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1.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116094

ABSTRACT

Unlike farm animals, wild animals are not subject to continuous health surveillance. Individual projects designed to screen wildlife populations for specific pathogens are, therefore, also of great importance for human health. In this context, the possible formation of a reservoir for highly pathogenic zoonotic pathogens is a focus of research. Two of these pathogens that have received particular attention during the last years are the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), due to its fast global spread and high impact to the human health, and, since its introduction into Germany, the flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV). Especially in combination with invasive vertebrate species (e.g., raccoons (Procyon lotor) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Germany), risk analysis must be done to enable health authorities to assess the potential for the establishment of new wild life reservoirs for pathogens. Therefore, samples were collected from raccoons and raccoon dogs and analyzed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and WNV infections in these populations. Molecular biological and serological data obtained imply that no SARS-CoV-2 nor WNV reservoir has been established in these two wild life species yet. Future investigations need to keep an eye on these invasive carnivore populations, especially since the close contact of these animals to humans, mainly in urban areas, would make animal-human transmission a challenge for human health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , West Nile virus , Animals , Humans , Raccoons , Raccoon Dogs , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Germany/epidemiology , Animals, Wild
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 401, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: African swine fever (ASF) has been present in Lithuania since 2014. The disease affects mainly the wild boar population. Thus, hunters play a key role in the performance of disease surveillance and control measures. We used participatory methods to gain insight into the knowledge of hunters and to include their perceptions in the design and the implementation of surveillance and control measures to increase their effectiveness. RESULTS: The willingness and the interest of hunters to participate was high, but only eight focus group meetings with 33 hunters could be held due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The overall knowledge of Lithuanian hunters regarding ASF, investigated by semi-structured interviews, was sufficient to understand their part in ASF control and surveillance. However, their knowledge did not necessarily lead to an increased acceptance of some ASF control measures, like the targeted hunting of female wild boar. Participating hunters showed a good understanding of the processes of the surveillance system. Their trust in the performance within this system was highest towards the hunters themselves, thus emphasizing the importance of acknowledging their role in the system. Hunters refused measures including the reduction of hunting activities. They feared a complete elimination of the wild boar population, which in turn demonstrates the necessity to increase professional information exchange. CONCLUSIONS: The perceptions of Lithuanian hunters regarding ASF surveillance and control in wild boar resembled those obtained in neighboring countries. It is imperative to communicate the results with decision-makers, to consider the views of hunters, when designing or adapting measures to control ASF in wild boar and to communicate with hunters on these measures and their justification.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , African Swine Fever , COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Female , Swine , Animals , African Swine Fever/epidemiology , African Swine Fever/prevention & control , Lithuania/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/veterinary , Sus scrofa , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
3.
Zool Res ; 43(6): 1041-1062, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111387

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes diverse clinical manifestations and tissue injuries in multiple organs. However, cellular and molecular understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection-associated pathology and immune defense features in different organs remains incomplete. Here, we profiled approximately 77 000 single-nucleus transcriptomes of the lung, liver, kidney, and cerebral cortex in rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta) infected with SARS-CoV-2 and healthy controls. Integrated analysis of the multi-organ dataset suggested that the liver harbored the strongest global transcriptional alterations. We observed prominent impairment in lung epithelial cells, especially in AT2 and ciliated cells, and evident signs of fibrosis in fibroblasts. These lung injury characteristics are similar to those reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, we found suppressed MHC class I/II molecular activity in the lung, inflammatory response in the liver, and activation of the kynurenine pathway, which induced the development of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Analysis of the kidney dataset highlighted tropism of tubule cells to SARS-CoV-2, and we found membranous nephropathy (an autoimmune disease) caused by podocyte dysregulation. In addition, we identified the pathological states of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the cerebral cortex, providing molecular insights into COVID-19-related neurological implications. Overall, our multi-organ single-nucleus transcriptomic survey of SARS-CoV-2-infected rhesus macaques broadens our understanding of disease features and antiviral immune defects caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may facilitate the development of therapeutic interventions for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome , Viral Load/veterinary
4.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110275

