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4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7847-7857, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603341

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The Islamic Republic of Iran has displayed one of the highest rates of COVID-19 infection in the world and the highest rate of mortality in the Middle East. Iran has used a stringent package of preventive health measures to mitigate the spread of infection, which however has negatively affected individuals' physical and psychological health. This study aimed at examining whether physical-activity (PA) behavior, anxiety, well-being, and sleep-quality changed in response to the COVID-19-related public health restrictions enforced in Iran. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An online questionnaire was disseminated to adults residing in Iran from November 17, 2020, to February 13, 2021 (~88 days), during Iran's strictest public health restrictions. Main outcome measures included Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, General Anxiety Disorder-7, Mental Health Continuum-Short Form, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. RESULTS: A total of 3,323 adults (mean age 30±11 years, 54.3% female) participated in the survey. Firstly, the restrictions generally reduced PA behavior: (a) among inactive participants (IPs), 60.6% became less active vs. 5.1% who became more active; and (b) among active participants (APs), 49.9% became less active vs. 22.8% who became more active. Secondly, PA behavior was associated with higher well-being and sleep quality during the restrictions: (a) APs reported higher (or lower) levels of well-being and sleep quality (or anxiety) than did IPs; and (b) among IPs as well as among APs, the more active the participants, the greater (or lower) the levels of well-being and sleep quality (or anxiety). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the beneficial role of PA behavior for well-being, anxiety, and sleep quality during the COVID-19 restrictions, whereas such restrictions appeared to decrease PA participation. Active lifestyle should be then encouraged during the COVID-19 outbreak while taking precautions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7709-7716, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe personal and family-related factors affecting undergraduate students' willingness to volunteer during the pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted on undergraduate medical students at Qassim University in Saudi Arabia through an online survey. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A pre-validated online questionnaire on willingness to volunteer during the pandemic was distributed through various messenger groups and social media. The questionnaire comprised two sections to collect demographics and how likely the volunteers work during the pandemic in different circumstances. The distribution of these parameters was reported by frequency and proportion for categorical variables. In addition to descriptive analytics, a chi-square test was used to compare key explanatory parameters between the low and high likelihood of volunteering. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS statistical software (version 25, Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS: There was a high likelihood of willingness (60.7%) to volunteer among undergraduate medical students. However, there was no statistically significant difference in baseline parameters like gender, academic year, age (in years), marital status, children, and elderly dependents between the high and low likelihood of volunteer (p >0.05). However, a statistically significant difference indicated the best description of one's living arrangement between volunteers' high and low probability (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that undergraduate medical students can be motivated to volunteer effectively in this pandemic by ensuring personal and family protection. This is vital to optimally redistribute the work burden and effectively channelize the workforce during a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Volunteers/psychology , Motivation , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Relations/psychology , Female , Hospital Volunteers/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Saudi Arabia , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7964-7970, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop mental health nursing strategies for the inbound quarantined population based on the results of a survey study and frontline nursing experiences. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A mixed research method was selected, we collected data by questionnaires from 128 quarantined people, and by semi-structured interviews from 5 registered nurses. Generalized anxiety disorder-7 (GAD-7), the patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used in the quantitative research to identify the prevalence of psychological issues and risk factors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in the qualitative study to conclude nursing experiences from RNs. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia were 34%, 41%, and 18% respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that social support, urban residence, and chronic disease were associated with mental health problems in certain aspects. Three themes were emerged from the analysis of RNs interviews: personality, chronic diseases, and social support. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mental health issues in the inbound quarantined population was the same as the general population in the initial stage of COVID-19 outbreak, and significantly lower than people who lived in high-risk areas. Living in urban areas, with chronic diseases, and obtaining less social support are the risk factors. Finally, four nursing strategies were proposed by the research team for mental health well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/organization & administration , Psychiatric Nursing/organization & administration , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/prevention & control , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Professional Role , Quarantine/standards , Risk Factors , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/prevention & control , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Social Support/psychology , Social Support/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0257963, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608831

