Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 10.520
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Vaccine ; 39(45): 6601-6613, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541007

ABSTRACT

AKS-452 is a biologically-engineered vaccine comprising an Fc fusion protein of the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein receptor binding domain antigen (Ag) and human IgG1 Fc (SP/RBD-Fc) in clinical development for the induction and augmentation of neutralizing IgG titers against SARS-CoV-2 viral infection to address the COVID-19 pandemic. The Fc moiety is designed to enhance immunogenicity by increasing uptake via Fc-receptors (FcγR) on Ag-presenting cells (APCs) and prolonging exposure due to neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) recycling. AKS-452 induced approximately 20-fold greater neutralizing IgG titers in mice relative to those induced by SP/RBD without the Fc moiety and induced comparable long-term neutralizing titers with a single dose vs. two doses. To further enhance immunogenicity, AKS-452 was evaluated in formulations containing a panel of adjuvants in which the water-in-oil adjuvant, Montanide™ ISA 720, enhanced neutralizing IgG titers by approximately 7-fold after one and two doses in mice, including the neutralization of live SARS-CoV-2 virus infection of VERO-E6 cells. Furthermore, ISA 720-adjuvanted AKS-452 was immunogenic in rabbits and non-human primates (NHPs) and protected from infection and clinical symptoms with live SARS-CoV-2 virus in NHPs (USA-WA1/2020 viral strain) and the K18 human ACE2-trangenic (K18-huACE2-Tg) mouse (South African B.1.351 viral variant). These preclinical studies support the initiation of Phase I clinical studies with adjuvanted AKS-452 with the expectation that this room-temperature stable, Fc-fusion subunit vaccine can be rapidly and inexpensively manufactured to provide billions of doses per year especially in regions where the cold-chain is difficult to maintain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G , Mice , Primates , Rabbits , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Subunit
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 1, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538842

ABSTRACT

The world confronts today a disease which was unknown as recently as early 2019. Now that there is a safe and effective vaccine against COVID-19, lessons can usefully be drawn from previous well documented vaccination efforts. Of these, the best documented and most successful is the Smallpox Eradication Program (SEP). A review was made of publications by major players in smallpox eradication, respecting the important differences between the disease, this review revealed several points of connection. Cultural factors loomed large both in the eradication of smallpox and progress, to date, in the control of COVID-19. Other points of similarity included political commitment, the set-up of strong surveillance mechanisms, and assurance of uniformly high quality vaccines tested and approved by the World Health Organization. The future of COVID-19 control depends, in part, on lessons learned from previous vaccination efforts. A review of those efforts will avoid repetition of past errors and permit adoption of best practices from the past. Such analyses must, of course, respect the important differences between COVID-19 and smallpox.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Smallpox Vaccine/administration & dosage , Smallpox/prevention & control , Disease Eradication/methods , Global Health , Humans , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination Refusal
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 728021, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538370

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, the authorization of vaccines for emergency use has been crucial in slowing down the rate of infection and transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. In order to investigate the longitudinal serological responses to SARS-CoV-2 natural infection and vaccination, a large-scale, multi-year serosurveillance program entitled SPARTA (SARS SeroPrevalence and Respiratory Tract Assessment) was initiated at 4 locations in the U.S. The serological assay presented here measuring IgG binding to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) detected antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination with a 95.5% sensitivity and a 95.9% specificity. We used this assay to screen more than 3100 participants and selected 20 previously infected pre-immune and 32 immunologically naïve participants to analyze their antibody binding to RBD and viral neutralization (VN) responses following vaccination with two doses of either the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 or the Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine. Vaccination not only elicited a more robust immune reaction than natural infection, but the level of neutralizing and anti-RBD antibody binding after vaccination is also significantly higher in pre-immune participants compared to immunologically naïve participants (p<0.0033). Furthermore, the administration of the second vaccination did not further increase the neutralizing or binding antibody levels in pre-immune participants (p=0.69). However, ~46% of the immunologically naïve participants required both vaccinations to seroconvert.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , United States , Young Adult
4.
J Med Ethics ; 47(8): 547-548, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537986