ABSTRACT

While some companion animals have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, their role in the COVID-19 pandemic has remained poorly investigated. Equids are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 based on the similarity of the human ACE-2 receptor and reports of infection. Clinical disease and prevalence factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in equids have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and selected prevalence factors in 1186 equids presented for various conditions to a Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital over a two-year period. Blood samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using an ELISA targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Further, selected prevalence factors (season, age, breed, sex, presenting complaint) were retrieved from the medical records. No information was available on whether the horses had come into contact with COVID-19-positive individuals. Among the study animals, 42/1186 (3.5%) horses had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Amongst the prevalence factors investigated, only seasonality (spring) was associated with a greater frequency of seropositivity to SARS-CoV-2. Horses with medical and surgical complaints were more likely to test seropositive to SARS-CoV-2 compared to horses presented for routine health care procedures, suggesting more frequent and/or longer interactions with individuals with COVID-19. While horses can become infected with SARS-CoV-2 via the occasional spillover from COVID-19 individuals, clinical disease expression remains subclinical, making horses an unlikely contributor to the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , California , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Horses/virology , Hospitals, Teaching , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Hospitals, Animal
5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(11): e0105822, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097912

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been the cause of human pandemic infection since late 2019. SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals has also been reported both naturally and experimentally, rendering awareness about a potential source of infection for one health concern. Here, we describe an epidemiological investigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in 639 cats and 224 dogs throughout multiple waves of COVID-19 outbreaks in Thailand. To indicate the potential source of infection, we performed SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing of samples obtained from pets and contacted humans, combined with in-depth interviews to support the epidemiological investigation. In the tested animals, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was present in 23 cases (19 cats and 4 dogs). Whole-genome sequencing of selected samples showed various SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, which included the original European lineage (B.1), Alpha (B.1.1.7), Delta (B.1.617), and Omicron (BA.2). Among SARS-CoV-2-positive pets, 34.78% had evidence of contact with infected humans. Together with genomic analysis and an overlapping timeline, we revealed evidence of viral transmission from infected humans as the primary source, which spread to household cats via an undefined mode of transmission and most likely circulated between cohoused cats and caretakers within the weeks before the investigation. The SARS-CoV-2 surface glycoprotein (spike gene) obtained from caretakers of individual cats contained sequence signatures found in the sequences of infected cats, indicating possible exposure to the virus excreted by cats. Although pet-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considered relatively rare, our study provides suspected episodes of human infection from animals that were initially infected through contact with infected humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cats , Dogs , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , RNA, Viral , Thailand/epidemiology
6.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 90-91: 101905, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095170

ABSTRACT

Domestic cats are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and can transmit the virus to other felines. A high number of COVID-19 human cases within the military personnel and a high density of stray cats living close to soldiers raised the need to perform active animal surveillance. We validated a novel quantitative serological microarray for use in cats, that enables simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM responses; in addition, molecular genetic SARS-CoV-2 detection was performed. Three out of 131 cats analyzed, showed IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 RBD and S2P (2.3 %). None of cats were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR. SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in soldiers ranged from 4.7 % to 16 % (average rate=8.9 %). Further investigations on a larger cohort are necessary, in the light of the emerging new viral variants in other animal species and in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Military Personnel , Cats , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , RNA, Viral/genetics , Israel/epidemiology , Military Facilities , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Cat Diseases/epidemiology
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(12): 2425-2434, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089724

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 likely emerged from an animal reservoir. However, the frequency of and risk factors for interspecies transmission remain unclear. We conducted a community-based study in Idaho, USA, of pets in households that had >1 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans. Among 119 dogs and 57 cats, clinical signs consistent with SARS-CoV-2 were reported for 20 dogs (21%) and 19 cats (39%). Of 81 dogs and 32 cats sampled, 40% of dogs and 43% of cats were seropositive, and 5% of dogs and 8% of cats were PCR positive. This discordance might be caused by delays in sampling. Respondents commonly reported close human‒animal contact and willingness to take measures to prevent transmission to their pets. Reported preventive measures showed a slightly protective but nonsignificant trend for both illness and seropositivity in pets. Sharing of beds and bowls had slight harmful effects, reaching statistical significance for sharing bowls and seropositivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Humans , Animals , Dogs , Cats , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Idaho/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Pets , Cat Diseases/epidemiology
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 274: 109553, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076830

