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1.
Cells ; 11(11)2022 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892776

ABSTRACT

All human life starts with a calcium (Ca2+) wave. This ion regulates a plethora of cellular functions ranging from fertilisation and birth to development and cell death. A sophisticated system is responsible for maintaining the essential, tight concentration of calcium within cells. Intricate components of this Ca2+ network are store-operated calcium channels in the cells' membrane. The best-characterised store-operated channel is the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel. Currents through CRAC channels are critically dependent on the correct function of two proteins: STIM1 and Orai1. A disruption of the precise mechanism of Ca2+ entry through CRAC channels can lead to defects and in turn to severe impacts on our health. Mutations in either STIM1 or Orai1 proteins can have consequences on our immune cells, the cardiac and nervous system, the hormonal balance, muscle function, and many more. There is solid evidence that altered Ca2+ signalling through CRAC channels is involved in the hallmarks of cancer development: uncontrolled cell growth, resistance to cell death, migration, invasion, and metastasis. In this work we highlight the importance of Ca2+ and its role in human health and disease with focus on CRAC channels.


Subject(s)
Calcium Release Activated Calcium Channels , Calcium , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Release Activated Calcium Channels/metabolism , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Humans , Literacy , ORAI1 Protein/metabolism
2.
Alzheimers Dement ; 18(5): 955-965, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669366

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms that lead to cognitive impairment associated with COVID-19 are not well understood. METHODS: Brain lysates from control and COVID-19 patients were analyzed for oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling pathway markers, and measurements of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked signaling biochemistry. Post-translational modifications of the ryanodine receptor/calcium (Ca2+ ) release channels (RyR) on the endoplasmic reticuli (ER), known to be linked to AD, were also measured by co-immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting of the brain lysates. RESULTS: We provide evidence linking SARS-CoV-2 infection to activation of TGF-ß signaling and oxidative overload. The neuropathological pathways causing tau hyperphosphorylation typically associated with AD were also shown to be activated in COVID-19 patients. RyR2 in COVID-19 brains demonstrated a "leaky" phenotype, which can promote cognitive and behavioral defects. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 neuropathology includes AD-like features and leaky RyR2 channels could be a therapeutic target for amelioration of some cognitive defects associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and long COVID.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Humans , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel/genetics , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ; 363: 203-269, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212320

ABSTRACT

An increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) regulates a plethora of functions in the cardiovascular (CV) system, including contraction in cardiomyocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells and endothelial colony forming cells. The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) represents the largest endogenous Ca2+ store, which releases Ca2+ through ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and/or inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs) upon extracellular stimulation. The acidic vesicles of the endolysosomal (EL) compartment represent an additional endogenous Ca2+ store, which is targeted by several second messengers, including nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2], and may release intraluminal Ca2+ through multiple Ca2+ permeable channels, including two-pore channels 1 and 2 (TPC1-2) and Transient Receptor Potential Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1). Herein, we discuss the emerging, pathophysiological role of EL Ca2+ signaling in the CV system. We describe the role of cardiac TPCs in ß-adrenoceptor stimulation, arrhythmia, hypertrophy, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. We then illustrate the role of EL Ca2+ signaling in VSMCs, where TPCs promote vasoconstriction and contribute to pulmonary artery hypertension and atherosclerosis, whereas TRPML1 sustains vasodilation and is also involved in atherosclerosis. Subsequently, we describe the mechanisms whereby endothelial TPCs promote vasodilation, contribute to neurovascular coupling in the brain and stimulate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Finally, we discuss about the possibility to target TPCs, which are likely to mediate CV cell infection by the Severe Acute Respiratory Disease-Coronavirus-2, with Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs to alleviate the detrimental effects of Coronavirus Disease-19 on the CV system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular System/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , Animals , Brain/blood supply , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Models, Cardiovascular , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , NADP/analogs & derivatives , NADP/metabolism , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/metabolism , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Transient Receptor Potential Channels/metabolism
4.
Sci Signal ; 14(675)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186203

ABSTRACT

Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a second messenger that releases Ca2+ from acidic organelles through the activation of two-pore channels (TPCs) to regulate endolysosomal trafficking events. NAADP action is mediated by NAADP-binding protein(s) of unknown identity that confer NAADP sensitivity to TPCs. Here, we used a "clickable" NAADP-based photoprobe to isolate human NAADP-binding proteins and identified Jupiter microtubule-associated homolog 2 (JPT2) as a TPC accessory protein required for endogenous NAADP-evoked Ca2+ signaling. JPT2 was also required for the translocation of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pseudovirus through the endolysosomal system. Thus, JPT2 is a component of the NAADP receptor complex that is essential for TPC-dependent Ca2+ signaling and control of coronaviral entry.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Calcium Signaling/physiology , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism , NADP/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Affinity Labels , Animals , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Click Chemistry/methods , Gene Knockdown Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics , NADP/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Second Messenger Systems/physiology , Transcriptome , Virus Internalization
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