ABSTRACT

Rapid, large-scale uptake of new vaccines against COVID-19 will be crucial to decrease infections and end the pandemic. In a recent article in this journal, Julian Savulescu argued in favour of monetary incentives to convince more people to be vaccinated once the vaccine becomes available. To evaluate the potential of his suggestion, we conducted an experiment investigating the impact of payments and the communication of individual and prosocial benefits of high vaccination rates on vaccination intentions. Our results revealed that none of these interventions or their combinations increased willingness to be vaccinated shortly after a vaccine becomes available. Consequently, decision makers should be cautious about introducing monetary incentives and instead focus on interventions that increase confidence in vaccine safety first, as this has shown to be an especially important factor regarding the demand for the new COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/economics , COVID-19 , Motivation , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Vaccination/economics , Vaccination/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Education , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(11): 1031-1032, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537604

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This brief report summarizes the comparative experience of an inpatient rehabilitation facility dealing with two episodes of COVID-19 infection, one before and one after the availability of vaccination, which was deployed to staff. The experience exemplifies the high rate of infection and potential for asymptomatic presentation of COVID-19 as well as the protective advantage of the vaccine for healthcare workers in this report. With a significant reduction in the rate of infection, from nearly 30% before vaccination to only 2.5% after vaccination. The data presented should serve as an encouragement for vaccination across all populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Rehabilitation Centers , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Mass Screening , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e233, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537268

ABSTRACT

School lockdowns have been widely used to control the COVID-19 pandemic. However, these lockdowns may have a significant negative impact on the lives of young people. In this study, we have evaluated the impact of closing lower secondary schools for COVID-19 incidence in 13-15-year-olds in Finland, in a situation where restrictions and recommendation of social distancing were implemented uniformly in the entire country. COVID-19 case numbers were obtained from the National Infectious Disease Registry (NIDR) of the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, in which clinical microbiology laboratories report all positive SARS-CoV-2 tests with unique identifiers in a timely manner. The NIDR is linked to population data registry, enabling calculation of incidences. We estimated the differences in trends between areas with both restaurant and lower secondary school closures and areas with only restaurant closures in different age groups by using joinpoint regression. We also estimated the differences in trends between age groups. Based on our analysis, closing lower secondary schools had no impact on COVID-19 incidence among 13-15-year-olds. No significant changes on COVID-19 incidence were observed in other age groups either.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Schools , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Restaurants , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
11.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(5): 444-450, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537216

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric disorders, and especially severe mental illness, are associated with an increased risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. People with severe mental illness should therefore be prioritised in vaccine allocation strategies. Here, we discuss the risk for worse COVID-19 outcomes in this vulnerable group, the effect of severe mental illness and psychotropic medications on vaccination response, the attitudes of people with severe mental illness towards vaccination, and, the potential barriers to, and possible solutions for, an efficient vaccination programme in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunization Programs , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs/ethics , Immunization Programs/methods , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Mental Disorders/psychology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination Coverage , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
15.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 313-317, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535087

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, adherence to hygiene measures is an objective aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to hand hygiene and protection measures during the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on health personnel handwashing at the five moments recommended by the World Health Organization, as well as on the use of specific personal protective equipment. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen hand hygiene opportunities were observed in health personnel. Hand washing was observed in 40 (34 %) and omission in 76 (65 %). Adherence to the use of face shield was observed in five (4 %), and lack of adherence in 112 (96%). Adherence to the use of face mask was observed in 65 nursing professionals (87 %), with appropriate use of the mask in 56 of them (60 %) and use of face shield in one (1 %). CONCLUSION: Health personnel showed low proportions of adherence to hand hygiene and use of equipment for specific protection during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Male , Personnel, Hospital/standards , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors
16.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 277-283, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535085

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Currently, the face mask represents an incomparable symbol whose value went from clinical work to impacting the containment of the spread of SARS-CoV-2, although it has become an element of discord in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To establish the impact of face mask use policies on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Face mask use policy variables, obtained from the website of the #Masks4All scientific movement, were associated with the number of infections, deaths and flattening of the curve published by the Johns Hopkins University resource center and EndCoronavirus.org. RESULTS: Face mask use policies were universal (required in shops, restaurants, public transport), partial (recommended, required in any public place) and absent. Associations of the face mask use policy with total cases (p = 0.01), cases per million (p = 0.04) and deaths per million population (p = 0.02) were statistically significant. Associations of the variables with the epidemiological curve trend were also statistically significant (p = 0.00). CONCLUSION: The recommendation for face mask widespread use is a measure with sufficient scientific support to reduce the number of COVID-19-related infections and deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy , Masks/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Global Health , Humans
17.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 271-276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535084