ABSTRACT

Infection induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Although they facilitate local antiviral immunity, their excessive release leads to life-threatening cytokine release syndrome, exemplified by the severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In the present study, we found that interleukin-8 (IL-8) was upregulated by PDCoV infection. We then demonstrated that PDCoV E protein induced IL-8 production and that the TM domain and the C-terminal domain of the E protein were important for IL-8 production. Subsequently, we showed here that deleting the AP-1 and NF-κB binding motif in porcine IL-8 promoter abrogated its activation, suggesting that IL-8 expression was dependent on AP-1 and NF-κB. Furthermore, PDCoV E induced IL-8 production, which was also dependent on the NF-κB pathway through activating nuclear factor p65 phosphorylation and NF-κB inhibitor alpha (IκBα) protein phosphorylation, as well as inducing the nuclear translocation of p65, eventually resulting in the promotion of IL-8 production. PDCoV E also activated c-fos and c-jun, both of which are members of the AP-1 family. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of PDCoV-induced IL-8 production and help us further understand the pathogenesis of PDCoV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha , Interleukin-6/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/genetics , Transcription Factor AP-1/metabolism , Interleukin-8/genetics , Interleukin-8/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/veterinary , Cytokines , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
11.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066542

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from infected humans to other animals has been documented around the world, most notably in mink farming operations in Europe and the United States. Outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 on Utah mink farms began in late July 2020 and resulted in high mink mortality. An investigation of these outbreaks revealed active and past SARS-CoV-2 infections in free-roaming and in feral cats living on or near several mink farms. Cats were captured using live traps, were sampled, fitted with GPS collars, and released on the farms. GPS tracking of these cats show they made frequent visits to mink sheds, moved freely around the affected farms, and visited surrounding residential properties and neighborhoods on multiple occasions, making them potential low risk vectors of additional SARS-CoV-2 spread in local communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cats , Animals , Humans , Mink , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Farms , Utah/epidemiology
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 370, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, has infected several animal species, including dogs, presumably via human-to-animal transmission. Most infected dogs reported were asymptomatic, with low viral loads. However, in this case we detected SARS-CoV-2 in a dog from the North African coastal Spanish city of Ceuta presenting hemorrhagic diarrhea, a disease also reported earlier on in an infected dog from the USA. CASE PRESENTATION: In early January 2021, a West Highland Terrier pet dog from Ceuta (Spain) presented hemorrhagic diarrhea with negative tests for candidate microbial pathogens. Since the animal was in a household whose members suffered SARS-CoV-2 in December 2020, dog feces were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2, proving positive in a two-tube RT-PCR test, with confirmation by sequencing a 399-nucleotide region of the spike (S) gene. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing (NGS) covered > 90% SARS-CoV-2 genome sequence, allowing to classify it as variant B.1.177. Remarkably, the sequence revealed the Ile402Val substitution in the spike protein (S), of potential concern because it mapped in the receptor binding domain (RBD) that mediates virus interaction with the cell. NGS reads mapping to bacterial genomes showed that the dog fecal microbiome fitted best the characteristic microbiome of dog's acute hemorrhagic diarrhea. CONCLUSION: Our findings exemplify dog infection stemming from the human SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, providing nearly complete-genome sequencing of the virus, which is recognized as belonging to the B.1.177 variant, adding knowledge on variant circulation in a geographic region and period for which there was little viral variant characterization. A single amino acid substitution found in the S protein that could have been of concern is excluded to belong to this category given its rarity and intrinsic nature. The dog's pathology suggests that SARS-CoV-2 could affect the gastrointestinal tract of the dog.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dogs , Humans , Nucleotides , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 90-91: 101888, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060991

