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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110074

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a huge impact on all areas of human life. Since the risk of biological threats will persist in the future, it is very important to ensure mobilization readiness for a prompt response to the possible emergence of epidemics of infectious diseases. Therefore, from both a theoretical and practical standpoint, it is currently necessary to conduct a thorough examination of the COVID-19 epidemic. The goal of this research is to investigate the underlying processes that led to the COVID-19 pandemic in Russia and to identify ways to improve preventive measures and ensure mobilization readiness for a quick response to potential COVID-19-like pandemics. This research will analyze the daily dynamics of the number of infection cases and the number of new lethal cases of COVID-19. We analyzed the daily number of new cases of COVID-19 infection N(d), the daily number of new lethal cases L(d), their percentage ratio L(d)/N(d) 100% in Russia for 2 years of the pandemic (from the beginning of the pandemic to 23 March 2022), the rate of increase and decrease of these indicators (dN(d)/dd and dL(d)/dd), as well as their spectra created on the basis of wavelet analysis. Wavelet analysis of the deep structure of the N(d) and L(d) wavelet spectra made it possible to identify the presence of internal cycles, the study of which makes it possible to predict the presence of days with the maximum number of infections and new deaths in a pandemic similar to COVID-19 and outline ways and methods for improving preventive measures and measures to ensure mobilization readiness for a rapid response to the potential emergence of pandemics similar to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Russia/epidemiology , Wavelet Analysis
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110067

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on factors that shape vaccine attitudes and behaviours in the context of a low-trust society. Our analysis focuses on the Polish vaccination programme against COVID-19, primarily on (1) the evaluation of the information campaign, (2) trust in the institutions, (3) trust in other people, (4) attitudes toward vaccine safety and efficacy, (5) attitudes toward restrictions related to vaccination (e.g., restricted access to certain services for unvaccinated persons) and the introduction of mandatory vaccination, (6) the evaluation of the government's actions during the pandemic, and (7) political preferences. The study was conducted with a sample of 1143 adult residents in Poland (CATI). The explanation of the factors determining the COVID-19 vaccine was based on structural equation modelling (SEM). The model showed that the declared fact of vaccination was largely determined by a positive attitude toward restrictions related to vaccination and trust in vaccines. The formation of the provaccine attitude was to an extent determined by the assessment of the government's campaign and actions during pandemic. While institutional trust had a positive effect on support for the ruling coalition (0.56), the latter on its own had the opposite effect (-0.61) on the formation of provaccine attitude. In the group who both trust institutions and support the parties currently in power, there are more of those who simultaneously reject the restrictions and mandatory vaccination and remain sceptical about the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines than those who both trust in the vaccine safety and efficacy and accept the restrictions and mandatory vaccination. This indicates that in the context of strong political polarisation, ideological affiliations may play a greater role in shaping vaccine attitudes and behaviours than institutional trust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Trust , COVID-19 Vaccines , Poland , COVID-19/prevention & control , Latent Class Analysis , Vaccination , Patient Acceptance of Health Care
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110064