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In December 2019, a new coronavirus emerged in Wuhan, China, which has become a global health problem. OBJECTIVEs: To estimate how many daily COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 population could have been avoided if each one of five restrictive measures had been implemented at the time the first case was diagnosed, and to estimate a multiple linear regression model predictive of the number of deaths per 100,000 population. METHODS: A simple linear regression was performed between the days elapsed since the first COVID-19 diagnosed case, implementation of each one of the five restrictive measures carried out by the 39 European studied countries, the number of hospital beds per 1,000 population (independent variables) and the number of COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 population. RESULTS: For each day elapsed from the first COVID-19 reported case to the adoption of restrictive measures, between 0.611 (p = 0.004) and 1.863 (p = 0.000) patients died per 100,000 population, depending on the implemented measure. CONCLUSIONS: Restrictive measures and social distancing, as well as promptness of their implementation, are necessary for achieving a decrease in COVID-19 infections and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Linear Models , Time Factors
18.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 231-236, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535078

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The scarcity of person-centered applications aimed at developing awareness on the risk posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, stimulates the exploration and creation of preventive tools that are accessible to the population. OBJECTIVE: To develop a predictive model that allows evaluating the risk of mortality in the event of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. METHODS: Exploration of public data from 16,000 COVID-19-positive patients to generate an efficient discriminant model, evaluated with a score function and expressed by a self-rated preventive interest questionnaire. RESULTS: A useful linear function was obtained with a discriminant capacity of 0.845; internal validation with bootstrap and external validation, with 25 % of tested patients showing marginal differences. CONCLUSION: The predictive model with statistical support, based on 15 accessible questions, can become a structured prevention tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Models, Statistical , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Discriminant Analysis , Female , Humans , Infant , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , Young Adult
19.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 225-230, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535077

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In America, the United States was particularly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVEs: To estimate how many daily COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 population would have been avoided if each one of five restrictive measures had been implemented at the time of diagnosis and to estimate a multiple linear regression model predictive of the number of deaths per 100,000 population based on the measures adopted by the countries. METHODS: A simple linear regression was performed between the days elapsed since the first COVID-19 diagnosed case and the implementation of each one of the five restrictive measures by the 27 American countries studied and the number of COVID-19 deaths per 100,000 population. RESULTS: For each day between the first COVID-19 reported case and the adoption of restrictive measures, between 0.250 (p = 0.021) and 0.600 (p = 0.001) patients per 100,000 population died, depending on the measure in question. CONCLUSIONS: Adoption of restrictive measures and social distancing are necessary for reducing the number of people infected with COVID-19 and their mortality. In addition, promptness of their establishment is essential in order to reduce the number of deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
20.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1603992, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533731

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the SwissCovid digital proximity tracing (DPT) app in notifying exposed individuals and prompting them to quarantine earlier compared to individuals notified only by manual contact tracing (MCT). Methods: A population-based sample of cases and close contacts from the Zurich SARS-CoV-2 Cohort was surveyed regarding SwissCovid app use and SARS-CoV-2 exposure. We descriptively analyzed app adherence and effectiveness, and evaluated its effects on the time between exposure and quarantine among contacts using stratified multivariable time-to-event analyses. Results: We included 393 SARS-CoV-2 infected cases and 261 close contacts. 62% of cases reported using SwissCovid and among those, 88% received and uploaded a notification code. 71% of close contacts were app users, of which 38% received a warning. Non-household contacts notified by SwissCovid started quarantine 1 day earlier and were more likely to quarantine earlier than those not warned by the app (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.15-2.03). Conclusion: These findings provide evidence that DPT may reach exposed contacts faster than MCT, with earlier quarantine and potential interruption of SARS-CoV-2 transmission chains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Mobile Applications , Quarantine , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Contact Tracing/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Switzerland/epidemiology , Time Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...