ABSTRACT

Scrub typhus is an under diagnosed re-emerging vector borne disease caused by an intracellular gram negative bacteria, Orientia. The disease is commonly prevalent in rural and hilly areas of Tsutsugumashi triangle. The diagnosis of the disease is very challenging due to similarity of its early symptoms with other febrile illnesses, like dengue and COVID 19, as well as non-availability of rapid, reliable and cost-effective methods. Moreover, the diverse clinical presentation in severe cases make it significant health problem. The occupational and behavioral risks responsible for the transmission lead to urgent need of vaccine development against the disease. The complete knowledge about its pathogenesis and the interaction with host's immune cells may help the scientists in developing the appropriate diagnostic methods as well as the vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neglected Diseases , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Scrub Typhus , Vaccines , Animals , Scrub Typhus/diagnosis , Scrub Typhus/epidemiology , Scrub Typhus/veterinary , COVID-19/veterinary , Neglected Diseases/diagnosis , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/prevention & control , Neglected Diseases/veterinary
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e2122-e2131, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053007

ABSTRACT

The ongoing enzootic circulation of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East and North Africa is increasingly raising the concern about the possibility of its recombination with other human-adapted coronaviruses, particularly the pandemic SARS-CoV-2. We aim to provide an updated picture about ecological niches of MERS-CoV and associated socio-environmental drivers. Based on 356 confirmed MERS cases with animal contact reported to the WHO and 63 records of animal infections collected from the literature as of 30 May 2020, we assessed ecological niches of MERS-CoV using an ensemble model integrating three machine learning algorithms. With a high predictive accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic curve = 91.66% in test data), the ensemble model estimated that ecologically suitable areas span over the Middle East, South Asia and the whole North Africa, much wider than the range of reported locally infected MERS cases and test-positive animal samples. Ecological suitability for MERS-CoV was significantly associated with high levels of bareland coverage (relative contribution = 30.06%), population density (7.28%), average temperature (6.48%) and camel density (6.20%). Future surveillance and intervention programs should target the high-risk populations and regions informed by updated quantitative analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Camelus , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Vet Res Commun ; 46(4): 1011-1022, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048466

ABSTRACT

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major disease of livestock in India and causes huge economic losses. The formal FMD control program started in 2003-04 in selected districts and was gradually expanded. The present study provides a descriptive review of the FMD outbreaks, prevalent serotypes, and genetic and antigenic features of the FMD virus (FMDV) that circulated in the country between 2011 and 2020. FMD outbreaks were regularly reported in cloven-hoofed domestic livestock and wildlife, with three serotypes including O, A, and Asia1. During the study period, a total of 2226 FMD outbreaks were documented and serotypes confirmed. FMDV serotype O dominated the outbreak scenario, accounting for about 92% of all outbreaks, followed by Asia1 (5% of all outbreaks) and A (3% of all outbreaks). Two major epidemics of FMD on an unprecedented scale during the years 2013 and 2018 by serotype O were recorded. The spatial distribution of FMD was characterized by a larger number of outbreaks in the southern region of the country. In an annual-scale analysis, 2020 was the year with the lowest outbreaks, and 2013 was the year with the highest. The month-scale analysis showed that outbreaks were reported throughout the year, with the highest numbers between October and March. The emergence of three major lineages (O/ME-SA/Ind2001d, O/ME-SA/Ind2001e, and O/ME-SA/Ind2018) of serotype O was observed during the period. In the cases of serotype A and Asia1, the appearance of at least one novel lineage/genetic group, including A/G-18/non-deletion/2019 and Asia1/Group-IX, was documented. While serotype A showed the advent of antigenic variants, serotypes O and Asia1 did not show any antigenic diversity. It was noticed during the course of an outbreak that animal movement contributes significantly to disease transmission. Except for 2018, when numerous FMD outbreaks were recorded, the number of annual outbreaks reported after 2016 has been lower than in the first half of the decade, probably due to mass vaccination and COVID-19 pandemic-linked movement restrictions. Even during outbreaks, disease symptoms in ruminant populations, including cattle, were found to be less severe. Regular six-monthly immunization certainly has a positive impact on the reduction of disease burden and should be followed without fail and delay, along with intensive disease surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cattle Diseases , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Cattle , Animals , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/prevention & control , Pandemics , COVID-19/veterinary , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus/genetics , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Serogroup , Ruminants , Phylogeny
16.
Can Vet J ; 63(10): 1044-1050, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045774

