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1.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 22(3): 147-154, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238355

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This update covers recommendations for myasthenia gravis (MG) in patients with coronavirus 2019 disease as well as reports of the clinical features of patients with MG and coronavirus 2019. Updated advisory committee recommendations for the use of thymectomy in generalized MG are also provided. Other MG topics include lipoprotein receptor-4 and agrin antibody associations, factors influencing conversion of ocular to generalized MG, the use of rituximab for more recent onset disease, immunoglobulins for maintenance therapy, and fatigue and depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Neuromuscular Junction/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , Myasthenia Gravis/pathology , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , Thymectomy
3.
Front Health Serv Manage ; 39(4): 20-24, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241617

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The founding of Ochsner Ventures followed the natural evolution of more than a decade of growth and expansion of Ochsner Health's offerings and capabilities beyond traditional patient care. This growth has enabled the health system to bring critical services to underserved communities across the Gulf South. Ochsner Ventures supports promising companies both in and beyond the region while bringing forward new solutions to healthcare sector challenges and improving health outcomes, access, and equity. In a dynamic healthcare environment amid the persistent effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, Ochsner Health is executing a multiyear strategic plan to reinforce its mission and maintain a position of strength in the region. One aspect of the strategy focuses on the diversification and pursuit of new value by creating new revenue, additional savings, cost reductions, innovations, and amplifying existing assets and capabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Health Facilities
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(5)2023 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241432

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Due to the poor prognosis and the very high mortality rate associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infections, various regimens have been tried to stop the evolution of the inflammatory cascade, such as immunomodulatory therapy and plasma clearance of the acute phase reactants involved. Therefore, the objective of this review was to analyze the effects of using therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), also known as plasmapheresis, on the inflammatory markers of critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: A thorough scientific database search was performed, and it included a review of articles published on PubMed, Cochrane Database, Scopus, and Web of Science from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020 until September 2022 that focused on the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections using plasma exchange for patients admitted to the ICU. The current study included original articles, reviews, editorials, and short or special communications regarding the topic of interest. Results: A total of 13 articles were selected after satisfying the inclusion criterion of three or more patients enrolled with clinically severe COVID-19 that were eligible for TPE. From the included articles, it was observed that TPE was used as a last-resort salvage therapy that can be regarded as an alternative treatment method when the standard management for these patients fails. TPE significantly decreased the inflammatory status as measured by Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocyte count, and D-dimers, as well as improving the clinical status measured with PaO2/FiO2 and duration of hospitalization. The pooled mortality risk reduction after TPE was 20%. Conclusions: There are sufficient studies and evidence to show that TPE reduces inflammatory mediators and improves coagulation function and the clinical/paraclinical status. Nevertheless, although it was shown that TPE decreases the severe inflammatory status without significant complications, the improvement of survival rate remains unclear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Plasma Exchange , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute-Phase Proteins , Pandemics
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(5): e2315902, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240740

ABSTRACT

Importance: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) enrollees receive care for COVID-19 in both VHA and non-VHA (ie, community) hospitals, but little is known about the frequency or outcomes of care for veterans with COVID-19 in VHA vs community hospitals. Objective: To compare outcomes among veterans admitted for COVID-19 in VHA vs community hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used VHA and Medicare data from March 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021, on hospitalizations for COVID-19 in 121 VHA and 4369 community hospitals in the US among a national cohort of veterans (aged ≥65 years) enrolled in both the VHA and Medicare with VHA care in the year prior to hospitalization for COVID-19 based on the primary diagnosis code. Exposure: Admission to VHA vs community hospitals. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were 30-day mortality and 30-day readmission. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to balance observable patient characteristics (eg, demographic characteristics, comorbidity, mechanical ventilation on admission, area-level social vulnerability, distance to VHA vs community hospitals, and date of admission) between VHA and community hospitals. Results: The cohort included 64 856 veterans (mean [SD] age, 77.6 [8.0] years; 63 562 men [98.0%]) dually enrolled in the VHA and Medicare who were hospitalized for COVID-19. Most (47 821 [73.7%]) were admitted to community hospitals (36 362 [56.1%] admitted to community hospitals via Medicare, 11 459 [17.7%] admitted to community hospitals reimbursed via VHA's Care in the Community program, and 17 035 [26.3%] admitted to VHA hospitals). Admission to community hospitals was associated with higher unadjusted and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality compared with admission to VHA hospitals (crude mortality, 12 951 of 47 821 [27.1%] vs 3021 of 17 035 [17.7%]; P < .001; risk-adjusted odds ratio, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.21-1.55]; P < .001). Readmission within 30 days was less common after admission to community compared with VHA hospitals (4898 of 38 576 [12.7%] vs 2006 of 14 357 [14.0%]; risk-adjusted hazard ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.86-0.92]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that most hospitalizations for COVID-19 among VHA enrollees aged 65 years or older were in community hospitals and that veterans experienced higher mortality in community hospitals than in VHA hospitals. The VHA must understand the sources of the mortality difference to plan care for VHA enrollees during future COVID-19 surges and the next pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterans , Male , Humans , Aged , United States/epidemiology , Medicare , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , Veterans Health , Hospitalization , Hospitals
6.
Ter Arkh ; 94(11): 1320-1325, 2022 Dec 26.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240652

