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1.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(3): 309-311, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232271

ABSTRACT

On 12 March 2020, the WHO declared that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) constitutes a pandemic. Cases of liver damage or dysfunction (mainly characterized by moderately elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase levels) have been reported among patients with COVID-19. However, it is currently uncertain whether the COVID-19 related liver damage/dysfunction is due mainly to the viral infection by itself or other coexisting conditions, such as the use of potentially hepatotoxic medications and the coexistence of systemic inflammatory response, respiratory distress syndrome-induced hypoxia, and multiple organ dysfunction. Individuals at high risk for severe COVID-19 are typical of older age and/or present with comorbid conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. This is also the same profile for those at increased risk for unrecognized underlying liver disease, especially nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. This could make them more susceptible to liver injury from the virus, medications used in supportive management, or hypoxia. So the aim of this review was to illustrate the clinical implications of COVID-19 on the liver in healthy and diseased states as well as the implications of common liver disorders on the outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
2.
Redox Biol ; 64: 102769, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328371

ABSTRACT

Cholesterol-24-hydroxylase (CH24H or Cyp46a1) is a reticulum-associated membrane protein that plays an irreplaceable role in cholesterol metabolism in the brain and has been well-studied in several neuro-associated diseases in recent years. In the present study, we found that CH24H expression can be induced by several neuroinvasive viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), rabies virus (RABV), Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and murine hepatitis virus (MHV). The CH24H metabolite, 24-hydroxycholesterol (24HC), also shows competence in inhibiting the replication of multiple viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). 24HC can increase the cholesterol concentration in multivesicular body (MVB)/late endosome (LE) by disrupting the interaction between OSBP and VAPA, resulting in viral particles being trapped in MVB/LE, ultimately compromising VSV and RABV entry into host cells. These findings provide the first evidence that brain cholesterol oxidation products may play a critical role in viral infection.


Subject(s)
Virus Internalization , Animals , Mice , Cholesterol/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Homeostasis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Cholesterol 24-Hydroxylase/metabolism
5.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(1): 8-15, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326975

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has quickly become a great public health hazard globally. Nasal epithelial cells are an important site for SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on the endotypes of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Endotypes of CRSwNP are characterized by type 1, type 2 and type 3 inflammation according to patterns of inflammatory cells and the cytokines expressed in nasal tissue. Nasal epithelial cells show the highest expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the receptor for attachment and entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells, among all investigated cells in the respiratory tree. SARS-CoV-2 infection likely leads to increased activation of T-helper-1 (Th1) cell responses. Recent studies further suggest that ACE2 may be upregulated by type 1 and downregulated by type 2 inflammatory cytokines in nasal epithelial cells. SUMMARY: Expression of ACE2 in nasal epithelial cells is influenced by inflammatory endotypes of CRSwNP. Type 1 inflammation in nasal tissue may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by upregulating ACE2 expression. However, clinical association between CRSwNP and COVID-19 is still unclear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nasal Polyps/epidemiology , Rhinitis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Goblet Cells/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Nasal Polyps/immunology , Rhinitis/immunology , Risk Factors , Sinusitis/immunology , Virus Internalization
7.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2018899, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323446

ABSTRACT

Intestinal bacteria may influence lung homeostasis via the gut-lung axis. We conducted a single-center, quadruple-blinded, randomized trial in adult symptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid19) outpatients. Subjects were allocated 1:1 to probiotic formula (strains Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KABP022, KABP023, and KAPB033, plus strain Pediococcus acidilactici KABP021, totaling 2 × 109 colony-forming units (CFU)) or placebo, for 30 days. Co-primary endpoints included: i) proportion of patients in complete symptomatic and viral remission; ii) proportion progressing to moderate or severe disease with hospitalization, or death; and iii) days on Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Three hundred subjects were randomized (median age 37.0 years [range 18 to 60], 161 [53.7%] women, 126 [42.0%] having known metabolic risk factors), and 293 completed the study (97.7%). Complete remission was achieved by 78 of 147 (53.1%) in probiotic group compared to 41 of 146 (28.1%) in placebo (RR: 1.89 [95 CI 1.40-2.55]; P < .001), significant after multiplicity correction. No hospitalizations or deaths occurred during the study, precluding the assessment of remaining co-primary outcomes. Probiotic supplementation was well-tolerated and reduced nasopharyngeal viral load, lung infiltrates and duration of both digestive and non-digestive symptoms, compared to placebo. No significant compositional changes were detected in fecal microbiota between probiotic and placebo, but probiotic supplementation significantly increased specific IgM and IgG against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) compared to placebo. It is thus hypothesized this probiotic primarily acts by interacting with the host's immune system rather than changing colonic microbiota composition. Future studies should replicate these findings and elucidate its mechanism of action (Registration: NCT04517422).Abbreviations: AE: Adverse Event; BMI: Body Mass Index; CONSORT: CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials; CFU: Colony-Forming Units; eDRF: Electronic Daily Report Form; GLA: Gut-Lung Axis; GSRS: Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale; hsCRP: High-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein; HR: Hazard Ratio; ICU: Intensive Care Unit; OR: Odds Ratio; PCoA: Principal Coordinate Analysis; RR: Relative Risk; RT-qPCR: Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction; SARS-CoV2: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SpO2: Peripheral Oxygen Saturation; WHO: World Health Organization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Probiotics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Placebos
8.
JAMA ; 329(20): 1731, 2023 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323509
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e110, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316878

