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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261024, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy has been proposed as an option to help organize the healthcare system to face the unprecedented number of patients hospitalized for a COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in intensive care units (ICU). It is, however, considered a particularly high-risk procedure for contamination. This paper aims to provide our experience in performing tracheostomies on COVID-19 critically ill patients during the pandemic and its long-term local complications. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients tracheostomized for a COVID-19-related ARDS in two university hospitals in the Paris region between January 27th (date of first COVID-19 admission) and May 18th, 2020 (date of last tracheostomy performed). We focused on tracheostomy technique (percutaneous versus surgical), timing (early versus late) and late complications. RESULTS: Forty-eight tracheostomies were performed with an equal division between surgical and percutaneous techniques. There was no difference in patients' characteristics between surgical and percutaneous groups. Tracheostomy was performed after a median of 17 [12-22] days of mechanical ventilation (MV), with 10 patients in the "early" group (≤ day 10) and 38 patients in the "late" group (> day 10). Survivors required MV for a median of 32 [22-41] days and were ultimately decannulated with a median of 21 [15-34] days spent on cannula. Patients in the early group had shorter ICU and hospital stays (respectively 15 [12-19] versus 35 [25-47] days; p = 0.002, and 21 [16-28] versus 54 [35-72] days; p = 0.002) and spent less time on MV (respectively 17 [14-20] and 35 [27-43] days; p<0.001). Interestingly, patients in the percutaneous group had shorter hospital and rehabilitation center stays (respectively 44 [34-81] versus 92 [61-118] days; p = 0.012, and 24 [11-38] versus 45 [22-71] days; p = 0.045). Of the 30 (67%) patients examined by a head and neck surgeon, 17 (57%) had complications with unilateral laryngeal palsy (n = 5) being the most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheostomy seems to be a safe procedure that could help ICU organization by delegating work to a separate team and favoring patient turnover by allowing faster transfer to step-down units. Following guidelines alone was found sufficient to prevent the risk of aerosolization and contamination of healthcare professionals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Paris , Personnel, Hospital , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Neuroimmunol ; 362: 577784, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560748

ABSTRACT

After recovering from COVID-19, a significant proportion of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals develop Long COVID. Fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, brain fog, anosmia, and ageusia/dysgeusia in Long COVID resemble "sickness behavior," the autonomic nervous system response to pro-inflammatory cytokines (Dantzer et al., 2008). Aberrant network adaptation to sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance is expected to produce long-standing dysautonomia. Cervical sympathetic chain activity can be blocked with local anesthetic, allowing the regional autonomic nervous system to "reboot." In this case series, we successfully treated two Long COVID patients using stellate ganglion block, implicating dysautonomia in the pathophysiology of Long COVID and suggesting a novel treatment.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nerve Block/methods , COVID-19/complications , Stellate Ganglion/surgery , Adult , COVID-19/surgery , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 487-497, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation is a life-saving treatment for patients with end-stage lung disease; however, it is infrequently considered for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributable to infectious causes. We aimed to describe the course of disease and early post-transplantation outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19 who failed to show lung recovery despite optimal medical management and were deemed to be at imminent risk of dying due to pulmonary complications. METHODS: We established a multi-institutional case series that included the first consecutive transplants for severe COVID-19-associated ARDS known to us in the USA, Italy, Austria, and India. De-identified data from participating centres-including information relating to patient demographics and pre-COVID-19 characteristics, pretransplantation disease course, perioperative challenges, pathology of explanted lungs, and post-transplantation outcomes-were collected by Northwestern University (Chicago, IL, USA) and analysed. FINDINGS: Between May 1 and Sept 30, 2020, 12 patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS underwent bilateral lung transplantation at six high-volume transplant centres in the USA (eight recipients at three centres), Italy (two recipients at one centre), Austria (one recipient), and India (one recipient). The median age of recipients was 48 years (IQR 41-51); three of the 12 patients were female. Chest imaging before transplantation showed severe lung damage that did not improve despite prolonged mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The lung transplant procedure was technically challenging, with severe pleural adhesions, hilar lymphadenopathy, and increased intraoperative transfusion requirements. Pathology of the explanted lungs showed extensive, ongoing acute lung injury with features of lung fibrosis. There was no recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in the allografts. All patients with COVID-19 could be weaned off extracorporeal support and showed short-term survival similar to that of transplant recipients without COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: The findings from our report show that lung transplantation is the only option for survival in some patients with severe, unresolving COVID-19-associated ARDS, and that the procedure can be done successfully, with good early post-transplantation outcomes, in carefully selected patients. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness/therapy , Lung Transplantation/methods , Lung , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Blood Transfusion/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/surgery , Critical Care/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Female , Humans , Intraoperative Care/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/surgery , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
World Neurosurg ; 153: e481-e487, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303712