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic is being revealed from a new angle every month. In particular, with the appearance of the delta strain, mucormycosis began to manifest in some patients, which had previously been extremely rare. Mucormycosis is a rare, aggressive infection caused by filamentous fungi of the Mucorales family and associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The main risk factors for the mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19 are diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis, uncontrolled hyperglycemia and massive use of glucocorticoids, vascular damage, thrombosis, lymphopenia, which often occur against the background of COVID-19 and make a person vulnerable to secondary or opportunistic fungal infection. We present a clinical case of mucormycosis in a 21-year-old female patient with COVID-19-associated severe pneumonia and concomitant type I diabetes mellitus. The patient was hospitalized and received standard therapy during inpatient treatment, including glucocorticosteroids in accordance with the severity of the course of COVID-19. On the 12th day from the hospitalization, the patient's condition deteriorated significantly, and the visible changes in the skin and soft tissues of the face, characteristic of mucormycosis appeared. Despite the drug therapy correction, the patient died because of the acute respiratory failure in combination with septic fungal damage of the brain stem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Mucormycosis , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Risk Factors
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240084

ABSTRACT

Globally, the coexistence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and HIV has become an important public health problem, putting coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) hospitalized patients at risk for severe manifestations and higher mortality. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was conducted to identify factors and determine their relationships with hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients using secondary data from the Department of Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study included 15,151 patient clinical records of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Data on MetS was extracted in the form of a cluster of metabolic factors. These included abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, and impaired fasting glucose captured on an information sheet. Spatial distribution of mortality among patients was observed; overall (21-33%), hypertension (32-43%), diabetes (34-47%), and HIV (31-45%). A multinomial logistic regression model was applied to identify factors and determine their relationships with hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Mortality among COVID-19 patients was associated with being older (≥50+ years), male, and HIV positive. Having hypertension and diabetes reduced the duration from admission to death. Being transferred from a primary health facility (PHC) to a referral hospital among COVID-19 patients was associated with ventilation and less chance of being transferred to another health facility when having HIV plus MetS. Patients with MetS had a higher mortality rate within seven days of hospitalization, followed by those with obesity as an individual component. MetS and its components such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity should be considered a composite predictor of COVID-19 fatal outcomes, mostly, increased risk of mortality. The study increases our understanding of the common contributing variables to severe manifestations and a greater mortality risk among COVID-19 hospitalized patients by investigating the influence of MetS, its components, and HIV coexistence. Prevention remains the mainstay for both communicable and non-communicable diseases. The findings underscore the need for improvement of critical care resources across South Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , HIV Infections , Hypertension , Metabolic Syndrome , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity , Hospitalization , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Risk Factors
8.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 9473, 2023 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238527

ABSTRACT

Post-COVID-19 condition refers to a range of persisting physical, neurocognitive, and neuropsychological symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Recent evidence revealed that post-COVID-19 syndrome patients may suffer from cardiac dysfunction and are at increased risk for a broad range of cardiovascular disorders. This randomized, sham-control, double-blind trial evaluated the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on the cardiac function of post-COVID-19 patients with ongoing symptoms for at least three months after confirmed infection. Sixty patients were randomized to receive 40 daily HBOT or sham sessions. They underwent echocardiography at baseline and 1-3 weeks after the last protocol session. Twenty-nine (48.3%) patients had reduced global longitudinal strain (GLS) at baseline. Of them, 13 (43.3%) and 16 (53.3%) were allocated to the sham and HBOT groups, respectively. Compared to the sham group, GLS significantly increased following HBOT (- 17.8 ± 1.1 to - 20.2 ± 1.0, p = 0.0001), with a significant group-by-time interaction (p = 0.041). In conclusion, post-COVID-19 syndrome patients despite normal EF often have subclinical left ventricular dysfunction that is characterized by mildly reduced GLS. HBOT promotes left ventricular systolic function recovery in patients suffering from post COVID-19 condition. Further studies are needed to optimize patient selection and evaluate long-term outcomes.This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04647656 on 01/12/2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Nutrients ; 15(10)2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238451

