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2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236794

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) afflicts approximately 200,000 patients annually and has a 40% mortality rate. The COVID-19 pandemic has massively increased the rate of ALI incidence. The pathogenesis of ALI involves tissue damage from invading microbes and, in severe cases, the overexpression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). This study aimed to develop a therapy to normalize the excess production of inflammatory cytokines and promote tissue repair in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Based on our previous studies, we tested the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and BTP-2 therapies. IGF-I was selected, because we and others have shown that elevated inflammatory cytokines suppress the expression of growth hormone receptors in the liver, leading to a decrease in the circulating IGF-I. IGF-I is a growth factor that increases vascular protection, enhances tissue repair, and decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is also required to produce anti-inflammatory 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. BTP-2, an inhibitor of cytosolic calcium, was used to suppress the LPS-induced increase in cytosolic calcium, which otherwise leads to an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. We showed that LPS increased the expression of the primary inflammatory mediators such as toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), IL-1ß, interleukin-17 (IL-17), TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), which were normalized by the IGF-I + BTP-2 dual therapy in the lungs, along with improved vascular gene expression markers. The histologic lung injury score was markedly elevated by LPS and reduced to normal by the combination therapy. In conclusion, the LPS-induced increases in inflammatory cytokines, vascular injuries, and lung injuries were all improved by IGF-I + BTP-2 combination therapy.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Anilides/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/pharmacology , Thiadiazoles/pharmacology , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/virology , Anilides/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cytokines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/genetics , Thiadiazoles/therapeutic use , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
3.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223961

ABSTRACT

The flavonoid naringenin (Nar), present in citrus fruits and tomatoes, has been identified as a blocker of an emerging class of human intracellular channels, namely the two-pore channel (TPC) family, whose role has been established in several diseases. Indeed, Nar was shown to be effective against neoangiogenesis, a process essential for solid tumor progression, by specifically impairing TPC activity. The goal of the present review is to illustrate the rationale that links TPC channels to the mechanism of coronavirus infection, and how their inhibition by Nar could be an efficient pharmacological strategy to fight the current pandemic plague COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Flavanones/pharmacology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Arabidopsis/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Endosomes/virology , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Humans , Lysosomes/drug effects , Lysosomes/metabolism , Lysosomes/virology , Neoplasms/blood supply , Neoplasms/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vacuoles/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
4.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 363: 203-269, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212320

ABSTRACT

An increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) regulates a plethora of functions in the cardiovascular (CV) system, including contraction in cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells and endothelial colony forming cells. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) represents the largest endogenous Ca2+ store, which releases Ca2+ through ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and/or inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) upon extracellular stimulation. The acidic vesicles of the endolysosomal (EL) compartment represent an additional endogenous Ca2+ store, which is targeted by several second messengers, including nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2], and may release intraluminal Ca2+ through multiple Ca2+ permeable channels, including two-pore channels 1 and 2 (TPC1-2) and Transient Receptor Potential Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1). Herein, we discuss the emerging, pathophysiological role of EL Ca2+ signaling in the CV system. We describe the role of cardiac TPCs in ß-adrenoceptor stimulation, arrhythmia, hypertrophy, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. We then illustrate the role of EL Ca2+ signaling in VSMCs, where TPCs promote vasoconstriction and contribute to pulmonary artery hypertension and atherosclerosis, whereas TRPML1 sustains vasodilation and is also involved in atherosclerosis. Subsequently, we describe the mechanisms whereby endothelial TPCs promote vasodilation, contribute to neurovascular coupling in the brain and stimulate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Finally, we discuss about the possibility to target TPCs, which are likely to mediate CV cell infection by the Severe Acute Respiratory Disease-Coronavirus-2, with Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs to alleviate the detrimental effects of Coronavirus Disease-19 on the CV system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , Animals , Brain/blood supply , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Models, Cardiovascular , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , NADP/analogs & derivatives , NADP/metabolism , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/metabolism , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Transient Receptor Potential Channels/metabolism
5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1863(6): 183590, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188312