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social media has become ubiquitous in modern medicine. Academic neurosurgery has increased adoption to promote individual and departmental accomplishments, engage with patients, and foster collaboration. We sought to quantitatively evaluate the adoption of one of the most used social media platforms, Twitter, within academic neurosurgery. METHODS: A quantitative and qualitative analysis of Twitter use across 118 academic neurosurgery departments with residency programs in the United States was performed in March 2019 and March 2021. We collated Twitter handles, Doximity residency ranking (a peer-determined ranking system), geographic location, and Twitter demographics (tweets, followers, likes, and tweet content) from before and after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Tweet content was characterized by reviewers over a predetermined 6-month period. Linear regression and parametric/nonparametric tests were used for analysis. RESULTS: Departmental accounts grew 3.7 accounts per year between 2009 and 2019 (R2 = 0.96), but 43 accounts (130%) were added between 2019 (n = 33) and 2021 (n = 76). This growth, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic, changed the model from linear to exponential growth (R2 = 0.97). The highest-ranking programs based on Doximity were significantly more likely to have an account (P < 0.001) and have more followers (P < 0.0001). Tweet content analysis revealed prioritization of faculty/resident activity (mean 49.9%) throughout the quartiles. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate rapid uptake in Twitter use among U.S. academic neurosurgical departments, accelerated by COVID-19. With the impact of COVID-19, it is clear that there will be continued rapid adoption of this platform within neurosurgery, and future studies should explore the outcomes of peer collaboration, patient engagement, and dissemination of medical information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Neurosurgery/statistics & numerical data , Neurosurgical Procedures , Social Media , Hospital Departments/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States
8.
World Neurosurg ; 153: e308-e314, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294295

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine has become rapidly adopted by the neurosurgical community; however, few studies have examined predictors of telemedicine utilization. Here, we analyze patient variables associated with the acceptance of a telemedicine encounter by a pediatric neurosurgical population during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: All patients seen in a single institution's outpatient pediatric neurosurgery clinic between April 1, 2020 and July 31, 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic variables were collected for each patient's first completed encounter. Patients participating in telemedicine were compared with those seen in person. Univariate analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables and Fischer exact test for categorical variables. A logistic regression multivariable analysis was then performed. RESULTS: We included 682 patients (374 telemedicine and 308 in person). Univariate analysis demonstrated that telemedicine visits were more likely to occur at earlier study dates (P < 0.001) and that patients participating in telemedicine visits were more likely to be established rather than new patients (P < 0.001), White or Caucasian (P < 0.001), not Hispanic or Latino (P < 0.001), English-speaking (P < 0.001), non-Medicare/Medicaid recipients (P < 0.001), have lower no-show rates (P = 0.006), and live farther from the hospital (P = 0.005). Multivariable analysis demonstrated older age (P = 0.031), earlier appointment date (P < 0.01), established patient status (P < 0.001), English-speaking (P < 0.02), and non-Medicare/Medicaid insurance (P < 0.05) were significant predictors of telemedicine utilization. CONCLUSIONS: Significant demographic differences exist among pediatric patients who participated in telemedicine versus those who requested an in-person visit at our institution. Addressing barriers to access will be crucial for promoting health equity in continued utilization of telemedicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Telemedicine , Aged , Ambulatory Care/methods , Child , Humans , Male , Neurosurgery/methods , Patients , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/methods
10.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(3): 328-333, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291976