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hand hygiene interventions on the overall hand hygiene (HH) status of teaching instruction of hand hygiene in kindergartens, given the vulnerability of kindergarten children and their high risk due to infectious diseases and the current COVID-19 epidemic. We investigated the HH status of teachers from two kindergartens in the same community. The participants were recruited from 28 classes in both kindergartens. After completing the baseline survey, the intervention program consisted of three components: lectures on infectious diseases, lectures on HH, and seven-step hand washing techniques conducted in two kindergartens. The intervention program effectively increased teachers' perceived disease susceptibility (p < 0.05), reduced the total bacterial colonization of children's hands (p < 0.001), and improved the HH environment (p < 0.01). We recommend that health authorities or kindergartens adopt this HH intervention program to effectively improve the HH status in kindergartens and allow for preventive responses to the COVID-19 epidemic or other emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Schools
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disastrous impacts that impose the cultivation of knowledge and motivation of self-protection to foster disease containment. AIM: Evaluate the effect of digital self-learned educational intervention about COVID-19 using the protection motivation theory (PMT) on non-health students' knowledge and self-protective behaviors at Saudi Electronic University (SEU). METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was accomplished at three randomly chosen branches of SEU (Riyadh, Dammam, Jeddah) using a multistage sampling technique to conveniently select 219 students. An electronic self-administered questionnaire was used, which included three scales for assessing the students' knowledge, self-protective behaviors, and the constructs of the PMT. The educational intervention was designed using four stages: need assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. A peer-reviewed digital educational content was developed after assessing the participants' educational needs using the pretest. Then, distributed through their university emails. A weekly synchronous Zoom cloud meeting and daily key health messages were shared with them. Finally, the post-test was conducted after two months. RESULTS: The mean participants' age (SD) among the experimental group was 28.94 (6.719), and the control group was 27.80 (7.256), with a high female percentage (63.4%, 73.8%) and a previous history of direct contact with verified COVID-19 patients (78.6%, 69.2%), respectively. A significant positive mean change (p = 0.000) was detected in the total COVID-19 knowledge of the experimental group post-intervention, either when it was adjusted for the covariates effect of the control group (F1 = 630.547) or the pretest (F1 = 8.585) with a large effect size (η2 = 0.745, η2 = 0.268, respectively). The same was proved by the ANCOVA test for the total self-protective behaviors either when it adjusted for the covariates effect of the control group (F1 = 66.671, p = 0.000) or the pretest (F1 = 5.873, p = 0.020) with a large effect size (η2 = 0.236, η2 = 0.164, respectively). The ANCOVA test proved that post-intervention, all the PMT constructs (perceived threats, reward appraisal, efficacy appraisal, response cost, and protection intention) and the total PMT score were significantly improved (p = 0.000) among the experimental group either when adjusted for the covariates effect of the control group (F1 = 83.835) or the pretest (F1 = 11.658) with a large effect size (η2 = 0.280, η2 = 0.561, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The digital PMT-based self-learned educational intervention effectively boosts non-health university students' COVID-19 knowledge, protection motivation, and self-protective behaviors. Thus, PMT is highly praised as a basis for COVID-19-related educational intervention and, on similar occasions, future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Humans , Female , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Self Efficacy , Students , Electronics
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110061

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study explored exposure to misinformation, COVID-19 risk perception, and confidence towards the government as predictors of negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from 30 June to 30 August 2021 involving 775 respondents. The survey instrument for the questionnaire was an adaptation from various different studies consisting of five main variables: (1) misinformation about vaccination; (2) risk perception toward COVID-19; (3) attitudes toward the vaccination programme; (4) intention to get vaccinated; and (5) public confidence in the government in executing the vaccination programme. RESULTS: The results of this study indicate that higher exposure to misinformation led to higher levels of negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. When the perceived risk of COVID-19 infection was high, mistrust of vaccine benefits was low but there were also higher worries about the future effects of the vaccine. Confidence in the government was associated with lower negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSION: The results of this study may help develop an understanding of negative attitudes toward vaccinations in Malaysia and its contributing factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Malaysia , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , Government , Communication , Perception
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1015955, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109886

ABSTRACT

It is everyone's desire to seek the sound growth of children through food education and there is a critical need for fostering an environment for this purpose. Health policies are important for this support. To the present, the Japanese society has been greatly disrupted by COVID-19 pandemic. "Stay at home", "mokusyoku (silent eating)", and mask wearing were encouraged in nationwide campaigns as public health measures to combat COVID-19. There are some papers reporting negative effects of "stay at home" and lockdowns such as weight gain, decrease in physical activities and change in eating habits. In Japan, while benefits and advantages of food education during mealtime were previously well studied, the "mokusyoku" rule may directly run counter to this food education. Moreover, there are several reports showing that nutrients might contribute to prevention of infectious diseases. Japanese children were also encouraged to wear masks all day long. The results of the clinical research, especially randomized control trials, show limited protective effect of masks. On the other hand, negative outcomes of the masks were reported in various scenes. This review focuses on these topics and arousing reconsideration for a better environment for children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Japan , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Policy
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1015090, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109885