ABSTRACT

All private veterinary practices in western Canada (N = 1333) were surveyed during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (January to November 2020) to generate data on the demographics of the profession, and to quantify past and present hiring intentions (demand) as well as remuneration for veterinary associates. The response rate was 39.5% (526/1333), 186 of which had hired at least one full- (FT) or part-time (PT) associate within the 12-month period preceding the completion of the survey. When extrapolated to the practices that did not respond (nonresponders), as many as 471 practices may have hired an associate within the previous 12 mo. The median (mean) annual remuneration paid to FT associates was $90 000 ($91 730). The median number of months it took to hire an associate did not vary by province (P = 0.52); however, it did vary by practice type (P <0.0001): companion animal practice, 3.0 mo; food animal practice, 8.0 mo; and mixed animal practice, 12.0 mo. At the time of the survey, 232 of the 526 (44.1%) responding practices were currently seeking to fill 281 vacancies, representing 274 full-time equivalents (FTE). If extrapolated to the nonresponders, the total number of vacant FTE positions could have been as high as 694. The median (mean) annual wage offered for a FT associate was $87 500 ($88 940), which did not differ by province (P = 0.14) or practice type (P = 0.22). The results of this study support anecdotal reports of a shortage of private veterinary practitioners in western Canada.


Intentions d'embauche et rémunération des vétérinaires praticiens dans l'Ouest canadien. Tous les cabinets vétérinaires privés de l'Ouest canadien (N = 1333) ont été interrogés pendant la pandémie de SARS-CoV-2 (janvier à novembre 2020) afin de générer des données sur la démographie de la profession et de quantifier les intentions d'embauche passées et présentes (demande) ainsi que rémunération des associés vétérinaires. Le taux de réponse était de 39,5 % (526/1333), dont 186 avaient embauché au moins un associé à temps plein (FT) ou à temps partiel (PT) au cours de la période de 12 mois précédant la fin de l'enquête. Lorsqu'ils sont extrapolés aux pratiques qui n'ont pas répondu (non-répondants), jusqu'à 471 pratiques peuvent avoir embauché un associé au cours des 12 derniers mois. La rémunération annuelle médiane (moyenne) versée aux associés de FT était de 90 000 $ (91 730 $). Le nombre de mois qu'il a fallu pour embaucher un associé ne variait pas selon la province (P = 0,52); cependant, elle variait selon le type de pratique (P <0,0001) : pratique des animaux de compagnie, 3,0 mois; pratique des animaux destinés à l'alimentation, 8,0 mois; et pratique animale mixte, 12,0 mois. Au moment de l'enquête, 232 des 526 cabinets répondants (44,1 %) cherchaient actuellement à pourvoir 281 postes vacants, représentant 274 équivalents temps plein (ETP). Si extrapolé aux non-répondants, le nombre total de postes vacants en ETP aurait pu atteindre 694. Le salaire annuel médian (moyen) offert pour un associé à temps plein était de 87 500 $ (88 940 $), ce qui ne différait pas selon la province (P = 0,14) ou type de pratique (P = 0,22). Les résultats de cette étude appuient les rapports anecdotiques d'une pénurie de vétérinaires praticiens privés dans l'Ouest canadien.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Veterinarians , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Canada , Humans , Intention , Remuneration , SARS-CoV-2 , Workforce
17.
Res Vet Sci ; 152: 564-568, 2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042118