ABSTRACT

A 44-year-old male with no history of underlying diseases was referred to academic hospital due to ARDS with confirmed SARSCoV-2 infection after 7 days of mechanical ventilation. Veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was initiated as no improvement was noted in prone position. Mechanical ventilation was continued with TV of 3-4 mL/kg. A gradual decline of static lung compliance was observed from baseline 35 mL/cm H20 to 8 mL/cm H2O. The chest CT scan revealed extensive ground-glass areas with a significant amount of traction bronchiectasis after 3 weeks since admission. When the patient was negative for SARS-CoV-2 during the 4th week of ECMO, the decision to perform an emergency lung transplantation (LTx) was made based on the ongoing degradation of lung function and irreversible damage to lung structure. The patient was transferred to the transplant center where he was extubated, awaiting the transplant on passive oxygen therapy and ECMO. Double lung transplantation was performed on the day 30th of ECMO. Currently, the patient is self-reliant. He does not need oxygen therapy and continues physiotherapy. ECMO may be life-saving in severe cases of COVID-19 ARDS but some of these patients may require LTx, especially when weaning proves impossible. VV ECMO as a bridging method is more difficult but ultimately more beneficial due to insufficient number of donors, and consequently long waiting time in Poland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/surgery , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Lung Transplantation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poland , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
World Neurosurg ; 152: e635-e644, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We present the unique administrative issues as well as specific patient-related and surgeon-related challenges and solutions implemented while treating neurosurgical patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic vis-à-vis pre-COVID-19 times at our tertiary-care center. METHODS: This is a retrospective study comparing the outcome of the neurosurgical patients treated from the beginning of lockdown in India on March 25, 2020 to November 30, 2020 with that of same period in the previous year, 2019. RESULTS: There were 687 neurosurgery admissions during the study period compared with 2550 admissions in 2019. The total number of surgeries performed in neurosurgery also showed a similar trend, with only 654 surgeries in 2020 compared with 3165 surgeries in 2019. During COVID-19 times, 474 patients were operated on including both trauma and nontrauma cases. Of the 50 patients with suspected/indeterminate COVID-19 who were operated on, 5 turned out to be positive for COVID-19. Significant differences were seen in the mortality (P < 0.01) and morbidity (P < 0.01) among patients with trauma on comparing COVID and pre-COVID periods. Similarly, a significant difference was observed in the mortality (P < 0.001) and morbidity (P < 0.001) in patients who did not have trauma. CONCLUSIONS: The higher mortality and morbidity during the COVID pandemic is primarily attributable to poorer baseline clinical status. Our experience from this COVID period might not only help us in tackling subsequent waves but also help other institutions in the developing world to be better prepared for similar circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
12.
World Neurosurg ; 152: e678-e687, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pituitary apoplexy (PA) is a rare, but life-threatening, condition characterized by pituitary infarction and hemorrhage, most often in the setting of a preexisting adenoma. The risk factors and mechanisms associated with PA are poorly understood. Although neurovascular manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection have been documented, its association with PA has not yet been determined. METHODS: From a prospectively collected database of patients treated at a tertiary care center for pituitary adenoma, we conducted a retrospective medical record review of PA cases during the COVID-19 pandemic from March 2020 to December 2020. We also conducted a literature review to identify other reported cases. RESULTS: We identified 3 consecutive cases of PA and concomitant COVID-19 infection. The most common symptoms at presentation were headache and vision changes. The included patients were successfully treated with surgical decompression and medical management of the associated endocrinopathy, ultimately experiencing improvement in their visual symptoms at the latest follow-up examination. COVID-19 infection in the perioperative period was corroborated by polymerase chain reaction test results in all the patients. CONCLUSIONS: With the addition of our series to the literature, 10 cases of PA in the setting of COVID-19 infection have been confirmed. The present series was limited in its ability to draw conclusions about the relationship between these 2 entities. However, COVID-19 infection might represent a risk factor for the development of PA. Further studies are required.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/surgery , COVID-19/surgery , Pituitary Apoplexy/surgery , Pituitary Neoplasms/surgery , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Headache/complications , Humans , Hypopituitarism/complications , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(2): 205-214, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has heavily impacted elective and emergency surgery around the world. We aimed to confirm the incidence of perioperative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and associated mortality after surgery. METHODS: Analysis of routine electronic health record data from NHS hospitals in England. We extracted data from Hospital Episode Statistics in England describing adult patients undergoing surgery between January 1, 2020 and February 28, 2021. The exposure was SARS-CoV-2 infection defined by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes. The primary outcome measure was 90 day in-hospital mortality. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Index of Multiple Deprivation, presence of cancer, surgical procedure type and admission acuity. Results are presented as n (%) and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We identified 2 666 978 patients undergoing surgery of whom 28 777 (1.1%) had SARS-CoV-2 infection. In total, 26 364 (1.0%) patients died in hospital. SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with a much greater risk of death (SARS-CoV-2: 6153/28 777 [21.4%] vs no SARS-CoV-2: 20 211/2 638 201 [0.8%]; OR=5.7 [95% CI, 5.5-5.9]; P<0.001). Amongst patients undergoing elective surgery, 2412/1 857 586 (0.1%) had SARS-CoV-2, of whom 172/2412 (7.1%) died, compared with 1414/1 857 586 (0.1%) patients without SARS-CoV-2 (OR=25.8 [95% CI, 21.7-30.9]; P<0.001). Amongst patients undergoing emergency surgery, 22 918/582 292 (3.9%) patients had SARS-CoV-2, of whom 5752/22 918 (25.1%) died, compared with 18 060/559 374 (3.4%) patients without SARS-CoV-2 (OR=5.5 [95% CI, 5.3-5.7]; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The low incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHS surgical pathways suggests current infection prevention and control policies are highly effective. However, the high mortality amongst patients with SARS-CoV-2 suggests these precautions cannot be safely relaxed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/surgery , Elective Surgical Procedures/mortality , Elective Surgical Procedures/trends , Hospital Mortality/trends , Population Surveillance , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , England/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance/methods
14.
World Neurosurg ; 152: e617-e624, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has shifted the dynamics of health care and neurosurgical practice. Elective surgeries were suspended for 8 weeks in Kentucky. Our objective was to determine if telehealth (TH) visits could be sustained as an alternative to in-person visits. METHODS: Deidentified data on TH usage, in-person clinic visits, and inpatient and neurosurgical case volumes from March 2, 2020 to June 26, 2020 were obtained for retrospective analysis. RESULTS: TH use increased soon after the case suspension started and then decreased to little usage. The number of in-person visits were significantly lower during elective case suspension compared with when cases were resumed. Twenty-five percent of all visits during the suspension were conducted using TH. Thirty-nine percent of TH-visit patients were new patients, 11% were preoperative, 10% were postoperative, and 39% were other existing patients. Forty-eight percent of TH visits resulted in a later in-person clinic visit. After the suspension, in-person visits rebounded to 98% of the prepandemic numbers and TH visits were low. CONCLUSIONS: TH visits were challenging due to the need for in-person physical examinations in neurosurgery. TH temporarily accommodated patient needs during the pandemic but could not totally replace in-person visits and was not sustained after 3.5 months of use. Video TH visits worked well for nonurgent issues, such as minor visual examinations. Our findings could help guide the implementation of TH should similar circumstances arise again.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Neurosurgery , Neurosurgical Procedures , Telemedicine , Adult , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(6): 103102, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260644