ABSTRACT

Treatment adherence (TA) is a critical issue and is under-investigated in hemodialysis patients. A multi-center study was conducted from July 2020 to March 2021 on 972 hemodialysis patients in eight hospitals in Vietnam to explore the factors associated with TA during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected, including socio-demographics, an End-Stage Renal Disease Adherence Questionnaire (ESRD-AQ), 12-item short-form health literacy questionnaire (HLS-SF12), 4-item digital healthy diet literacy scale (DDL), 10-item hemodialysis dietary knowledge scale (HDK), 7-item fear of COVID-19 scale (FCoV-19S), and suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID19-S). Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to explore the associations. Higher DDL scores were associated with higher TA scores (regression coefficient, B, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 95%CI, 0.59, 2.12; p = 0.001). Higher FCoV-19S scores were associated with lower TA scores (B, -1.78; 95%CI, -3.33, -0.24; p = 0.023). In addition, patients aged 60-85 (B, 24.85; 95%CI, 6.61, 43.11; p = 0.008) with "very or fairly easy" medication payment ability (B, 27.92; 95%CI, 5.89, 44.95; p = 0.013) had higher TA scores. Patients who underwent hemodialysis for ≥5 years had a lower TA score than those who received <5 years of hemodialysis (B, -52.87; 95%CI, -70.46, -35.28; p < 0.001). These findings suggested that DDL and FCoV-19S, among other factors, should be considered in future interventions to improve TA in hemodialysis patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Diet, Healthy , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Fear
10.
Orv Hetil ; 164(17): 651-658, 2023 Apr 30.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238071

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During COVID-19 pandemic, a high mortality rate (20-60%) of patients admitted to intensive care unit has been observed. Identification of risk factors can support the understanding of disease pathophysiology and the recognition of vulnerable patients, prognostication and selection of appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVE: Beyond characterisation of a local, critically ill COVID-19 population, analysis of the associations between demographic/clinical data and patient survival were investigated. METHOD: Retrospective, observational study has been performed by recording demographic, clinical data and outcome parameters on patients with severe respiratory insufficiency caused by COVID-19. RESULTS: 88 patients were enrolled. Median age was 65 years and 53% of patients were male, median BMI was 29 kg/m2. Noninvasive ventilation was used in 81%, endotracheal intubation in 45%, prone positioning in 59% of all cases. Vasopressor treatment was introduced in 44%, secondary bacterial infection was detected in 36% of all cases. Hospital survival rate was 41%. Risk factors for survival and the effect of evolving treatment protocols were analyzed with multivariable regression model. A better survival chance was associated to younger age, lower APACE II score and non-diabetic status. Effect of the treatment protocol was found to be significant (OR = 0.18 [95% CI: 0.04-0.76], p = 0.01976) after controlling for APACHE II, BMI, sex, two comorbidities and two pharmaceutical agents (tocilizumab, remdesivir). CONCLUSION: Survival rate was favourable if patients were younger, with lower APACHE II score and if non-diabetic. Low initial survival rate (15%) significantly improved (49%) in association with the protocol changes. We would like to facilitate Hungarian centres to publish their data and initiate a nationwide database to improve the management of severe COVID disease. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(17): 651-658.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Intensive Care Units
11.
J Med Virol ; 95(6): e28863, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238042

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 has not only caused millions of deaths worldwide, but it has also led to economic recession and the collapse of public health systems. The vaccines and antivirals developed in response to the pandemic have improved the situation markedly; however, the pandemic is still not under control with recurring surges. Thus, it is still necessary to develop therapeutic agents. In our previous studies, we designed and synthesized a series of novel 2-anilinoquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives, and demonstrated inhibitory activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and MERS-CoV in vitro. We then conducted in vivo studies using modified compounds that are suitable for oral administration. These compounds demonstrated no toxicity in rats and inhibited viral entry. Here, we investigated the in vivo efficacy of these drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. Three candidate drugs, 7-chloro-2-((3,5-dichlorophenyl)amino)quinazolin-4(3H)-one (1), N-(7-chloro-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)-N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)acetamide (2), and N-(7-chloro-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-2-yl)-N-(3,5-difluorophenyl)acetamide (3) were administered orally to hACE2 transgenic mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg. All three drugs improved survival rate and reduced the viral load in the lungs. These results show that the derivatives possess in vivo antiviral efficacy similar to that of molnupiravir, which is currently being used to treat COVID-19. Overall, our data suggest that 2-anilinoquinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives are promising as potential oral antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Rats , Acetamides , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Transgenic , Quinazolines/pharmacology , Quinazolines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 18(4): 191-208, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237492