ABSTRACT

Italy was the first country in Europe to make vaccination against COVID-19 mandatory for healthcare professionals by imposing restrictions in cases of non-compliance. This study investigates the opinions of the Italian healthcare professionals' categories affected by the regulation. We performed a qualitative online survey: the questionnaire comprised both close- and open-ended questions. The final dataset included n = 4,677 valid responses. Responses to closed-ended questions were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The framework method was applied for analyzing the open-ended questions. The sample spanned all health professions subject to compulsory vaccination, with a prevalence of physicians (43.8%) and nurses (26.3%). The vaccine adhesion before the introduction of the obligation was substantial. 10.4% declared not to have adhered to the vaccination proposal. Thirty-five percent of HPs who opted not to get vaccinated said they experienced consequences related to their choice. The trust in the vaccine seems slightly cracked, demonstrating overall vaccine confidence among professionals. Nonetheless, our results show that whether (or not) professionals adhere to vaccination is not a reliable indicator of consent to how it was achieved. There are criticisms about the lawfulness of the obligation. The data show a great variety of participants interpreting their roles concerning public and individual ethics. The scientific evidence motivates ethics-related decisions-the epidemic of confusing and incorrect information affected professionals. The Law triggered an increased disaffection with the health system and conflicts between professionals. Dealing with the working climate should be a commitment to assume soon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Italy/epidemiology
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1007637, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109884

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Reports of unexpected side effects have accompanied the vaccination of larger proportions of the population against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including a few cases of inflammatory myopathy (IM). In a bid to improve understanding of the clinical course of vaccine complications, a systematic review of reported cases of IM following COVID-19 vaccination has been conducted. Methods: The PRISMA guideline 2020 was followed. Two independent investigators systematically searched PubMed and Embase to identify relevant studies published up to July 2022, using the following keywords: COVID-19 Vaccine, inflammatory myositis. The Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools were used for the risk of bias. Results: A total of 24 articles presenting clinical features of 37 patients with IM following COVID-19 vaccine were identified. Female patients composed 59.5% of cases and 82.4% had been vaccinated with BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1. Onset of symptoms occurred within 2 weeks of the first or second vaccine dose in 29 (85.3%) patients and included muscular weakness in 54.1% and skin rash in 71.4% of patients. Myositis specific autoantibodies (MSAs) and myositis associated autoantibodies (MAAs) were reported in 28 patients. Specific clinical subtypes of myositis, reported in 27 patients, included 22 (81.5%) cases of dermatomyositis (DM) and 3 (11.1%) cases of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). Following treatment, 32 (86.5%) patients showed improvement on follow-up. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine may induce various clinical myositis subtypes and related antibodies. Muscular weakness was the most common presenting symptom. Clinicians should be aware of this unexpected adverse event following COVID-19 vaccination and arrange for appropriate management. Systematic review registration: INPLASY https://inplasy.com/inplasy-2022-9-0084/ [INPLASY202290084].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myositis , Female , Humans , Autoantibodies , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Muscle Weakness , Myositis/etiology , Vaccination
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1002209, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109883

ABSTRACT

Racial and ethnic minority communities have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19, but the uptake of COVID-19 mitigation strategies like vaccination and testing have been slower in these populations. With the continued spread of COVID-19 while in-person learning is a priority, school-aged youth and their caregivers must make health-related decisions daily to ensure health at school. It is critical to understand factors associated with COVID-related health decisions such as vaccination, testing, and other health behaviors (e.g., wearing masks, hand washing). Community-engaged campaigns are necessary to overcome barriers to these health behaviors and promote health equity. The aim of this study was to examine COVID-19-related concerns and influences on health decisions in middle and high schools serving primarily racial and ethnic minority, low-income families. Seven focus groups were conducted with school staff, parents, and students (aged 16 years and older). Qualitative data were analyzed using a general inductive approach. Factors related to COVID-19 concerns and health decisions centered on (1) vaccine hesitancy, (2) testing hesitancy, (3) developmental stage (i.e., ability to engage in health behaviors based on developmental factors like age), (4) cultural and family traditions and beliefs, (5) compatibility of policies and places with recommended health behaviors, (6) reliability of information, and (7) perceived risk. We explore sub-themes in further detail. It is important to understand the community's level of concern and identify factors that influence COVID-19 medical decision making to better address disparities in COVID-19 testing and vaccination uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adolescent , Humans , Child , Health Promotion , Minority Groups , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , COVID-19 Testing , Reproducibility of Results
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 994330, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109881