ABSTRACT

In times of crisis, including the current COVID-19 pandemic, the supply chain of filtering facepiece respirators, such as N95 respirators, are disrupted. To combat shortages of N95 respirators, many institutions were forced to decontaminate and reuse respirators. While several reports have evaluated the impact on filtration as a measurement of preservation of respirator function after decontamination, the equally important fact of maintaining proper fit to the users' face has been understudied. In the current study, we demonstrate the complete inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and preservation of fit test performance of N95 respirators following treatment with dry heat. We apply scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, Raman spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements to analyze filter material changes as a consequence of different decontamination treatments. We further compared the integrity of the respirator after autoclaving versus dry heat treatment via quantitative fit testing and found that autoclaving, but not dry heat, causes the fit of the respirator onto the users face to fail, thereby rendering the decontaminated respirator unusable. Our findings highlight the importance to account for both efficacy of disinfection and mask fit when reprocessing respirators to for clinical redeployment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Equipment Reuse , N95 Respirators/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/transmission , Equipment and Supplies , Health Personnel , Hot Temperature , Humans , Pandemics
9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(1): e12, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the extraordinary speed of mass vaccination efforts, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) delta variant in a vaccinee with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccine was identified in an adult day service center (ADSC) of Jeju, South Korea. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic features in infection-vulnerable facilities with a high vaccination rate of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The second was to estimate the secondary transmission prevention effect of the vaccine in the household members by vaccination status. METHODS: We included all ADSC participants, staff and their household members. All COVID-19 infected cases were confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We calculated attack rate in ADSC and the secondary attack rate (SAR) in household members by vaccination status. RESULTS: Among a total of 42 participants and 16 staff, of which 96.6% were fully vaccinated with BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, 12 symptomatic cases and 13 asymptomatic confirmed cases of COVID-19 were found. The attack rate was 43.1%, with 13 isolates identified as SARS-CoV-2 virus, delta variant. The SAR in unvaccinated and partially vaccinated household members were 27.8% (5/18) and 25.0% (5/20), respectively, while the SAR in fully vaccinated household members was 12.5% (1/8). CONCLUSION: We describe a SARS-CoV-2 delta variant outbreak in ADSC with high vaccine coverage rate, characterized by high infection rate, high transmissibility, and low clinical severity. The outbreak proceeded to unvaccinated or partially vaccinated household members, emphasizing the need for immunizing close contacts of high-risk groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Vaccination
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 8019-8022, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605687

ABSTRACT

Recently a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 was reported from South Africa. World Health Organization (WHO) named this mutant as a variant of concern - Omicron (B.1.1.529) on 26th November 2021. This variant exhibited more than thirty amino acid mutations in the spike protein. This mutation rate is exceeding the other variants by approximately 5-11 times in the receptor-binding motif of the spike protein. Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant might have enhanced transmissibility and immune evasion. This new variant can reinfect individuals previously infected with other SARS-CoV-2 variants. Scientists expressed their concern about the efficacy of already existing COVID-19 vaccines against Omicron (B.1.1.529) infections. Some of the crucial mutations that are detected in the receptor-binding domain of the Omicron variant have been shared by previously evolved SARS-CoV-2 variants. Based on the Omicron mutation profile in the receptor-binding domain and motif, it might have collectively enhanced or intermediary infectivity relative to its previous variants. Due to extensive mutations in the spike protein, the Omicron variant might evade the immunity in the vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Reinfection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mutation , Reinfection/immunology , Reinfection/transmission , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccine Potency
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599544

