , COVID-19/pathology , Caspase 1/metabolism , Collagen/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Heart Injuries/pathology , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology
17.
Diabetes ; 70(9): 2120-2130, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528788

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a known risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by the new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, there is a lack of knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the evolution of COVID-19 in individuals with diabetes. We aimed to evaluate whether the chronic low-grade inflammation of diabetes could play a role in the development of severe COVID-19. We collected clinical data and blood samples of patients with and without diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19. Plasma samples were used to measure inflammatory mediators and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, for gene expression analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 main receptor system (ACE2/TMPRSS2), and for the main molecule of the leukotriene B4 (LTB4) pathway (ALOX5). We found that diabetes activates the LTB4 pathway and that during COVID-19 it increases ACE2/TMPRSS2 as well as ALOX5 expression. Diabetes was also associated with COVID-19-related disorders, such as reduced oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) and arterial partial pressure of oxygen/FiO2 levels, and increased disease duration. In addition, the expressions of ACE2 and ALOX5 are positively correlated, with increased expression in patients with diabetes and COVID-19 requiring intensive care assistance. We confirmed these molecular results at the protein level, where plasma LTB4 is significantly increased in individuals with diabetes. In addition, IL-6 serum levels are increased only in individuals with diabetes requiring intensive care assistance. Together, these results indicate that LTB4 and IL-6 systemic levels, as well as ACE2/ALOX5 blood expression, could be early markers of severe COVID-19 in individuals with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Leukotriene B4/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Leukotriene B4/genetics , Risk Factors , Signal Transduction
18.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2958-2969, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term outcome of COVID-19-associated collapsing glomerulopathy is unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 76 native kidney biopsies from patients with history of COVID-19 between March 2020 and April 2021. Presenting and outcome data were obtained for all 23 patients with collapsing glomerulopathy and for seven patients with noncollapsing podocytopathies. We performed APOL1 genotyping by Sanger sequencing, immunostaining for spike and nucleocapsid proteins, and in situ hybridization for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The 23 patients with COVID-19-associated collapsing glomerulopathy were median age 57 years (range, 35-72), included 16 men, and were predominantly (91%) Black. Severity of COVID-19 was mild or moderate in most (77%) patients. All but one patient presented with AKI, 17 had nephrotic-range proteinuria, and six had nephrotic syndrome. Fourteen (61%) patients required dialysis at presentation. Among 17 patients genotyped, 16 (94%) were high-risk APOL1. Among 22 (96%) patients with median follow-up at 155 days (range, 30-412), 11 (50%) received treatment for COVID-19, and eight (36%) received glucocorticoid therapy for podocytopathy. At follow-up, 19 (86%) patients were alive, and 15 (68%) were dialysis free, including seven of 14 who initially required dialysis. The dialysis-free patients included 64% (seven of 11) of those treated for COVID-19 and 75% (six of eight) of those treated with glucocorticoids for podocytopathy. Overall, 36% achieved partial remission of proteinuria, 32% had no remission, and 32% reached combined end points of ESKD or death. Viral infection of the kidney was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Half of 14 patients with COVID-19-associated collapsing glomerulopathy requiring dialysis achieved dialysis independence, but the long-term prognosis of residual proteinuric CKD remains guarded, indicating a need for more effective therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Podocytes/pathology , Renal Insufficiency/pathology , Renal Insufficiency/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
19.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(10): 2561-2575, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute kidney injury (AKI) to sepsis-AKI (S-AKI). The morphology and transcriptomic and proteomic characteristics of autopsy kidneys were analyzed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individuals 18 years of age and older who died from COVID-19 and had an autopsy performed at Mayo Clinic between April 2020 to October 2020 were included. Morphological evaluation of the kidneys of 17 individuals with COVID-19 was performed. In a subset of seven COVID-19 cases with postmortem interval of less than or equal to 20 hours, ultrastructural and molecular characteristics (targeted transcriptome and proteomics analyses of tubulointerstitium) were evaluated. Molecular characteristics were compared with archived cases of S-AKI and nonsepsis causes of AKI. RESULTS: The spectrum of COVID-19 renal pathology included macrophage-dominant microvascular inflammation (glomerulitis and peritubular capillaritis), vascular dysfunction (peritubular capillary congestion and endothelial injury), and tubular injury with ultrastructural evidence of mitochondrial damage. Investigation of the spatial architecture using a novel imaging mass cytometry revealed enrichment of CD3+CD4+ T cells in close proximity to antigen-presenting cells, and macrophage-enriched glomerular and interstitial infiltrates, suggesting an innate and adaptive immune tissue response. Coronavirus disease 2019 AKI and S-AKI, as compared to nonseptic AKI, had an enrichment of transcriptional pathways involved in inflammation (apoptosis, autophagy, major histocompatibility complex class I and II, and type 1 T helper cell differentiation). Proteomic pathway analysis showed that COVID-19 AKI and to a lesser extent S-AKI were enriched in necroptosis and sirtuin-signaling pathways, both involved in regulatory response to inflammation. Upregulation of the ceramide-signaling pathway and downregulation of oxidative phosphorylation in COVID-19 AKI were noted. CONCLUSION: This data highlights the similarities between S-AKI and COVID-19 AKI and suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a pivotal role in COVID-19 AKI. This data may allow the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Sepsis/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Autopsy , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Sepsis/virology
20.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1600-1606, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526089

ABSTRACT

Clinical evidence suggests the central nervous system is frequently impacted by SARS-CoV-2 infection, either directly or indirectly, although the mechanisms are unclear. Pericytes are perivascular cells within the brain that are proposed as SARS-CoV-2 infection points. Here we show that pericyte-like cells (PLCs), when integrated into a cortical organoid, are capable of infection with authentic SARS-CoV-2. Before infection, PLCs elicited astrocytic maturation and production of basement membrane components, features attributed to pericyte functions in vivo. While traditional cortical organoids showed little evidence of infection, PLCs within cortical organoids served as viral 'replication hubs', with virus spreading to astrocytes and mediating inflammatory type I interferon transcriptional responses. Therefore, PLC-containing cortical organoids (PCCOs) represent a new 'assembloid' model that supports astrocytic maturation as well as SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication in neural tissue; thus, PCCOs serve as an experimental model for neural infection.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes/virology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Pericytes/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology , Astrocytes/cytology , Brain/pathology , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/physiology
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