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Passive administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is being evaluated as a therapeutic approach to prevent or treat HIV infections. However, a number of challenges face the widespread implementation of passive transfer for HIV. To reduce the need of recurrent administrations of bNAbs, gene-based delivery approaches have been developed which overcome the limitations of passive transfer. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of DNA and mRNA for the delivery of bNAbs has made significant progress. DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs) have shown great promise in animal models of disease and the underlying DNA-based technology is now being tested in vaccine trials for a variety of indications. The COVID-19 pandemic greatly accelerated the development of mRNA-based technology to induce protective immunity. These advances are now being successfully applied to the delivery of monoclonal antibodies using mRNA in animal models. Delivery of bNAbs using viral vectors, primarily adeno-associated virus (AAV), has shown great promise in preclinical animal models and more recently in human studies. Most recently, advances in genome editing techniques have led to engineering of monoclonal antibody expression from B cells. These efforts aim to turn B cells into a source of evolving antibodies that can improve through repeated exposure to the respective antigen. SUMMARY: The use of these different platforms for antibody delivery has been demonstrated across a wide range of animal models and disease indications, including HIV. Although each approach has unique strengths and weaknesses, additional advances in efficiency of gene delivery and reduced immunogenicity will be necessary to drive widespread implementation of these technologies. Considering the mounting clinical evidence of the potential of bNAbs for HIV treatment and prevention, overcoming the remaining technical challenges for gene-based bNAb delivery represents a relatively straightforward path towards practical interventions against HIV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Animals , Humans , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , HIV Antibodies , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Pandemics , HIV-1/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics
13.
Respir Care ; 68(6): 713-720, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237263

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Awake prone positioning (PP) reduces need for intubation for patients with COVID-19 with acute respiratory failure. We investigated the hemodynamic effects of awake PP in non-ventilated subjects with COVID-19 acute respiratory failure. METHODS: We conducted a single-center prospective cohort study. Adult hypoxemic subjects with COVID-19 not requiring invasive mechanical ventilation receiving at least one PP session were included. Hemodynamic assessment was done with transthoracic echocardiography before, during, and after a PP session. RESULTS: Twenty-six subjects were included. We observed a significant and reversible increase in cardiac index (CI) during PP compared to supine position (SP): 3.0 ± 0.8 L/min/m2 in PP, 2.5 ± 0.6 L/min/m2 before PP (SP1), and 2.6 ± 0.5 L/min/m2 after PP (SP2, P < .001). A significant improvement in right ventricular (RV) systolic function was also evidenced during PP: The RV fractional area change was 36 ± 10% in SP1, 46 ± 10% during PP, and 35 ± 8% in SP2 (P < .001). There was no significant difference in PaO2 /FIO2 and breathing frequency. CONCLUSION: CI and RV systolic function are improved by awake PP in non-ventilated subjects with COVID-19 with acute respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Prone Position , Prospective Studies , Wakefulness , Hemodynamics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 556, 2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236438

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In addition to the common difficulties of ongoing trials, the COVID-19 pandemic posed several challenges to scientists worldwide and created an additional burden for vulnerable patient groups. In the nFC-isPO of individualised treatment for anxiety and depression in newly diagnosed patients with cancer caregivers (e.g. psycho-oncologists) reported elevated HADS scores in newly enrolled patients after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Accordingly, the question arises whether the pandemic affected HADS scores. Therefore, stratified analyses by the time of enrolment (T1) were performed for patients with 12 months of care (T3). METHODS: Patients with 12 months of care (N = 1,140) were analysed. A comparison within the regression discontinuity design according to the time points at which patients completed the baseline (T1) HADS questionnaire was conducted to examine differences between patients recruited before Q2/2020 (pre-pandemic) and after the coronavirus outbreak. Furthermore, mean HADS scores at T1 and T3 for all quarters during the study were compared. RESULTS: Mean T1 and T3 HADS scores of patients with cancer during the pandemic are only slightly higher than those of the pre-pandemic group. No significant treatment effect was observed in either the pre-pandemic (p = 0.5495, Late = 1.7711) or the post-pandemic group (p = 0.9098, LATE=-0.2933). In contrast, the average local treatment effect in the post-pandemic group suggests a minimal decrease in HADS score in the predefined range and thus a positive treatment effect for isPO. Comparison of mean HADS scores at T1 and T3 did not show a large increase by pandemic-related timepoints, however, a decrease of approximately 2-3 points over each quarter at 12 months compared to baseline is observed. CONCLUSION: The existing nFC-isPO care is resilient to crisis and may counteract external influences such as the Corona pandemic. Accordingly, the pandemic had little influence on the fears of patients with cancer in the nFC-isPO. This emphasises that psycho-oncology is vital for the reduction of stress, anxiety and depression in patients with cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in the German Clinical Trials Registry on 30 October 2018 under the ID "DRKS00015326".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/therapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psycho-Oncology , Clinical Trials as Topic
16.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 64(1): E3-E8, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236267