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly transmissible coronavirus responsible for the global COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we provide evidence that SARS-CoV-2 spreads through cell-cell contact in cultures, mediated by the spike glycoprotein. SARS-CoV-2 spike is more efficient in facilitating cell-to-cell transmission than is SARS-CoV spike, which reflects, in part, their differential cell-cell fusion activity. Interestingly, treatment of cocultured cells with endosomal entry inhibitors impairs cell-to-cell transmission, implicating endosomal membrane fusion as an underlying mechanism. Compared with cell-free infection, cell-to-cell transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is refractory to inhibition by neutralizing antibody or convalescent sera of COVID-19 patients. While angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 enhances cell-to-cell transmission, we find that it is not absolutely required. Notably, despite differences in cell-free infectivity, the authentic variants of concern (VOCs) B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.351 (beta) have similar cell-to-cell transmission capability. Moreover, B.1.351 is more resistant to neutralization by vaccinee sera in cell-free infection, whereas B.1.1.7 is more resistant to inhibition by vaccinee sera in cell-to-cell transmission. Overall, our study reveals critical features of SARS-CoV-2 spike-mediated cell-to-cell transmission, with important implications for a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 spread and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Fusion , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24477, 2021 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599359

ABSTRACT

Assessing the impact of temperature on COVID-19 epidemiology is critical for implementing non-pharmaceutical interventions. However, few studies have accounted for the nature of contagious diseases, i.e., their dependent happenings. We aimed to quantify the impact of temperature on the transmissibility and virulence of COVID-19 in Tokyo, Japan, employing two epidemiological measurements of transmissibility and severity: the effective reproduction number ([Formula: see text]) and case fatality risk (CFR). We estimated the [Formula: see text] and time-delay adjusted CFR and to subsequently assess the nonlinear and delayed effect of temperature on [Formula: see text] and time-delay adjusted CFR. For [Formula: see text] at low temperatures, the cumulative relative risk (RR) at the first temperature percentile (3.3 °C) was 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-1.7). As for the virulence to humans, moderate cold temperatures were associated with higher CFR, and CFR also increased as the temperature rose. The cumulative RR at the 10th and 99th percentiles of temperature (5.8 °C and 30.8 °C) for CFR were 3.5 (95% CI: 1.3-10.0) and 6.4 (95% CI: 4.1-10.1). Our results suggest the importance to take precautions to avoid infection in both cold and warm seasons to avoid severe cases of COVID-19. The results and our proposed approach will also help in assessing the possible seasonal course of COVID-19 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Temperature , Basic Reproduction Number , Cold Temperature , Humans , Mortality , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Tokyo/epidemiology , Virulence
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261424, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599330

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has caused two waves and spread to more than 90% of Canada's provinces since it was first reported more than a year ago. During the COVID-19 epidemic, Canadian provinces have implemented many Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs). However, the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic continues due to the complex dynamics of human mobility. We develop a meta-population network model to study the transmission dynamics of COVID-19. The model takes into account the heterogeneity of mitigation strategies in different provinces of Canada, such as the timing of implementing NPIs, the human mobility in retail and recreation, grocery and pharmacy, parks, transit stations, workplaces, and residences due to work and recreation. To determine which activity is most closely related to the dynamics of COVID-19, we use the cross-correlation analysis to find that the positive correlation is the highest between the mobility data of parks and the weekly number of confirmed COVID-19 from February 15 to December 13, 2020. The average effective reproduction numbers in nine Canadian provinces are all greater than one during the time period, and NPIs have little impact on the dynamics of COVID-19 epidemics in Ontario and Saskatchewan. After November 20, 2020, the average infection probability in Alberta became the highest since the start of the COVID-19 epidemic in Canada. We also observe that human activities around residences do not contribute much to the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. The simulation results indicate that social distancing and constricting human mobility is effective in mitigating COVID-19 transmission in Canada. Our findings can provide guidance for public health authorities in projecting the effectiveness of future NPIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Epidemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Models, Statistical , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/methods
15.
Small Methods ; 5(5): e2001108, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599126