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: As Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to spread around the world, COVID-19 vaccines are the most effective weapons against the global pandemic. Yet vaccine hesitancy remains a serious problem and can pose certain hazards to individuals' mental health, such as rising anxiety. Therefore, based on Self-Discrepancy Theory, this paper aims to explore the role of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy on individual generalized anxiety disorder and its influence mechanisms through two studies. Methods: Study one involved 654 Chinese participants using the Vaccine Hesitancy Questionnaire and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale. In Study two, the Vaccine Hesitation Questionnaire, GAD-7 scale, Perceived Risk of COVID-19 pandemic scale, and Vaccination Status Questionnaire were used and data from 3,282 Chinese residents was collected. Results: Vaccine hesitancy directly increases generalized anxiety disorder; risk perception plays a partial mediating role between vaccine hesitancy and generalized anxiety disorder; vaccination status moderated vaccine hesitancy's effect on risk perception and generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Vaccine hesitancy predicts generalized anxiety disorder through risk perception, but the mediating role of risk perception is moderated by vaccination status, which means that for the vaccinated group when their vaccine hesitancy is reduced, it will be easier to reduce the risk perception and thus the generalized anxiety disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination Hesitancy , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Anxiety Disorders , Perception
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1027180, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109770

ABSTRACT

Under the background of the severe human health and world economic burden caused by COVID-19, the attenuation of vaccine protection efficacy, and the prevalence and immune escape of emerging variants of concern (VOCs), the third dose of booster immunization has been put on the agenda. Systems biology approaches can help us gain new perspectives on the characterization of immune responses and the identification of factors underlying vaccine-induced immune efficacy. We analyzed the antibody signature and transcriptional responses of participants vaccinated with COVID-19 inactivated vaccine and protein subunit vaccine as a third booster dose. The results from the antibody indicated that the third booster dose was effective, and that heterologous vaccination with the protein subunit vaccine as a booster dose induced stronger humoral immune responses than the homologous vaccination with inactivated vaccine, and might be more effective against VOCs. In transcriptomic analysis, protein subunit vaccine induced more differentially expressed genes that were significantly associated with many important innate immune pathways. Both the homologous and heterologous boosters could increase the effectiveness against COVID-19, and compared with the inactivated vaccine, the protein subunit vaccine, mediated a stronger humoral immune response and had a more significant correlation with the innate immune function module, which provided certain data support for the third booster immunization strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Humans , Transcriptome , Protein Subunits , Immunization, Secondary , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , Vaccines, Subunit
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1018961, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109768

ABSTRACT

Synthetic mRNA technologies represent a versatile platform that can be used to develop advanced drug products. The remarkable speed with which vaccine development programs designed and manufactured safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines has rekindled interest in mRNA technology, particularly for future pandemic preparedness. Although recent R&D has focused largely on advancing mRNA vaccines and large-scale manufacturing capabilities, the technology has been used to develop various immunotherapies, gene editing strategies, and protein replacement therapies. Within the mRNA technologies toolbox lie several platforms, design principles, and components that can be adapted to modulate immunogenicity, stability, in situ expression, and delivery. For example, incorporating modified nucleotides into conventional mRNA transcripts can reduce innate immune responses and improve in situ translation. Alternatively, self-amplifying RNA may enhance vaccine-mediated immunity by increasing antigen expression. This review will highlight recent advances in the field of synthetic mRNA therapies and vaccines, and discuss the ongoing global efforts aimed at reducing vaccine inequity by establishing mRNA manufacturing capacity within Africa and other low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Technology
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 988304, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109765