ABSTRACT

The envelope protein E of the SARS-CoV coronavirus is an archetype of viroporin. It is a small hydrophobic protein displaying ion channel activity that has proven highly relevant in virus-host interaction and virulence. Ion transport through E channel was shown to alter Ca2+ homeostasis in the cell and trigger inflammation processes. Here, we study transport properties of the E viroporin in mixed solutions of potassium and calcium chloride that contain a fixed total concentration (mole fraction experiments). The channel is reconstituted in planar membranes of different lipid compositions, including a lipid mixture that mimics the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) membrane where the virus localizes within the cell. We find that the E ion conductance changes non-monotonically with the total ionic concentration displaying an Anomalous Mole Fraction Effect (AMFE) only when charged lipids are present in the membrane. We also observe that E channel insertion in ERGIC-mimic membranes - including lipid with intrinsic negative curvature - enhances ion permeation at physiological concentrations of pure CaCl2 or KCl solutions, with a preferential transport of Ca2+ in mixed KCl-CaCl2 solutions. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that the presence of calcium modulates the transport properties of the E channel by interacting preferentially with charged lipids through different mechanisms including direct Coulombic interactions and possibly inducing changes in membrane morphology.


Subject(s)
Calcium/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Ion Transport , Membrane Lipids/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Transport , Solutions , Viroporin Proteins/chemistry
6.
Sci Signal ; 14(675)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186203

ABSTRACT

Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a second messenger that releases Ca2+ from acidic organelles through the activation of two-pore channels (TPCs) to regulate endolysosomal trafficking events. NAADP action is mediated by NAADP-binding protein(s) of unknown identity that confer NAADP sensitivity to TPCs. Here, we used a "clickable" NAADP-based photoprobe to isolate human NAADP-binding proteins and identified Jupiter microtubule-associated homolog 2 (JPT2) as a TPC accessory protein required for endogenous NAADP-evoked Ca2+ signaling. JPT2 was also required for the translocation of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pseudovirus through the endolysosomal system. Thus, JPT2 is a component of the NAADP receptor complex that is essential for TPC-dependent Ca2+ signaling and control of coronaviral entry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , NADP/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Affinity Labels , Animals , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Click Chemistry/methods , Gene Knockdown Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics , NADP/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Second Messenger Systems/physiology , Transcriptome , Virus Internalization
7.
Immunobiology ; 226(1): 152021, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908903

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a highly contagious virus that has caused serious health crisis world-wide resulting into a pandemic situation. As per the literature, the SARS-CoV-2 is known to exploit humanACE2 receptors (similar toprevious SARS-CoV-1) for gaining entry into the host cell for invasion, infection, multiplication and pathogenesis. However, considering the higher infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 along with the complex etiology and pathophysiological outcomes seen in COVID-19 patients, it seems that there may be an alternate receptor for SARS-CoV-2. I performed comparative protein sequence analysis, database based gene expression profiling, bioinformatics based molecular docking using authentic tools and techniques for unveiling the molecular basis of high infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 as compared to previous known coronaviruses. My study revealed that SARS-CoV-2 (previously known as 2019-nCoV) harbors a RGD motif in its receptor binding domain (RBD) and the motif is absent in all other previously known SARS-CoVs. The RGD motif is well known for its role in cell-attachment and cell-adhesion. My hypothesis is that the SARS-CoV-2 may be (via RGD) exploiting integrins, that have high expression in lungs and all other vital organs, for invading host cells. However, an experimental verification is required. The expression of ACE2, which is a known receptor for SARS-CoV-2, was found to be negligible in lungs. I assume that higher infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 could be due to this RGD-integrin mediated acquired cell-adhesive property. Gene expression profiling revealed that expression of integrins is significantly high in lung cells, in particular αvß6, α5ß1, αvß8 and an ECM protein, ICAM1. The molecular docking experiment showed the RBD of spike protein binds with integrins precisely at RGD motif in a similar manner as a synthetic RGD peptide binds to integrins as found by other researchers. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has a number of phosphorylation sites that can induce cAMP, PKC, Tyr signaling pathways. These pathways either activate calcium ion channels or get activated by calcium. In fact, integrins have calcium & metal binding sites that were predicted around and in vicinity of RGD-integrin docking site in our analysis which suggests that RGD-integrins interaction possibly occurs in calcium-dependent manner. The higher expression of integrins in lungs along with their previously known high binding affinity (~KD = 4.0 nM) for virus RGD motif could serve as a possible explanation for high infectivity of SARS-CoV-2. On the contrary, human ACE2 has lower expression in lungs and its high binding affinity (~KD = 15 nM) for spike RBD alone could not manifest significant virus-host attachment. This suggests that besides human ACE2, an additional or alternate receptor for SARS-CoV-2 is likely to exist. A highly relevant evidence never reported earlier which corroborate in favor of RGD-integrins mediated virus-host attachment is an unleashed cytokine storm which causes due to activation of TNF-α and IL-6 activation; and integrins role in their activation is also well established. Altogether, the current study has highlighted possible role of calcium and other divalent ions in RGD-integrins interaction for virus invasion into host cells and suggested that lowering divalent ion in lungs could avert virus-host cells attachment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Calcium/metabolism , Chelation Therapy , Edetic Acid/therapeutic use , Integrins/metabolism , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Receptors, Peptide/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Integrins/chemistry , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Oligopeptides/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Signal Transduction/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Virus Attachment
8.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(15): 2145-2148, 2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646274