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of pneumonia-like respiratory disorder at China and its rapid transmission world-wide resulted in public health emergency, which brought lineage B betacoronaviridae SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) into spotlight. The fairly high mutation rate, frequent recombination and interspecies transmission in betacoronaviridae are largely responsible for their temporal changes in infectivity and virulence. Investigation of global SARS-CoV-2 genotypes revealed considerable mutations in structural, non-structural, accessory proteins as well as untranslated regions. Among the various types of mutations, single-nucleotide substitutions are the predominant ones. In addition, insertion, deletion and frame-shift mutations are also reported, albeit at a lower frequency. Among the structural proteins, spike glycoprotein and nucleocapsid phosphoprotein accumulated a larger number of mutations whereas envelope and membrane proteins are mostly conserved. Spike protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase variants, D614G and P323L in combination became dominant world-wide. Divergent genetic variants created serious challenge towards the development of therapeutics and vaccines. This review will consolidate mutations in different SARS-CoV-2 proteins and their implications on viral fitness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral/physiology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Multigene Family , Phosphoproteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Virulence/genetics
14.
Nature ; 617(7960): 229-230, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313337
15.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1522(1): 60-73, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313313

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses are a common cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Viruses like influenza, RSV, and most recently SARS-CoV-2 can rapidly spread through a population, causing acute infection and, in vulnerable populations, severe or chronic disease. Developing effective treatment and prevention strategies often becomes a race against ever-evolving viruses that develop resistance, leaving therapy efficacy either short-lived or relevant for specific viral strains. On June 29 to July 2, 2022, researchers met for the Keystone symposium "Respiratory Viruses: New Frontiers." Researchers presented new insights into viral biology and virus-host interactions to understand the mechanisms of disease and identify novel treatment and prevention approaches that are effective, durable, and broad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Humans , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/pathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology
16.
J Virol ; 97(5): e0199222, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319107

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) binds to cell surface receptors and is activated for membrane fusion and cell entry via proteolytic cleavage. Phenomenological data have shown that SARS-CoV-2 can be activated for entry at either the cell surface or in endosomes, but the relative roles in different cell types and mechanisms of entry have been debated. Here, we used single-virus fusion experiments and exogenously controlled proteases to probe activation directly. We found that plasma membrane and an appropriate protease are sufficient to support SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus fusion. Furthermore, fusion kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses are indistinguishable no matter which of a broad range of proteases is used to activate the virus. This suggests that the fusion mechanism is insensitive to protease identity or even whether activation occurs before or after receptor binding. These data support a model for opportunistic fusion by SARS-CoV-2 in which the subcellular location of entry likely depends on the differential activity of airway, cellsurface, and endosomal proteases, but all support infection. Inhibition of any single host protease may thus reduce infection in some cells but may be less clinically robust. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 can use multiple pathways to infect cells, as demonstrated recently when new viral variants switched dominant infection pathways. Here, we used single-virus fusion experiments together with biochemical reconstitution to show that these multiple pathways coexist simultaneously and specifically that the virus can be activated by different proteases in different cellular compartments with mechanistically identical effects. The consequences of this are that the virus is evolutionarily plastic and that therapies targeting viral entry should address multiple pathways at once to achieve optimal clinical effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Cell Membrane/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2205690119, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311515

ABSTRACT

The furin cleavage site (FCS), an unusual feature in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, has been spotlighted as a factor key to facilitating infection and pathogenesis by increasing spike processing. Similarly, the QTQTN motif directly upstream of the FCS is also an unusual feature for group 2B coronaviruses (CoVs). The QTQTN deletion has consistently been observed in in vitro cultured virus stocks and some clinical isolates. To determine whether the QTQTN motif is critical to SARS-CoV-2 replication and pathogenesis, we generated a mutant deleting the QTQTN motif (ΔQTQTN). Here, we report that the QTQTN deletion attenuates viral replication in respiratory cells in vitro and attenuates disease in vivo. The deletion results in a shortened, more rigid peptide loop that contains the FCS and is less accessible to host proteases, such as TMPRSS2. Thus, the deletion reduced the efficiency of spike processing and attenuates SARS-CoV-2 infection. Importantly, the QTQTN motif also contains residues that are glycosylated, and disruption of its glycosylation also attenuates virus replication in a TMPRSS2-dependent manner. Together, our results reveal that three aspects of the S1/S2 cleavage site-the FCS, loop length, and glycosylation-are required for efficient SARS-CoV-2 replication and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Furin , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Amino Acid Motifs/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Furin/chemistry , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Deletion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics
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