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal humoral immune response to inactivated COVID-19 vaccines among people living with HIV (PLWH) have not yet been systematically investigated. We conducted a 6-month longitudinal study among vaccinated PLWH and HIV-Negative Controls (HNC) to determine whether the humoral immune response effects of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine are different between the two groups of people. Totally, 46 PLWH and 38 HNC who received the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine on days 0 and 28 were enrolled. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and total specific IgM and IgG antibodies were examined on Day 0-Day190. The level and positive seroconversion rate of nAbs peaked on Day 42 in HNC while peaked on Day 70 in PLWH, then decreased gradually with the extension of the vaccination period after the peaks. The peak level of nAbs in PLWH on Day 70, (GMC 8.07 BAU/mL, 95% CI 5.67-11.48) was significantly lower than in HNC on Day 42 (GMC 18.28 BAU/mL, 95% CI 10.33-32.33, P =0.03). The decrease in the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of nAbs was observed as 42.9% in PLWH after peak level, which decreased from 8.07 BAU/mL [95% CI: 5.67-11.48] on Day 70 to 4.61 BAU/mL [95% CI: 3.35-6.34] on Day 190 (p = 0.02). On Day 190, only seven (18%, [95% CI: 6-40]) HNC and five (11%, [95% CI: 4-25]) PLWH maintained positive nAbs response respectively. The geometric mean ELISA units (GMEUs) and positive seroconversion rate of IgG in PLWH dropped significantly from Day 70 (GMEUs, 0.20 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.13-0.34]; seroconversion, 52%, [95% CI: 34-69]) to Day 190 (GMEUs, 0.05 EU/mL, [95% CI: 0.03-0.08], P<0.001; seroconversion, 18%, [95% CI: 8-33], P<0.001). There was no significant difference in levels and seroconversion rates of nAbs and IgG between the two groups on Day 190. The peak immunogenicity of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was delayed and inferior in PLWH compared to HNC, while no significant difference was found in six-month immunogenicity between the two groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunity, Humoral , Longitudinal Studies , Vaccines, Inactivated , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunoglobulin G
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 954177, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109763

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has been recommended for liver transplant (LT) recipients. However, our understanding of inactivated vaccine stimulation of the immune system in regulating humoral and cellular immunity among LT recipients is inadequate. Forty-six LT recipients who received two-dose inactivated vaccines according to the national vaccination schedule were enrolled. The clinical characteristics, antibody responses, single-cell peripheral immune profiling, and plasma cytokine/chemokine/growth factor levels were recorded. Sixteen (34.78%) LT recipients with positive neutralizing antibody (nAb) were present in the Type 1 group. Fourteen and 16 LT recipients with undetected nAb were present in the Type 2 and Type 3 groups, respectively. Time from transplant and lymphocyte count were different among the three groups. The levels of anti-RBD and anti-S1S2 decreased with decreasing neutralizing inhibition rates. Compared to the Type 2 and Type 3 groups, the Type 1 group had an enhanced innate immune response. The proportions of B, DNT, and CD3+CD19+ cells were increased in the Type 1 group, whereas monocytes and CD4+ T cells were decreased. High CD19, high CD8+CD45RA+ cells, and low effector memory CD4+/naïve CD4+ cells of the T-cell populations were present in the Type 1 group. The Type 1 group had higher concentrations of plasma CXCL10, MIP-1 beta, and TNF-alpha. No severe adverse events were reported in all LT recipients. We identified the immune responses induced by inactivated vaccines among LT recipients and provided insights into the identification of immunotypes associated with the responders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccines, Inactivated
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 902260, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109759

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-2), multiple vaccine candidates were developed and studied both preclinically and clinically. Nearly all are based on the SARS-2 spike glycoprotein or its receptor binding domain (RBD). Studies of these vaccine candidates have largely been in a SARS-2 naïve context. However, pre-existing immunity to SARS-2 acquired through infection or vaccination continues to increase. Evaluating future vaccine candidates in context of this pre-existing immunity is necessary to understand how immune responses are subsequently influenced. Here, we evaluated the serum and IgG+ B cell responses to the SARS-2 RBD in context of pre-existing immunity elicited by the full SARS-2 spike, and we compared this to boosting with the full SARS-2 spike. Boosting with the SARS-2 RBD resulted in increased reactivity to RBD epitopes, but both immunization regimens resulted in similarly broad neutralization across diverse sarbecoviruses. These findings may inform comparison among SARS-2 RBD-based vaccine candidates to currently approved spike-based candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epitopes , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2575-2577, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109692

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, millions of persons have received multiple COVID-19 vaccinations and subsequently recovered from SARS-CoV-2 Omicron breakthrough infections. In 2 small, matched cohorts (n = 12, n = 24) in Denmark, we found Omicron BA.1/BA.2 breakthrough infection after 3-dose BNT162b2 vaccination provided improved Omicron BA.5 neutralization over 3-dose vaccination alone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
18.
Euro Surveill ; 27(44)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109635

