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Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502475


Vitamin D might play a role in counteracting COVID-19, albeit strong evidence is still lacking in the literature. The present multicenter real-practice study aimed to evaluate the differences of 25(OH)D3 serum levels in adults tested for SARS-CoV-2 (acute COVID-19 patients, subjects healed from COVID-19, and non-infected ones) recruited over a 6-month period (March-September 2021). In a sample of 117 subjects, a statistically significant difference was found, with acute COVID-19 patients demonstrating the lowest levels of serum 25(OH)D3 (9.63 ± 8.70 ng/mL), significantly lower than values reported by no-COVID-19 patients (15.96 ± 5.99 ng/mL, p = 0.0091) and healed COVID-19 patients (11.52 ± 4.90 ng/mL, p > 0.05). Male gender across the three groups displayed unfluctuating 25(OH)D3 levels, hinting at an inability to ensure adequate levels of the active vitamin D3 form (1α,25(OH)2D3). As a secondary endpoint, we assessed the correlation between serum 25(OH)D3 levels and pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with extremely low serum 25(OH)D3 levels (<1 ng/mL) and in a subset supplemented with 1α,25(OH)2D3. Although patients with severe hypovitaminosis-D showed no significant increase in IL-6 levels, acute COVID-19 patients manifested high circulating IL-6 at admission (females = 127.64 ± 22.24 pg/mL, males = 139.28 ± 48.95 ng/mL) which dropped drastically after the administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3 (1.84 ± 0.77 pg/mL and 2.65 ± 0.92 ng/mL, respectively). Taken together, these findings suggest that an administration of 1α,25(OH)2D3 might be helpful for treating male patients with an acute COVID-19 infection. Further studies on rapid correction of vitamin D deficiency with fast acting metabolites are warranted in COVID-19 patients.

COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Calcitriol/deficiency , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Calcitriol/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Remission Induction , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2019722, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743602


Importance: Vitamin D treatment has been found to decrease the incidence of viral respiratory tract infection, especially in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Whether vitamin D is associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence is unknown. Objective: To examine whether the last vitamin D status before COVID-19 testing is associated with COVID-19 test results. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study at an urban academic medical center included patients with a 25-hydroxycholecalciferol or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol level measured within 1 year before being tested for COVID-19 from March 3 to April 10, 2020. Exposures: Vitamin D deficiency was defined by the last measurement of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol less than 20 ng/mL or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol less than 18 pg/mL before COVID-19 testing. Treatment changes were defined by changes in vitamin D type and dose between the date of the last vitamin D level measurement and the date of COVID-19 testing. Vitamin D deficiency and treatment changes were combined to categorize the most recent vitamin D status before COVID-19 testing as likely deficient (last level deficient and treatment not increased), likely sufficient (last level not deficient and treatment not decreased), and 2 groups with uncertain deficiency (last level deficient and treatment increased, and last level not deficient and treatment decreased). Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcome was a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test result. Multivariable analysis tested whether vitamin D status before COVID-19 testing was associated with testing positive for COVID-19, controlling for demographic and comorbidity indicators. Results: A total of 489 patients (mean [SD] age, 49.2 [18.4] years; 366 [75%] women; and 331 [68%] race other than White) had a vitamin D level measured in the year before COVID-19 testing. Vitamin D status before COVID-19 testing was categorized as likely deficient for 124 participants (25%), likely sufficient for 287 (59%), and uncertain for 78 (16%). Overall, 71 participants (15%) tested positive for COVID-19. In multivariate analysis, testing positive for COVID-19 was associated with increasing age up to age 50 years (relative risk, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09; P = .02); non-White race (relative risk, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.26-5.12; P = .009), and likely deficient vitamin D status (relative risk, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.12-2.81; P = .02) compared with likely sufficient vitamin D status. Predicted COVID-19 rates in the deficient group were 21.6% (95% CI, 14.0%-29.2%) vs 12.2%(95% CI, 8.9%-15.4%) in the sufficient group. Conclusions and Relevance: In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, likely deficient vitamin D status was associated with increased COVID-19 risk, a finding that suggests that randomized trials may be needed to determine whether vitamin D affects COVID-19 risk.

Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Calcifediol/blood , Calcitriol/blood , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamins/therapeutic use