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by a new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) throughout the pandemic period has been characterised by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, courses, and outcomes. In particular, most patients with severe or critical symptoms re-quired hospitalization. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients upon admission to the hospital, as well as pre-existing medical conditions, seem to have affected the clinical out-come. Predictive factors of inauspicious outcome in non-Intensive Care Unit hospitalized patients were investigated. Methods: A retrospective, single-centre, observational study of 239 patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease admitted during the first waves of the pandemic to the Infectious Disease Operative Unit of a hospital in Southern Italy was conducted. Demographic characteristics, under-lying diseases, and clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were collected from the patient's medical records. Information about in-hospital medications, days of admission, and out-come were also considered. Inferential statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the association between patients' characteristics upon hospital admission and during in-hospital length of stay and death. Results: Mean age was 67.8 ± 15.8 years; 137/239 (57.3%) patients were males, and 176 (73.6%) had at least one comorbidity. More than half of patients (55.3%) suffered from hypertension. The length of stay in hospital was 16.5 ± 9.9 days and mortality rate of 12.55%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, predictors of mortality of COVID-19 patients included age (OR, 1.09; CI, 1.04-1.15), Chronic Kidney Disease (OR, 4.04; CI, 1.38-11.85), and need of High Flow Oxygen therapy (OR, 18.23; CI, 5.06-65.64). Conclusions: Patients who died in the hospital had shorted length of stay than that of the surviving patients. Older age, pre-existent chronic renal disease and need of supplemental oxygen represented independent predictors of mortality in patients hospitalized in non-Intensive Care Unit with COVID-19. The determination of these factors allows retrospectively a greater understanding of the disease also in comparison with the successive epidemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Risk Factors , Oxygen , Intensive Care Units
17.
Crit Care Med ; 51(8): 1064-1073, 2023 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235834

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Early studies of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in COVID-19 have revealed similar outcomes to historical cohorts. Changes in the disease and treatments have led to differences in the patients supported on venovenous ECMO in the first and second waves. We aimed to compare these two groups in both the acute and follow-up phase. DESIGN: Retrospective single-center cohort study comparing mortality at censoring date (November 30, 2021) and decannulation, patient characteristics, complications and lung function and quality of life (QOL-by European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 3 Level Version) at first follow-up in patients supported on venovenous ECMO between wave 1 and wave 2 of the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: Critical care department of a severe acute respiratory failure service. PATIENTS: Patients supported on ECMO for COVID-19 between wave 1 (March 17, 2020, to August 31, 2020) and wave 2 (January 9, 2020, to May 25, 2021). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: One hundred twenty-three patients were included in our analysis. Survival at censoring date (χ 2 , 6.35; p = 0.012) and decannulation (90.4% vs 70.0%; p < 0.001) was significantly lower in the second wave, while duration of ECMO run was longer (12.0 d [18.0-30.0 d] vs 29.5 d [15.5-58.3 d]; p = 0.005). Wave 2 patients had longer application of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) prior to ECMO and a higher frequency of barotrauma. Patient age and NIV use were independently associated with increased mortality (odds ratio 1.07 [1.01-1.14]; p = 0.025 and 3.37 [1.12-12.60]; p = 0.043, respectively). QOL and lung function apart from transfer coefficient of carbon monoxide corrected for hemoglobin was similar at follow-up across the waves. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with COVID-19 supported on ECMO in both waves survived in the short and longer term. At follow-up patients had similar lung function and QOL across the two waves. This suggests that ECMO has an ongoing role in the management of a carefully selected group of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Quality of Life , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics
18.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286589, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234796