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed on ventilated COVID-19 patients, yet the appropriate timing for operating is controversial. OBJECTIVES: Assessing the effect of early tracheostomy on mortality and decannulation; elucidating changes in ventilation parameters, vasopressors and sedatives dosages immediately following the procedure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 38 ventilated COVID-19 patients, 19 of them (50%) underwent tracheostomy within 7 days of intubation (early tracheostomy group) and the rest underwent tracheostomy after 8 days or more (late tracheostomy group). RESULTS: Decannulation rates were significantly higher while mortality rates were non-significantly lower in the early tracheostomy group compared with the late tracheostomy group (58% vs 21% p < 0.05; 42% vs 74% p = 0.1, respectively). Tidal volume increased (446 ml vs 483 ml; p = 0.02) while PEEP (13 cmH20 vs 11.6 cmH2O, p = 0.04) decreased at the immediate time following the procedure. No staff member participating in the procedures was infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus. CONCLUSION: Early tracheostomy might offer improved outcomes with higher decannulation rates and lower mortality rates in ventilated COVID-19 patients, yet larger scale studies are needed. Most likely, early exposure to COVID-19 patients with appropriate personal protective equipment during open tracheostomy does not put the surgical team at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy/methods , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Device Removal/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tidal Volume , Time Factors , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data
16.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 40(8): 856-859, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213248

ABSTRACT

As the world responds to the global crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic an increasing number of patients are experiencing increased morbidity as a result of multi-organ involvement. Of these, a small proportion will progress to end-stage lung disease, become dialysis dependent, or both. Herein, we describe the first reported case of a successful combined lung and kidney transplantation in a patient with COVID-19. Lung transplantation, isolated or combined with other organs, is feasible and should be considered for select patients impacted by this deadly disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/surgery , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Lung Transplantation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
17.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 36850421998487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207543

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic had a significant impact on the Italian healthcare system, although geographical differences were present; regions in northern Italy have been the most severely affected while regions in the south of the country were relatively spared. Otolaryngologists were actively involved in the management of the pandemic. In this work, we analyzed and compared the otolaryngology surgical activity performed during the pandemic in two large public hospitals located in different Italian regions. In northern Italy, otolaryngologists were mainly involved in performing surgical tracheotomies in COVID-19 positive patients and contributed to the management of these patients in intensive care units. In central Italy, where the burden of the infection was significantly lower, otolaryngologists focused on diagnosis and treatment of emergency and oncology patients. This analysis confirms the important role of the otolaryngology specialists during the pandemic, but also highlights specific differences between two large hospitals in different Italian regions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Otolaryngology/organization & administration , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/surgery , COVID-19/virology , Geography , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tracheotomy
18.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(574)2020 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207479