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSince the roll-out of COVID-19 vaccines in late 2020 and throughout 2021, European governments have relied on mathematical modelling to inform policy decisions about COVID-19 vaccination.AimWe present a scenario-based modelling analysis in the Netherlands during summer 2021, to inform whether to extend vaccination to adolescents (12-17-year-olds) and children (5-11-year-olds).MethodsWe developed a deterministic, age-structured susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model and compared modelled incidences of infections, hospital and intensive care admissions, and deaths per 100,000 people across vaccination scenarios, before the emergence of the Omicron variant.ResultsOur model projections showed that, on average, upon the release of all non-pharmaceutical control measures on 1 November 2021, a large COVID-19 wave may occur in winter 2021/22, followed by a smaller, second wave in spring 2022, regardless of the vaccination scenario. The model projected reductions in infections/severe disease outcomes when vaccination was extended to adolescents and further reductions when vaccination was extended to all people over 5 years-old. When examining projected disease outcomes by age group, individuals benefitting most from extending vaccination were adolescents and children themselves. We also observed reductions in disease outcomes in older age groups, particularly of parent age (30-49 years), when children and adolescents were vaccinated, suggesting some prevention of onward transmission from younger to older age groups.ConclusionsWhile our scenarios could not anticipate the emergence/consequences of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, we illustrate how our approach can assist decision making. This could be useful when considering to provide booster doses or intervening against future infection waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Child, Preschool , Netherlands/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Vaccination
19.
Euro Surveill ; 27(39)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109633

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAfter an outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant in the district of Schwaz/Austria, vaccination with Comirnaty vaccine (BNT162b2 mRNA, BioNTech-Pfizer) had been offered to all adult inhabitants (≥ 16 years) in March 2021. This made Schwaz one of the most vaccinated regions in Europe at that time (70% of the adult population took up the offer). In contrast, all other Austrian districts remained with low vaccine coverage.AimWe studied whether this rapid mass vaccination campaign provided indirect protection to unvaccinated individuals such as children (< 16 years) living in the same district.MethodsTo study the effect of the campaign we used two complementary approaches. We compared infection rates among the population of children (< 16 years) in Schwaz with (i) the child population from similar districts (using the synthetic control method), and (ii) with the child population from municipalities along the border of Schwaz not included in the campaign (using an event study approach).ResultsBefore the campaign, we observed very similar infection spread across the cohort of children in Schwaz and the control regions. After the campaign, we found a significant reduction of new cases among children of -64.5% (95%-CI: -82.0 to -30.2%) relative to adjacent border municipalities (using the event study model). Employing the synthetic control method, we observed a significant reduction of -42.8% in the same cohort.ConclusionOur results constitute novel evidence of an indirect protection effect from a group of vaccinated individuals to an unvaccinated group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Adult , Austria/epidemiology , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Measles/epidemiology , Measles Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
Euro Surveill ; 27(17)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109629

ABSTRACT

BackgroundUnavailability of vaccines endangers the overall goal to protect individuals and whole populations against infections.MethodsThe German notification system includes the publication of vaccine supply shortages reported by marketing authorisation holders (MAH), information on the availability of alternative vaccine products, guidance for physicians providing vaccinations and an unavailability reporting tool to monitor regional distribution issues.AimThis study provides a retrospective analysis of supply issues and measures in the context of European and global vaccine supply constraints.Resultsbetween October 2015 and December 2020, the 250 notifications concerned all types of vaccines (54 products). Most shortages were caused by increased demand associated with immigration in Germany in 2015 and 2016, new or extended vaccine recommendations, increased awareness, or changes in global immunisation programmes. Shortages of a duration up to 30 days were mitigated using existing storage capacities. Longer shortages, triggered by high demand on a national level, were mitigated using alternative products and re-allocation; in a few cases, vaccines were imported. However, for long lasting supply shortages associated with increased global demand, often occurring in combination with manufacturing issues, few compensatory mechanisms were available. Nevertheless, only few critical incidents were identified: (i) shortage of hexavalent vaccines endangering neonatal immunisation programmes in 2015;(ii) distribution issues with influenza vaccines in 2018; and (iii) unmet demand for pneumococcal and influenza vaccines during the coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic.ConclusionVaccine product shortages in Germany resemble those present in neighbouring EU states and often reflect increased global demand not matched by manufacturing capacities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
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