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that the calcium ion (Ca2+) plays important roles both in Alzheimer's dementia and SARS-CoV S-mediated fusion to host cell entry. An elevated level of intracellular calcium causes neuronal dysfunction, cell death, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of calcium has also been shown to increase the production of amyloid beta (Aß) protein, the hallmark of Alzheimer's dementia. Reversely, deposition of Aß is also responsible for calcium dysregulation. On the other hand, it has been well investigated that viruses can disturb host cell Ca2+ homeostasis as well as modulate signal transduction mechanisms. Viruses can also hijack the host cell calcium channels and pumps to release more intracellular Ca2+ to utilize for their life cycle. Even though evidence has not been reported on SARS-CoV-2 concerning Ca2+ regulation, however, it has been well established that Ca2+ is essential for viral entry, viral gene replication, and virion maturation and release. Recent reports suggest that SARS-CoV needs two Ca2+ ions to fuse with the host cell at the entry step. Furthermore, some calcium channel blockers (CCBs), such as nimodipine, memantine, etc., have been reported to be effective in the treatment of dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as have shown inhibition in various virus infections.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , COVID-19 , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Channel Blockers/chemistry , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 8(5): e00653, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-757850

ABSTRACT

More than ten million patients worldwide have been diagnosed with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) to date (WHO situation report, 1st July 2020). There is no vaccine to prevent infection with the causative organism, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), nor a cure. In the struggle to devise potentially useful therapeutics in record time, the repurposing of existing compounds is a key route of action. In this hypothesis paper, we argue that the bisbenzylisoquinoline and calcium channel blocker tetrandrine, originally extracted from the plant Stephania tetrandra and utilized in traditional Chinese medicine, may have potential in the treatment of COVID-19 and should be further investigated. We collate and review evidence for tetrandrine's putative mechanism of action in viral infection, specifically its recently discovered antagonism of the two-pore channel 2 (TPC2). While tetrandrine's particular history of use provides a very limited pharmacological dataset, there is a suggestion from the available evidence that it could be effective at doses used in clinical practice. We suggest that further research to investigate this possibility should be conducted.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Benzylisoquinolines/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Calcium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Benzylisoquinolines/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Calcium Channel Blockers/adverse effects , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Interactions , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
10.
Cell Calcium ; 88: 102212, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186635
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1620, 2020 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17830

ABSTRACT

Since 2002, beta coronaviruses (CoV) have caused three zoonotic outbreaks, SARS-CoV in 2002-2003, MERS-CoV in 2012, and the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019. However, little is currently known about the biology of SARS-CoV-2. Here, using SARS-CoV-2 S protein pseudovirus system, we confirm that human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, find that SARS-CoV-2 enters 293/hACE2 cells mainly through endocytosis, that PIKfyve, TPC2, and cathepsin L are critical for entry, and that SARS-CoV-2 S protein is less stable than SARS-CoV S. Polyclonal anti-SARS S1 antibodies T62 inhibit entry of SARS-CoV S but not SARS-CoV-2 S pseudovirions. Further studies using recovered SARS and COVID-19 patients' sera show limited cross-neutralization, suggesting that recovery from one infection might not protect against the other. Our results present potential targets for development of drugs and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cathepsin L/metabolism , Cathepsins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cathepsins/metabolism , Cell Fusion , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Reactions , Endocytosis , Giant Cells/physiology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Trypsin/metabolism
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