ABSTRACT

Lung transplantation can potentially be a life-saving treatment for patients with nonresolving COVID-19-associated respiratory failure. Concerns limiting lung transplantation include recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the allograft, technical challenges imposed by viral-mediated injury to the native lung, and the potential risk for allograft infection by pathogens causing ventilator-associated pneumonia in the native lung. Additionally, the native lung might recover, resulting in long-term outcomes preferable to those of transplant. Here, we report the results of lung transplantation in three patients with nonresolving COVID-19-associated respiratory failure. We performed single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) to detect both positive and negative strands of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in explanted lung tissue from the three patients and in additional control lung tissue samples. We conducted extracellular matrix imaging and single-cell RNA sequencing on explanted lung tissue from the three patients who underwent transplantation and on warm postmortem lung biopsies from two patients who had died from COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Lungs from these five patients with prolonged COVID-19 disease were free of SARS-CoV-2 as detected by smFISH, but pathology showed extensive evidence of injury and fibrosis that resembled end-stage pulmonary fibrosis. Using machine learning, we compared single-cell RNA sequencing data from the lungs of patients with late-stage COVID-19 to that from the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and identified similarities in gene expression across cell lineages. Our findings suggest that some patients with severe COVID-19 develop fibrotic lung disease for which lung transplantation is their only option for survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/surgery , Lung Transplantation , Lung/surgery , Pulmonary Fibrosis/surgery , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Databases, Factual , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , RNA-Seq , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Treatment Outcome
19.
Transplant Proc ; 53(4): 1132-1137, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180075

ABSTRACT

Liver injury is one of the nonpulmonary manifestations described in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Post-COVID-19 cholangiopathy is a special entity of liver injury that has been suggested as a variant of secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SSC-CIP). In the general population, the outcome of SSC-CIP has been reported to be poor without orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). However, the role of OLT for post-COVID-19 cholangiopathy is unknown. We present a case report of a 47-year-old man who recovered from acute respiratory distress syndrome from COVID-19 and subsequently developed end-stage liver disease from post-COVID-19 cholangiopathy. The patient underwent OLT and is doing well with normal liver tests for 7 months. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient who underwent successful liver transplantation for post-COVID-19 cholangiopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Liver Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/surgery , End Stage Liver Disease/virology , Humans , Liver/surgery , Liver/virology , Male , Middle Aged
20.
MedEdPORTAL ; 17: 11134, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170589

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In a CICO (cannot intubate, cannot oxygenate) situation, anesthesiologists and acute care physicians must be able to perform an emergency surgical cricothyrotomy (front-of-neck airway procedure). CICOs are high-acuity situations with rare opportunities for safe practice. In COVID-19 airway management guidelines, bougie-assisted surgical cricothyrotomy is the recommended emergency strategy for CICO situations. Methods: We designed a 4-hour procedural simulation workshop on surgical cricothyrotomy to train 16 medical residents. We provided prerequisite readings, a lecture, and a videotaped demonstration. Two clinical scenarios introduced deliberate practice on partial-task neck simulators and fresh human cadavers. We segmented an evidence-based procedure and asked participants to verbalize the five steps of the procedure on multiple occasions. Results: Thirty-two residents who participated in the workshops were surveyed, with a 97% response rate (16 of 16 from anesthesiology, 15 of 16 from emergency medicine). Participants commented positively on the workshop's authenticity, its structure, the quality of the feedback provided, and its perceived impact on improving skills in surgical cricothyrotomy. We analyzed narrative comments related to three domains: preparation for the procedure, performing the procedure, and maintaining the skills. Participants highlighted the importance of performing the procedure many times and mentioned the representativeness of fresh cadavers. Discussion: We developed a surgical cricothyrotomy simulation workshop for anesthesiology and emergency medicine residents. Residents in the two specialities uniformly appreciated its format and content. We identified common pitfalls when executing the procedure and provided practical tips and material to facilitate implementation, in particular to face the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology/education , COVID-19/surgery , Emergency Medicine/education , Internship and Residency , Simulation Training , Tracheostomy/education , Adult , Airway Management/methods , Cadaver , Humans , Pandemics , Tracheostomy/methods
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