ABSTRACT

During the global outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, "cytokine storm" conditions are regarded as the fatal step resulting in most mortality. Hemoperfusion is widely used to remove cytokines from the blood of severely ill patients to prevent uncontrolled inflammation induced by a cytokine storm. This article discoveres, for the first time, that 2D Ti3 C2 Tx MXene sheet demonstrates an ultrahigh removal capability for typical cytokine interleukin-6. In particular, MXene shows a 13.4 times higher removal efficiency over traditional activated carbon absorbents. Molecular-level investigations reveal that MXene exhibits a strong chemisorption mechanism for immobilizing cytokine interleukin-6 molecules, which is different from activated carbon absorbents. MXene sheet also demonstrates excellent blood compatibility without any deleterious side influence on the composition of human blood. This work can open a new avenue to use MXene sheets as an ultraefficient hemoperfusion absorbent to eliminate the cytokine storm syndrome in treatment of severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Hemoperfusion/methods , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Titanium/administration & dosage , Adsorption , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Titanium/chemistry
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010106, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598647

ABSTRACT

The development of safe and effective vaccines in a record time after the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a remarkable achievement, partly based on the experience gained from multiple viral outbreaks in the past decades. However, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis also revealed weaknesses in the global pandemic response and large gaps that remain in our knowledge of the biology of coronaviruses (CoVs) and influenza viruses, the 2 major respiratory viruses with pandemic potential. Here, we review current knowns and unknowns of influenza viruses and CoVs, and we highlight common research challenges they pose in 3 areas: the mechanisms of viral emergence and adaptation to humans, the physiological and molecular determinants of disease severity, and the development of control strategies. We outline multidisciplinary approaches and technological innovations that need to be harnessed in order to improve preparedeness to the next pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Drug Development , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Influenza, Human/therapy , Influenza, Human/transmission , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Selection, Genetic , Viral Load , Viral Vaccines
17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 208-211, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598042

ABSTRACT

We performed an annotation of 35 mutations in the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Our analysis of the mutations indicates that Omicron has gained prominent immune evasion and potential for enhanced transmissibility. Previous modeling study has revealed that continued evolution in both immune evasion and enhanced transmissibility by SARS-CoV-2 would compromise vaccines as tools for the pandemic control. To combat the future variants of SARS-CoV-2, the world needs novel antiviral drugs that are effective at curb viral spreading without introducing additional selective pressure towards resistant variants.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Design/methods , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mutation , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2140602, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597867

ABSTRACT

Importance: During the 2020-2021 academic year, many institutions of higher education reopened to residential students while pursuing strategies to mitigate the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission on campus. Reopening guidance emphasized polymerase chain reaction or antigen testing for residential students and social distancing measures to reduce the frequency of close interpersonal contact, and Connecticut colleges and universities used a variety of approaches to reopen campuses to residential students. Objective: To characterize institutional reopening strategies and COVID-19 outcomes in 18 residential college and university campuses across Connecticut. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data on COVID-19 testing and cases and social contact from 18 college and university campuses in Connecticut that had residential students during the 2020-2021 academic year. Exposures: Tests for COVID-19 performed per week per residential student. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cases per week per residential student and mean (95% CI) social contact per week per residential student. Results: Between 235 and 4603 residential students attended the fall semester across each of 18 institutions of higher education in Connecticut, with fewer residential students at most institutions during the spring semester. In census block groups containing residence halls, the fall student move-in resulted in a 475% (95% CI, 373%-606%) increase in mean contact, and the spring move-in resulted in a 561% (95% CI, 441%-713%) increase in mean contact compared with the 7 weeks prior to move-in. The association between test frequency and case rate per residential student was complex; institutions that tested students infrequently detected few cases but failed to blunt transmission, whereas institutions that tested students more frequently detected more cases and prevented further spread. In fall 2020, each additional test per student per week was associated with a decrease of 0.0014 cases per student per week (95% CI, -0.0028 to -0.00001). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that, in the era of available vaccinations and highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, colleges and universities should continue to test residential students and use mitigation strategies to control on-campus COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Universities , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , Connecticut/epidemiology , Female , Housing , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Interaction , Young Adult
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