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an enzyme within the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system that plays a role in regulating blood pressure. However, it is also a cellular receptor for infection with SARS coronaviruses. Although most cats develop subclinical or mild disease following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) acquired from human patients, a previous study has suggested hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a potential risk factor for the development of severe disease in the cat. Herein we investigate the ACE2 protein expression in the lung, heart, and kidney from a small subset of cats with (n = 10) and without HCM (n = 10) by immunohistochemistry. The abundance and intensity of ACE2 expression is slightly elevated in alveoli (p = 0.09; 0.07, respectively) and bronchioles (p = 0.095; 0.37, respectively). However, statistically elevated abundance and intensity of ACE-2 expression was only evident in the heart of cats with HCM (p = 0.032; p = 0.011, respectively). Further investigation did not demonstrate a statistical correlation between the ACE2 expression in the heart in relation to the heart weight to body weight ratio, and the ventricular wall ratio. Current findings suggest an overexpression of ACE2 in HCM cases but follow up study is warranted to understand the pathophysiological process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic , Cat Diseases , Humans , Cats , Animals , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Follow-Up Studies , COVID-19/veterinary , Renin-Angiotensin System , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/genetics , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/veterinary , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/metabolism
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 309, 2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035198

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently spreading worldwide. The pandemic has already had significant adverse effects on human civilization, the environment, and the ecosystem at national and global levels. Moreover, the various sectors of the food production chain, particularly agriculture and livestock, have also been significantly affected in terms of production sustainability and economic losses. The global pandemic has already resulted in a sharp drop in meat, milk, and egg production. Restrictions of movement at national and international levels, implemented as a part of control strategies by public health sectors, have negatively impacted business related to the supply of raw materials for livestock farmers and farm outputs, veterinary services, farmworkers, and animal welfare. This review highlights the significant impacts of COVID-19 on the sustainability of livestock performance, welfare on a global scale, and strategies for mitigating these adverse effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Livestock , Animal Welfare , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Ecosystem , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033138

ABSTRACT

A wide range of animal species are susceptible to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Natural and/or experimental infections have been reported in pet, zoo, farmed and wild animals. Interestingly, some SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as B.1.1.7/Alpha, B.1.351/Beta, and B.1.1.529/Omicron, were demonstrated to infect some animal species not susceptible to classical viral variants. The present study aimed to elucidate if goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) are susceptible to the B.1.351/Beta variant. First, an in silico approach was used to predict the affinity between the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351/Beta variant and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 from goats. Moreover, we performed an experimental inoculation with this variant in domestic goat and showed evidence of infection. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in nasal swabs and tissues by RT-qPCR and/or immunohistochemistry, and seroneutralisation was confirmed via ELISA and live virus neutralisation assays. However, the viral amount and tissue distribution suggest a low susceptibility of goats to the B.1.351/Beta variant. Therefore, although monitoring livestock is advisable, it is unlikely that goats play a role as SARS-CoV-2 reservoir species, and they are not useful surrogates to study SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Goats , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
20.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 50: 100696, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031701

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affected not only the physical and emotional health of human beings but also cats. Restrictions put into effect during the pandemic resulted in changes in the daily routine of pet cats and the number of new pet owners. The current study aimed to evaluate the diseases induced by stress in cats, such as gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and urinary tract diseases. To this end, the study evaluated the pre-pandemic (n: 52) (March 2019-Feb 2020) and pandemic (n: 95) (March 2020-March 2021) diagnosis data of cats (n: 147) with gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, and urinary system diseases admitted to the Internal Medicine Department of Hatay Mustafa Kemal University Veterinary Health, Practice and Research Center between March 2019 and March 2021. There was no statistically significant difference between the sexes of the cats admitted to the clinic in both periods. There was a significant change in cat breeds during the pandemic, except for the mixed-breed and Ankara breeds. The age (mean ± SEM) of the cats admitted to the clinic was 30.14 ± 4.24 months before the pandemic and 30.45 ± 3.43 during the pandemic. Distributions of gastrointestinal diseases in the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods were determined as 35.7% and 64.3%, respectively. During the pandemic, the number of gastritis cases was lower than that in the pre-pandemic period, and the number of gastroenteritis cases was higher than that in the pre-pandemic period. Except for gastrointestinal diseases (P <.05), a statistical difference between the periods was not found. The changes, especially influencing the daily routine of cats and causing stress, seem to have had significant effects on the gastrointestinal health of domestic cats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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