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic posed various challenges to the healthcare system and disease management. This study aimed to describe changes in the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized patients during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in a city in southern Brazil. This prospective study was carried out in two tertiary care private hospitals in Curitiba. A total of 1151 patients hospitalized between March 2020 and March 2021 were included. We identified three epidemiological critical periods of the pandemic and compared patients' characteristics and the frequencies of oral intubation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. Continuous variables were analyzed by variance analysis model (ANOVA) or the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and categorical variables by the chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Models for univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were adjusted to identify the factors associated with mortality. All p-values were two-tailed and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The average age of the patients was 58 years and 60.9% (n = 701) were males. The most prevalent comorbidities were systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes and obesity. There were no significant variations in the demographic characteristics and previous comorbidities of the patients for the different periods of analysis. Mortality was positively associated with the age ≥65 years and the presence of one or more cardiometabolic comorbidities (p<0.001). March 2021 was the most important critical period of the pandemic since there were higher frequencies of patients admitted later in the course of the disease, with desaturation and more symptoms at hospital admission (p<0.001). There was also an increase in the duration of hospital stay (p<0.001) and the frequencies of all critical outcomes for this period: oral intubation (p<0.001), ICU admission (p = 0.606) and mortality (p = 0.001). Our key findings revealed that, although there were no statistically significant differences between the subgroups of hospitalized patients over time in terms of demographic characteristics and comorbidities, the course of COVID-19 was significantly more severe for patients admitted to the hospital at the end of the first year of the pandemic in Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Brazil/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1420: 1-12, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233640

ABSTRACT

Potency assays represent crucial experiments at the hub of the comprehensive complexity surrounding cell therapy. Moreover, numerous factors beyond biological and scientific considerations are involved in achieving successful potency assays that fulfil regulatory authority approval for a new advanced therapy medicinal product. Though this can mean a frustratingly long period of discovery and development, progress in cell therapy is nowadays proceeding remarkably quickly, assisted by the potency assay rigorously placing emphasis on the need to critically analyse the key factor/s responsible for the therapeutic mechanism of action. History has shown that it can take many decades for there to be an improved understanding of a mechanism of action. Yet the chasing of precise targets has revolutionised medicine, with no clearer example than approaches to viral pandemics. The centuries involved in the eradication of smallpox have paved the way for an unprecedented pace of vaccine development for the Covid-19 pandemic. Such extraordinary accomplishments foster encouragement that similarly for stem cell-based therapy, our scientific knowledge will continue to improve apace. This chapter focuses on the art of experimentation and discovery, introducing potency assay requisites and numerous factors that can influence potency assay outcomes. A comprehensive understanding of potency assays and their development can hasten the provision of new cell therapies to help resolve burdensome diseases of unmet medical need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Stem Cell Transplantation
20.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 941, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) has long-term sequels that persisted for months to years and manifested with a spectrum of signs and symptoms. Presentations of long COVID-19 symptoms are heterogeneous, vary from person to person, and can reach up to over 200 symptoms. Limited studies are conducted on the awareness of long COVID-19. So, this study aimed to explore the awareness about and care seeking for long COVID-19 symptoms among COVID survivors in Bahir Dar City in 2022. METHODS: A qualitative study with a phenomenological design was used. Participants of the study were individuals who survived five months or longer after they tested positive for COVID-19 in Bahir Dar city. Individuals were selected purposively. An in-depth interview guide was prepared and used to collect the data. Open Cod 4.03 software was used for coding and synthesizing. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. RESULTS: The themes emerged from the data were awareness, experience of symptoms and their effects, and care practices of long COVID-19. Although only one participant mentioned the common symptoms of long COVID-19 the survivors experienced general, respiratory, cardiac, digestive, neurological, and other symptoms. These symptoms include rash, fatigue fever, cough, palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain, and abdominal pain, loss of concentration, loss of smell, sleep disorder, depression, joint and muscle pain. These symptoms brought various physical and psychosocial effects. The majority of the respondents described that long COVID-19 symptoms will go off by themselves. To alleviate the problems some of the participants had taken different measures including medical care, homemade remedies, spiritual solutions, and lifestyle modification. CONCLUSIONS: The result of this study revealed that participants have a significant deficit of awareness about the common symptoms, risk groups, and communicability of Long COVID. However, they experienced the majority of the common symptoms of Long COVID. To alleviate the problems, they had taken different measures including medical care, homemade remedies, spiritual solutions, and lifestyle modification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Humans , Ethiopia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Behavior Therapy , Cough
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